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Diego Garcia 32 m., and in S lat. 6° 42', E long. 72° | There are at present [1850) no fewer than three dif29'. It then takes a direction N 30o E 39 m. to its ferent lines of steamers plying between New York E boundary, which is in S lat. 6° 8', E long. 72° 50'. and C. They are all first-class vessels; and some of From this point it continues to the N by W 29 m. them are of 2,000 tons burthen. The lowest steerage It then runs W 35 m., to S lat. 5° 49', E long. 71° 39', fare is 50 dollars; in the cabin, 100 dollars. where it takes a direction to the S by W 18 m. to N The river C. rises near the valley of Pacora, in Brother island; continues W from 16 to 17 m.; in s about 9° 10' N lat., and 79° 10' W long., among the high lat. 6° 23', E long. 71° 18', suddenly turns ESE about mountains which approach the bay of Mandinga. Its 70 m., passing to the N of the Six Islands.

course to its junction with the Requeni, a little below The C. islands were probably discovered by the the village of San Juan, is SW. Below this point of Portuguese. Davis sailed through them in 1598. confluence it is navigable by canoes, but with diffiPrevious to 1744, the French had explored and sur-culty, as it runs with great velocity over a rocky bed. veyed them. They came under the power of Britain, At Gatun—which must not be confounded with a together with the Mauritius, in 1810. They are di- place of the same name near the mouth of the C.vided into 8 estates, some of which comprise as many it receives the Gatuncilla on its r. bank, and soon as 27 islands; and all belong to individuals of French after the Chilibre on the l.; and its rapidity graduextraction.—Moresby's Nautical Directions.

ally diminishes, while its volume of water increases, CHAGRES, or Cangre, a town, or village rather until at Cruces, 23 m. direct distance from the Atat the mouth and on the N bank of the river Cha-lantic, but 44 m. [Lloyd], 50 m. [Foster], by its gres, in the dep. of Panama, in the republic of New stream, it seldom exceeds 3 m. At Cruces the river Granada, 32 m. W of Porto Bello. It was until re- is wide, but shallow. “Few rivers of its size precently a miserable collection of reed huts filled with sent more beautiful scenery on its banks than does half-clad Negroes, and built in a long line (a a a) the C. above Cruces. For miles together it is close to the river on a piece of low swampy ground; bounded by enormous abrupt masses of limestone of but the immense emigration from the United States the most curious and' fantastic forms: in other parts to the gold regions of California has raised C. to im- savannahs extend to the very edge of the river, coportance as the N point of transit across the isthmus vered with a particularly fine grass called grammato Panama on the Pacific; and several comfortable lotti; and the noble bongo-tree is seen studding the inns and other facilities for trade have been raised banks, something in the shape of a well-trimmed at this place. It has a fort (F), which, raised consider- yew-tree, but growing to much larger size. In most ably above the level of the v., stands out boldly to places the river is shaded from the sun's rays by a wards the sea, and forms an excellent defence to the large tree called jegeron, which extends its branches entrance of the river. The pop. of C. is about 2,000, across the river, its leaves being eagerly sought by chiefly black or coloured. The country about C. is the fish. The water generally runs over a bed of of moderate elevation, well-wooded, and luxuriantly various descriptions of pebbles, and is in summer fertile. Its port is a little sandy bay with a ledge of most brilliantly clear. In many places near its rocks crossing its entrance, and not more than from source it is much wider than at its mouth, occasion10 to 12 ft. water; and it has nothing more than an ally breaking into distinct channels and forming open roadstead for ships, where they are exposed to small islands; but in the rainy season these are the swell of the ocean, which in NE winds is often all connected, and constitute one broad stream, dangerous (Foster]. The distance to Navy or Li- with strong sets and eddies, caused by the abrupt mon bay, immediately to the E of C., and in which turns, which render its navigation peculiarly perilthere is excellent anchorage, is 9 m. by water. It ous. Many years ago, from repeated and long-conhas been proposed to cut a canal from this bay to join tinued rains, the river rose until it arrived at the the Chagres river. To this bay the river approaches foundation of the church at Cruces, situate on a in its course above the town of C. to within 2 m., small rise about 40 ft. above the present level: the and the interval is nearly level. The rise and fall greater part of the town was submerged, and no of the tide at C. is 1:16 foot. High water mark is intercourse could take place among the inhabitants 13:35 ft. below that at Panama; and the mean height for some weeks, unless by canoes. But towards its of the Atlantic at C. is 3.52 ft. below that of the mouth, as far as the river Trinidad, it has never Pacific at Panama (Lloyd). In every 12 hours, been known to rise more than 6 or 8 ft., and this commencing with high tides, the level of the Pacific height the banks easily confine." (Lloyd.] Below Cruis first several ft. higher than that of the Atlantic; it ces, the C. receives the Ovispo on its . bank, a stream becomes then of the same height, and at low tide is which is separated in the upper part of its course several ft. lower. Again, as the tide rises, the two from the Rio Grande flowing S into the bay of Paseas are of the same height; and finally, at high nama, by only 4} m. of flat country. At Ġorgona, tide, the Pacific is again the same number of ft. 2 m. below the confluence of the Ovispo, and 8 m. above the Atlantic as at first [Ibid.). Steamers below Cruces, the road from Chorrera near the Paanchor off the bar, or lie in Limon or Navy bay cific strikes the C. From Gorgona to Barbacoa, the [Puerto de Naôs]; and passengers are landed in C. pursues a winding but prevailingly W course; at the ships' boats, or in the canoes of the natives. the latter place it assumes a NW course, winding PORT OF CHAGRES.

