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and Ban, 7 m. NE of Saint-Etienne. Pop. in 1841, Blanc's nearest neighbour. Other mountains follow 8,034. It contains a communal college; and possesses on that side as