between banks covered with impenetrable thickets, beyond which rise lofty forest-trees, and high above these forest-clad mountains. At Pulo-Orqueto, 8 m.

direct distance from C., but nearly double that disVar 70'E

tance by the stream, it receives on the l. the Trinidad, a large stream which rises near the S coast, not far from Chorrera, and has a breadth of 200 ft., with a depth of from 18 to 20 ft.; and on the r. bank, about 6 m. below, the Gatun, a stream descending from the Gatun-Grande to the ESE of Porto Bello, and having a long SSW course. From Gatun to its mouth the course of the C. is NW, and less winding

than above that point. Its depth here varies from Soundings in feet

26 to 30 ft., and the rate of its current is scarcely 1

[graphic]

a

m. per hour.—The whole course of the C. does not there is no danger. The mules are remarkably sureprobably exceed 90 m. Its mean breadth is about footed, and know their duty perfectly. Give them a 100 ft. Beautiful specimens of agates and jaspers loose rein, and there is no reason to fear. Ladies are found in its bed, and in very large masses. This frequently ride over without once dismounting, exriver has recently attracted much attention in connec- cept for refreshments. The distance is about 27 tion with the various schemes for facilitating transit m. [?] Ranches are scattered along the hills whereat across the isthmus, or connecting the commerce of the natives are glad to give the thirsty wayfarer a the Atlantic with that of the Pacific. Sailing vessels cup of coffee for half a dime; and at some of them cannot ascend the C. on account of the strong cur- ham and other meats can be had for large profits to rent and serpentine channel; but in the rainy sea- the ranchero. Brandy and liquors can be had at son, that is from June to November, the C. would be all. A ride of from 8 to 16 hours brings you to the navigable for small steam-boats, if of sufficient power ancient and dilapidated suburbs of Panamá. Hotels to contend with the floods, up to Cruces; and to are numerous here, and drinking-houses and restaurrender it always navigable up to its junction with ants in any number.” the Ovispo, below C., it would only be necessary to

Isthmus of Panama railroad.] The interesting engineering erect a few weirs at certain places [Scarlett]. In problem of the formation of an easy line of commercial traffic the dry season, from December to May, the passage between the Atlantic and Pacific across the narrow isthmus from Ć. to Cruces by canoes occupies 3 days; but in which divides these oceans in Central America, is at this moment

being solved by the formation of two such lines of communicathe wet season, in consequence of the increased cur

tion,--one by steam-boat and railway in the first instance, and rent, it is not performed under 12 or 14 days; though ultimately by railway entirely, between C. and Panama, -the the passage down is made in 12 hours (Foster]. By other by a canal for steam-boats in the first instance, and ultideepening the Ovispo, and its afluent the Mandinga, the San Juan river, and the lake of Nicaragua, and by such a

mately both for steam-boats and sailing-vessels, by the line of and then connecting it by a canal about 7 m. in line of route from that lake to the Pacific as may hereafter be length with the Rio Grande, at the point whence that determined. We shall here trace the line of communication now river is navigable to the Pacific, Mr. Scarlett con

forming between C. and Panama; and, as a matter of some interest,

notice Colonel Lloyd's scheme for a canal communication beceives a navigable communication between the two

tween these points; although the idea of a canal in this quarter oceans would be effected. Until more rapid modes must be held as abandoned. The projected Panama railroad of transit were recently adopted by the Californian is to have its terminus on the side of Č. at Limon bay, and its

terminus on the Pacific at Panama. From Panama it will run adventurers, the first part of the journey from C. to Pa

to Gorgona, the highest navigable point of the C. The length of nama was made in a small steamer as far as she could this section is 21 m., and it is now in progress of exccution. The ascend; thence in canoes, of the tonnage of 70 bales capital of the undertaking is fixed at 1,000,000 dollars, with and under, to Gorgona in the dry season, and to Cruces liberty to increase it to 5,000,000 d. The grant by the republic of

New Granada provides that the company shall enjoy an excluin the wet season. At either of these places mules are

sive privilege for 49 years, subject to the right of redemption by obtained which carry a load of about 250 lbs.; and the the republic at the end of 20 years, on payment of 5,000,000 d. ; transit to Panama, a distance of 21 m., may be made

at the end of 30 years on payment of 4,000,000 d.; and at the in 9 hours. A light-footed motero will carry an

end of 40 years on payment of 2,000,000 d. This privilege is to

date from the completion of the road, for which 8 years are alenormous burden along this road, either on the head lowed; and it is accompanied by a concession of exclusive haror in a chair with the back secured to the head, bour-rights at the ports on each side, and also of the necessary and the legs supported by stirrups attached to the

land throughout the line, besides 300,000 acres in perpetuity for

the purpose of colonization. The company are also to be allowed shoulders (Belcher). At the present moment, it is to import iron, and whatever may be necessary for the construcusual to hire a large canoe having room for the bag- tion of the road, free of duty, including all articles of provision gage of two or three passengers fore and aft, and leav

and clothing for the workmen, and they may call upon the

government to furnish them the assistance of three companies of ing 7 ft. in the middle with an awning for their accom

sappers. The only obligation imposed as to the character of the modation. By this conveyance, if manned by 4 rowers, road is that it shall be capable of transporting passengers and Gorgona can be reached from C. in 30 hours. At Gor- merchandise from one ocean to the other within the space of 12

hours. Lines have been run from ocean to ocean, with cross secgona several hotels have recently sprung up; but the tions cutting them at all points; and the result has been that, town or village itself is, like C., a mere collection of instead of encountering the formidable difficulties that were antiranches, or huts built of palm-cane. There are at cipated, the engineers have fixed upon a line which will not present two methods for the transportation of bag

exceed 46 m. in length, with a summit of only 260 ft. above

the level of the Pacitic, and with curvatures having nowhere a gage from this place to Panama: one, as already radius of less than 1,500 ft. Until a recent period it was supnoticed, on the backs of mules,—the other on the posed that the pass from Sola-Nicaragua to Redigo on the Pacific backs of native moteros. “ The first,” says very

was the lowest pass in the isthmus; but the probability is that recent traveller, “is to be greatly preferred. Indeed, by a short cutting to 210 ft. This will give a gradient not ex.

the Panama summit is the lowest; and even it may be reduced I would seriously caution travellers against intrust- ceeding 30 or 35 ft. to the mile, and of uniform descent to both ing natives with their baggage, and, if they do, never oceans. “The difficulties, in short," it is said, " instead of being to lose sight of it until safely lodged at Panama. I

greater, are less than on the average of railroads in the northern

states of the Union." The explorations of the engineers were do not mean to say that they are dishonest, but they extended over the whole isthmus, so as to insure the selection are becoming so from example, and they will disap- of the true point; and this exploration, it is said, “has led to point you by delay, from a hundred causes, to the the discovery of large groves of mahogany, and rich mineral de risk of your detention at this place. Forwarding posits, the knowledge of which will be highly important to the

in

As regards the merchants of responsible character are now engaged climate of the isthmus, it is alleged that the experience of the in this trade; and upon receipt of your baggage they corps is by no means discouraging. To avoid, however, the unwill bind themselves, in writing, to have it in Panama healthiness of C., and the badness of its harbour, the Atlantic

terininus of the line has been fixed at Limon bay, a port which is at the time and place specified, or be responsible for perfectly secure, and of great capacity. On the NÈ side of the failing so to do. Having packed your baggage, and bay, and about half-a-mile distant from the shore, is the island obtained a mule or horse for yourself, you start for of Manzanilla, 15 m. in length, by an average of 1 m in breadth; Panama. The path through the mountains beggars well watered with springs. At its s extremity it is separated

about 10 or 15 ft. above high water mark, generally level, and all description. It is painfully crooked,—one con- from the main land by a passage of only 50 or 60 ft. The bay tinual up and down for miles,-across creeks and formed by the NE part of the island and the mainland will be ravines at every one of which you would think your with any wind perfectly secure, with 6 to 7 fath, of water in the

the harbour for the railroad. It is accessible at all seasons, and neck endangered. The path is at times a deep gut- centre, and 3 to 4 fath. within 60 ft. of the shore, and capable of ter, at others a stony batter: sometimes you have to containing 300 sail. Of the island the chief engineer says: " In climb an almost perpendicular ascent; the next mo

ten years I predict the whole will be covered with houses, and

the inhabitants enjoying perfect health with every luxury of a ment you have to descend another. Such is the southern clime; and I consider it the most eligible and perfect road to Panama most faintly described: but withal site for a city of any size that I have ever seen." With regard

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to their immediate operations, the company propose to unite victs, whilst their power of enduring fatigue under a tropical vigour with caution and economy. They may, in their discre- sun, and during rains, and their simple mode of living, tion, use horse-power instead of locomotives, if, in their opinion, would render them valuable pioneers for the more robust Engsuch a road would meet the present wants of business. It is lishmen. It was stated, also, that a great deal of native labour also in their power in another, and perhaps better way, to limit might be obtained at a cheap rate; 6d. or 9d. per day, and ratheir immediate expenditure. * The C. river," it is observed, tions, consisting of a pint of rice, a pound of dried beef, and a “is navigable at all seasons of the year for steamers drawing a golpe d'aguardiente, being the ordinary pay of a peon. The chief light draught of water, up to the point at which the line of the point, however, insisted on by the author, was the great field road crosses the river. The distance from that point to the Pa- opened in the isthmus for the surplus population of this country. cific is about 20 m. The company may for the present make use He contended that it was far preferable to the Canadas; and that of steamers and barges on the river up to that point, and thence Australia, with its arid trackless wastes, held out still fewer construct a railroad to the Pacific. With this view, and to meet temptations to the einigrant; the isthmus was comparatively the immediate pressure of travel, a stern-wheel steamer and barge within an easy distance; the emigrant would be at his destination have been sent out. The whole cost of opening a communication almost on landing; the resources of the country were great, and of this kind will be comparatively small, and the company believe the productions varied and cheap, whilst the present pop. was inthat on many considerations this is the most prudent and proper finitely disproportioned to the superficial area of the country.-way of beginning the work. These 20 m. can with vigorous If at some future period it should be found desirable to effect a action be opened by a very early day. The number of passengers canal-communication across this part of the isthmus, it seems would be the same as over a railroad to cost three or four mil- probable that a line of route different from that which will then lions of dollars. With this in operation the company may remain have been opened up by railway will be adopted. See articles quiet for several years, or may take advantage of opportunities NICARAGUA, PANAMA, TENUANTEPEC. when labour and materials are cheap. In short, they may hold Plan of steam-communication with the Isthmus) The British themselves in a position to meet all exigencies as they risc, and line of mail-steamers now run monthly along the W coast of South whilst enjoying the revenue which the plan suggested cannot fail America, between Valparaiso and Panama, in connexion with to produce, may take the full benefit of the time for fulfilling their the Royal Mail steam-packet company's monthly mail line fronı contract, and be governed entirely by circumstances as to the C. to England. The average time occupied between C. and character of the road they may in the end think it expedient to Southampton by this route is about 37 days-namely, regularly build." The company have begun that portion of the line be- leaving C, on the 29th, and arriving on the 3d to the 7th of the tween Gorgona and Panama, which, it is expected, will be fin- second month following. The time occupied on the voyage ished in about a year and a half. “This has long been a desidera- between New York and C. is froin 9 to 11 days, or say 10 days. tum in the commercial world, as the doubling of Cape Horn, in Hitherto there have been no preconcerted arrangements for conthe passage from England to the South seas, is one of the most necting this line at New York with the departures for England dangerous points in a navigator's course, though the risks are of the United States or British mail line; consequently, there is now much diminished by the increased skill and experience of generally a loss of 5 or 6 days at New York. The voyage thence our captains. The railroad across the isthmus is a plan that pre- to England, however, occupies only from 11 to 13, say 12 days; sents all the advantages, and none of the disadvantages, of the and, allowing for exchange of mails at New York 1 day, making canal which was once projected. There can be no danger arising 23 days, which gives a clear gain as compared with the Royal here from the varying elevation of the two oceans; and iron rails Mail steam-packet conipany's route of 14 days. Duplicates of the are kept more easily in order than uices, ams, and canal banks. West In kican, and West coast correspondence are now It seems wonderful, now that it has been fairly begun, that it invariably directed by way of New York, to the prejudice of the was not attempted earlier-as early as the capabilities of steam British postal revenue; but great inconvenience and disappointand rails were discovered. There are only about 30 m. of ground ment are likewise felt from the irregular receipt of these, in conto overlay; and so vast are the benefits which will accrue in point sequence of the want of an established connexion between the of safety, speed, and convenience, that the railroad joining the New York and C., and the New York and Liverpool British, or two great oceans will be, like many other applications of science, the United States and Southampton mail lines. Under existing almost the creation of a new era. The Egyptian canal between arrangements bullion to the extent of from 2,500,000 to 3,000,000 the Nile and the Red sea,--the Egyptian tram-road between dollars monthly-West coast and Mexican remittances- is conveyMyoshormos and Thebes,--and even the great Roman roads over ed by the Royal mail steamers. Averaging the delay at 14 days rocks and wastes, --none of these will fill a larger place in the per month gives 168 days per annum, which, at 4 per cent., shows world's history than this steam communication between the At- an annual loss in interest of £10,000. Under the advantages before lantic and the Pacific." [Times.]

adverted to, and taking into account that the New York is by far Projected canal.] Before the execution of the line of railroad the most desirable route, whether viewed commercially, or in reabove traced was determined on, the project of effecting a ship- reference to health and comfort, it may be feared that nearly all communication across the isthmus, by a canal, was warmly advo- the West coast and Mexican traffic, and a portion of that of the cated by several parties, amongst whom the opinion of Colonel principal West India islands, will be carried by the United States' Lloyd, as having possessed superior opportunities of personal ob- mail-steamers, unless a semimonthly mail service between Valservation, merits respectful attention. In a paper recently read paraiso and Panama be speedily established, and the time bebefore the Institute of Civil Engineers, Colonel Lloyd reviewed tween C. and England reduced to 24 or 25 days. Assuming that the surveys of Garella, of Morel, and others, who had examined from the isthmus of Panama to England should be considered a the country subsequently to himself. He then examined the main trunk line, say from C. to Southampton, the existing routes various lines proposed, and gave reasons for preferring that which, are as follows: starting from the beautiful bay of Limon, would proceed by a

Miles. Steamer stops short canal, through a flat country, to the river C.; thence up the Chagres to Carthagena,

280

1 day. Trinidad, as far as its depth would suit; and then, passing by a Carthagena to Kingston (Jamaica), 470 23 days. short canal into the Rio Grande, debouch at Panama. This line, Jamaica to Jacmel (Hayti).

255

day. it was contended, in the present state of the science of engineer- Jacmel to San Juan (Porto Rico), 388

day. ing, presented no obstacles excepting the climate and the expense, Porto Rico to St. Thomas,

65

2 days. to prevent a canal being cut of sufficient depth and dimensions St. Thomas's to Fayal,

2,249 1 day. to float from one river to the other the largest ship in her Majesty's Fayal to Southampton,

1,373 navy. The climate was stated, from personal experience, to be quite as good as in any tropical country, except in some particu- Total distance from the isthmus to lar spots, where, from local causes, certain complaints were rife. Southampton,

5.080 m. - -occupying The expense could only be accurately estimated by the survey of from 32 to 37 days, including stoppages. A glance at this stateexperienced engineers; but in a country abounding in fine timber, ment of the indirect route and frequent stoppages of the Royal and the best building-materials of all kinds, whilst no great chain mail steamers, will account for the American steamers, taking a of mountains-as has been fancifully depicted on supposititious direct route as follows, being enabled to anticipate them: charts—had any existence except in the imagination of the de

Days. signer, it was only fair to allow that the cost of a canal of such

Chagres to Jamaica, limited length could not be very great; and the supply of water

Jamaica to New York,

7 might be presumed to be ample in a climate where there was co

New York to Liverpool,

12 pious rain for nine months in each year. The disadvantages of a railroad, in such a humid climate, were descanted upon at length;

22 and it was shown that the risk of injury to merchandise from that

Add for detention at Jamaica,

1 cause alone, independent of that to be anticipated from breakage

Average detention at New York, by reason of interand pilfering, during the various transhipments, mast induce pre

mediate arrivals, ference for a canal through which vessels should pass from sea to sea without delay, and continue their voyage to their destination

Total, Chagres to Liverpool, via New York,

26 without breaking bulk. The means of accomplishing the work

or a saving in time of from 7 to 10 days. were then considered. A proposition for a certain number of

If the West India steamers were permitted to take a direct convicts, to be contributed by Great Britain, France, and Amer

route, as follows: ica, was shown to be untenable; but it was argued, that a portion of the convicts from this coumry might be more advantageously Chagres to St. Thomas's,

1,120 m. sent there than to our present penal settlements. The means St. Thomas's to Fayal,

2.219 of preventing their escape were shown, and a proposition Fayal to Southampton,

1.373 made for introducing with them a number of convicts from The total distance from Chagres to SouthampBengal, and the other presidencies, whose language and habits

ton would be, say

4,742 would effectually prevent their mingling with the British con

And the distance saved thus:

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Chagres to Southampton ria Jamaica, Jacmel,

tures will be conveyed. The opening of the Panama railway Porto Rico, St. Thomas's, and Fayal,

5,080 must in an important degree facilitate and cheapen the transmisChagres to Southampton via St. Thomas's and

sion of goods across the isthmus; and as Panama has been deFayal,

4,742 clared a free port by the government of New Grenada, a new

trade will spring up for shipment of merchandise by steam for the 338

whole of the W coast of America. This is the more probable, inThe island of St. Thomas being the first point of approach to and asmuch as the vessels carrying mails could not be permitted to departure from the group of isles which stud the Carribean seas, be detained any lengthened time at St. Thomas to discharge cargo and intersecting at a convenient distance the straight line from into the branch-steamers; but the isthmus of Panama being the Southanpton to Chagres, must per force be the head-quarters for terminus of the line, there could be no objection to freight in any coaling, and also for transferring mails to and from the interco- quantities being carried to Chagres, because ample time would lonial steamers, running to Jamaica on the one hand, to the there be allowed for its discharge without detriment to the mail serWindward and Leeward islands and British Guayana on the vice. At a moderate but yet remunerative rate of freight, large other, as well as for the vessels which are to depart thence for quantities of merchandise for Valparaiso, Lima, and the other Havannah and the gulf of Mexico.

South Pacific ports, as well as for the W coast of Mexico and CaThe route outwards to the isthmus at present pursued by these lifornia, would probably offer for conveyance by the main line steamers is still more objectionable. It is as follows:

steamers in preference to the long sea voyage ria Cape Horn.

Miles, Steamer stops The main line steamer starting from Southampton will reach Southampton to Madeira,

1,287 $ day. St. Thomas in 12 days; at that island several branch steamers Madeira to Barbadoes,

2,610

1 day. will be waiting her arrival. To one of them will be transferred Barbadoes to St. Thomas's,

420 day. the mails and passengers for Havannah and the gulf of Mexico; St. Thomas's to Porto Rico,

65

to another the mails for Porto Rico, Hayti, Jamaica, San Jago de Porto Rico to Jacmel,

388

1 day. Cuba, and the other ports intended to be accommodated by the Jacmel to Jamaica,

255
1 day.

Jamaica route; another ship will receive the mails for the WindJamaica to Santa Martha,

440

day. ward and Leeward islands and Demerara; these vessels having Santa Martha to Carthagena,

105

day. previously effected a mutual interchange of intercolonial mails Carthagena to Chagres,

280

for the various parts of the West Indies. Such operations com

pleted, the through or Southampton steamer will instantly proTotal distance,

5,850 m. from South- ceed to the isthmus of Panama, while the branch-steamers will ampton to the isthmus, occupying 35 to 36 days. If the prin- depart from St. Thomas for their respective destinations. ciple of a through or trunk line via St. Thomas's were adopted, Homeward the mode of operation will be of a similar character. to which other lines should be tributary, the distance would be The Main steamer, from Chagres, having reached St. Thomas 4,742 m., occupying 22 or 23 days, and thus effecting a saving in with the Pacific mails on board, will find waiting for her the distance of 1,108 m., and 10 or 12 days in time.

several branch-steamers which have come up from the gulf of From the same semi-official source which has supplied us with Mexico, Jamaica, Demerara, &c. These vessels will immediately the above details, we are given to understand that a plan whereby transfer their mails to the Atlantic steamer, and she will without the communication between Great Britain and her ultramarine delay set sail for Southampton, having on board the mails, specie, dependencies in the West Indies, Central America, and the passengers, and cargo from all parts of the West Indies, Mexico, Pacific, as well as with the Foreign Antilles and the Span- Spanish main, and Pacific; the various intercolonial steamers reish main, will be greatly accelerated and improved, has been maining at St. Thomas to coal and prepare for the arrival of the proposed by the Royal Mail steam-packet company, and is succeeding outward steamer from England. The routes will be now under consideration of the Lords of the Admiralty. The as nearly as possible as follows:main (or trunk) line of communication between England and the isthmus of Panama, touching only at St. Thomas, is to

MAIN OR THROUGH LINE. be accomplished by new steam - ships, which will be of be- Southampton to Chagres, embracing the mails for the Pacific tween 2,000 and 3,000 tons burden, with proportionate steam- and California, and conveying all the West India and South power, and are intended to attain a regular average speed of at American mails as far as St. Thomas:--Southampton to St. least 12 knots. These ships, it is stipulated, shall be of even su- Thomas, 3,622 m., in 12 days, one day stoppage; St. Thomas to perior qualities to those vessels on the Cunard line of the Niagara Chagres, 1,120 m., in 6 days; total, 4,742 m. from Southampton and Europa class, which have performed such wonders in Atlan- to Chagres, to be accomplished in 18 or 19 days, against 5.850 tic stcarning, but whose speed, taking the duration of the most m. from Southampton to Chagres, rid Madeira, Barbados, St. successful voyage, has barely exceeded 11 knots, and on the Thomas, Porto Rico, Jacmel, Jamaica, Santa Martha, and Caraverage is not more than 10. As these steamers will be recep-thagena, occupying 35 days as hitherto, and effecting a saving of tacles for the whole of the passengers, mails, specie, and cargo fully 16 days. collected from the Pacific and the Spanish main for transmission At Panama the Pacific steam navigation company's ships will to Europe, and, by means of the subsidiary lines, from Mexico wait the arrival at Chagres of the steamer from Southampton, to and the various West India islands, concentrating at St. Thomas receive mails for the ports of New Granada, Ecuador, Peru, Bofor the homeward voyage, they will be provided with accommo- livi, and Chili, as comprised in the contract for that service; the dation for a large number of passengers and for the considerable routes and distances being as follows: freights that will have to be conveyed by them. The present

Miles, steamers will be employed in the intercolonial and branch services. Panama to Buenaventura, (New Granada)

335 As regards the conveyance of specie and bullion, which has al

Buenaventura, to Guayaquil, (Ecuador)

574 ways been, and must continue to be, one of the principal sources

Guayaquil to Payta,

(Peru)

215 of revenue to the West India line, it is easy to imagine that in

Payta to Lambaqueque,

150 future this portion of the traffic will greatly increase. Several

Lambaqueque to Huanchan,

115 streams of traffic of this nature will flow into the main line; and

Huanchao to Casma,

61 the produce of the mines of the whole Western hemisphere in- Casma to Callao,

206 tended for transmission to Europe must of necessity be conveyec! Callao to Pisco,

115 by these vessels. The gold and silver raised from the mines of Pisco to Islay,

295 Chili, Bolivia, and Peru, will be carried to Panama, and go thence

Islay to Arica,

169 by railway to Chagres for shipment to England. Those large Arica to Iquique,

108 freights of silver hitherto collected by her Majesty's ships on the

Iquique to Cobija, (Bolivia)

135 W coast of Mexico, will in like manner be delivered at Panama,

Cobijo to Copiapo,

285 thence to reach London in 24 days, instead of being subjected to

Copiapo to Huasco, (Chili)

84 a voyage of four months round Cape Horn. The American line

Huasco to Coquimbo,

97 of steamers from San Francisco, terminating at Panama, will

Coquimbo to Valparaiso,

198 bring great freights of gold, the product of the mines of California; and as the majority of these remittances will, in course of

Total

3,142 business, be intended for Europe, they will be sent by the direct steamers. Then, again, at St. Thomas the homeward Atlantic from Panama to Valparaiso, and 7,884 m. from Southampton to ships will receive the large amounts of silver so regularly shipped Valparaiso. These voyages are now performed by the Pacific from Tampico and Vera Cruz, and other steamers will bring up steam navigation company's ships, Chili, New Grenada, Peru, to the same point their collections of gold, silver, and precious and Bolivia, in 11 to 12 days, from Panama to Callao, and in stones from Santa Martha, Carthagena, and other parts of the about the same period from Callao to Valparaiso; the time occuWest Indies and Spanish main. In place, therefore, of these ves- pied on the trips is inclusive of the stoppages at the intermediate sels arriving at Southampton, as at present, with freights of ports for collecting and delivering the mails. By the existing 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 dollars, they will come home laden like the plan the English mails have reached Callao in 47 to 48 days, Spanish galleons of old, bringing the mineral wealth of the West- and Valparaiso in 58 to 60 days; but by the acceleration conern world to the amount of 5,000,000, 6,000,000, or even 10,000,000 templated Callao will be brought within 30 or 31 days, and Valdollars at a time. The homeward merchandise cargo, also, will paraiso within 40 or 43 days of Southampton; the intermediary not be inconsiderable in extent or value Sarsaparilla, cochineal, stations being of course benefitted in a corresponding degree. A indigo, pimento, tortoise-shell, cigars, tobacco, druys, turtle, and monthly communication is now kept up with England from these all kinds of expensive tropical produce that can afford a superior ports, but as the new arrangements embrace a steamer every rate of freight for conveyance to an early and certain market, three weeks to and from the isthmus of Panama, we presume will in a material way augment the receipts of the line. Out- a similar alteration will be effected on the other side, and that the wards, quicksilver for working the Mexican mines, rich and valu- Pacific steamers will have to start every three weeks to and from able silks, wearing apparel, broad-stuffs, and foreign manufac- | Valparaiso in place of every month as at present.

HAVANNAH AXD GULF OF MEXICO ROUTE.

810

JAMAICA ROUTE.

CHAGRIN FALLS, a village of Orange township,

Miles. Cayuhoga co., in the state of Ohio, U.S., 153 m. NE uthampton to St. Thomas by main line steamer, 3,622 St. Thomas to Havannah by branch steamer, taking

of Columbus. Pop. in 1840, about 200. her course through the old Bahaina channel, 1,010

CHAGUANANAS, a town of Venezuela, in the Havannah to Vera Cruz,

prov. and 75 m. SE of Cumana, near the l. bank of

the Guarapiche. Total,

5,442 from Southampton to Vera Cruz, against 5,899 m. by way of

CHAGUARAMUS (Point), a headland of the Bermuda Nassau, Havannah, and Mobile, as at present. Tam- island of Trinidad, on the NW coast, forming the E pico, 205 m. from Vera Cruz, may be accommodated with a call side of the Dragon's mouth or Boca Grande, in N either outwards or homewards, or both if found necessary. The

lat. 10° 45', W long. 61° 43'. C. bay, comprised bevoyage to Havannah will be performed in 15 days against 24 days as at present; to Tampico, in 20 days against 35 days; and

tween Gaspar Grande on the SW, and the W side of to Vera Cruz in 21 or 22 days, against 33 days, occupied hitherto the peninsula on the E, forms a spacious harbour, by the Bermuda steamers.

with excellent anchorage in from 4 to 40 fath.—

Also a town of Venezuela, in the prov. and 100 m. At present there is a fortnightly mail to the British West India | S of Caracas. colonies, but only a monthly one to the gulf of Mexico, Havan

CHAHAIGNES, a commune and town of France, nah, the Spanish American states, and the Pacific; the new ar- in the dep. of the Sarthe, cant, of La-Chartre-sur-lerangements propose a unitorin threeweekly mail to and from the whole of the 48 ports comprised in the scheme, thus in point of Loir, 19 m. SW of Saint-Calais. Pop. 1,668. It fact, while curtailing the communication to the West India is- has some manufactories of woollen fabrics. lands, it increases the number of departures to and arrivals from CHAHARA (JEBEL), a mountain-ridge and terthose important parts of the world, bitherto enjoying only a ritory of Arabia, in Yemen, 126 m. NW of Sana, monthly mail. It is needless to add that government can, it necessary, provide for a serni-monthly service under the new project,

in the district of Tulla. Numerous small villages if the threeweekly mail be found insufficient. Jamaica, however, are scattered over it. complains of the change of route, whereby Kingston will not be included as a port of call for the steamers from the isthmus of Haute-Saône, cant. of Hericourt, 13 m. ESE of Lure.

CHAIGEY, a village of France, in the dep. of the Panama proceeding to England, but will be accommodated by branch steamers from St. Thomas's. Although Jamaica by the Pop. 430. It contains some iron-works. new plan will be deprived of the visits of the main line of steam- CHAIKAL, a village of Afghanistan, in the Kohships, yet Kingston harbour will be made a depot for vessels run-i-Deman, 15 m. N of Istalif. ning from that island to Nicaraglia, Honduras, Carthagena, Hayti, and some other places; and her own communications to

CHAILEY, a parish of Sussex, 6 m. NNW of and from England will occupy only 17 to 19 days in place of 28 Lewes. Area 6,580 acres. Pop. 1,091. or 30, as at present.

CHAILLAC, a commune and town of France, in

Miles. the dep. of the Indre, cant. of St.-Benoist-du-Sault, Southampton to St. Thomas by main line steamer,

3,622

on the l. bank of the Langlin, 21 m. SE of Le Blanc. St. Thomas to San Juan Porto Rico, by branch

Pop. 2,526.-Also a commune in the dep. of the steainer,

63 Porto Rico to Jacmel, (Havti.)'

388

Haute-Vienne, cant. of Saint-Junien, on the I. bank Hayti to Kingston, (Jamaica)

255 of the Vienne, 4 m. NNE of Rochechouart. Pop.

1,188. Wine is grown in this locality. Total,

4.330 from Southampton to Jamaica, against 5,025 m. by way of Ma

CHAILLAND), a canton, commune, and town of deira, Barbados, St. Thomas, Porto Rico, and Hayti; and 4,895 France, in the dep. of Mayenne, arrond. of Laval. m. viâ Bermuda, Nassau, and Havannah; which are the respec. The cant. comprises 9 com. Pop. in 1831, 16,704; tive routes now taken to Jarnaica by the outward steamers. in 1841, 18,062. The town is situated on the l. bank Jamaica will be reached in 16 or 17 days; Jacmel (Ilayti) in 14 or 15; Porto Rico in 13; against 30, 28, and 27 days respectively

of the Ernee, 13 m. NNW of Laval. Pop. 2,504. It as at present. From Jamaica the mails will be sent by branch- contains some blast furnaces and forges, and has a steamers to St. Jago de Cuba, to Grey Town (Mosquito), to Car- considerable trade in lime. Coal is wrought in the thagena, and Santa Martha, by such arrangements as will facili

environs. tate in a commensurate degree their intercourse with and to England. Jamaica will besides be greatly benefitted by being

CHAILLE'-LES-MARAIS, a canton and comin constant communication with those ports on the main land between which and herself a large trade will be encouraged to Fontenay-le-Comte. The cant. comprises 7 com.

mune of France, in the dep. of Vendee, arrond. of mutual advantage. The same may be said of Belize (Honduras); Pop. in 1831, 9,345; in 1841, 10,195. The town is the mails for which colony are to be sent from and received at Jamaica by a branch-steamer instead of to and from Havannah 13 m. SW of Fontenay-le-Comte. Pop. 2,296. as at present.

CHAILLE - LES · ORMEAUX, a commune of WIXDWARD AND LEEWARD ISLANDS AND DEMERARA ROUTE. France, in the dep. of Vendee, cant. of Bourbon

Miles

Vendee. Pop. 1,213. Southampton to St. Thomas, (main line steamer,) 3,622 CHAILLEVETTE, a commune of France, in the St. Thomas to Tortola(branch steamer,)

23

dep. of the Charente-Inferieure, cant. of La TremTortola to St. Kitts,

128 St. Kitts to Nevis,

blade, 7 m. S of Marennes, on the I. bank of the Nevis to Montserrat,

Seudre. Pop. 1,053. It has a small port, of which Montserrat to Antigua,

salt, the produce of the adjacent salt-marshes, forms Antigua to Guadaloupe,

the chief article of export. Guadaloupe to Dominique,

45 Dominique to Martinique,

40

CHAILLEVOIS, a commune of France, in the Martinique to St. Lucia,

45 dep. of the Aisne, cant. of Anizy-le-Chateau, 7 m. St. Lucia to Barbados,

100

from Laon. Barbados to St. Vincent,

Pop. 231. It contains manufactories St. Vincent to Curaçao,

of alum and copperas. Curaçao to Grenada,

CHAILLEY, a commune of France, in the dep. Grenada to Trinidad,

of the Yonne, cant. of Brienon, 19 m. NE of Joigny. Trinidad to Tobago, Tobago to Demerara,

Pop. 1,160. It has a considerable trade in charcoal. 320

CHAILLONE', a village of France, in the dep. of Total,

4,820 the Orne, cant. and 4 m. N of Seez. Pop. 703. It from Southampton to Demerara, occupying at present 28 to 30 contains some iron-works. days, but this will be accomplished in 20 to 22 days, including all stoppages for landing and receiving mails at the islands between

CHAILLY, a commune of France, in the dep. of St. Thomas and Demerara, such islands also receiving their mails the Seine-et-Marne, cant. of Melun. Pop. 958. from the St. Thomas steamer proportionately earlier, according CHAIN, a village of Northern India, in the Punto their several positions on the route, The Venezuelan mails heretofore conveyed from St. Thomas to La Guayra will in all jab, 60 m. SW of Lahore. probability be carried in a small steamer either from that island

CHAIN ISLAND, an island of the South Pacific, or from Barbados.

in the Low archipelago, in S lat. 17° 25', W long.

11 33 32 70

90 50 32 94 85

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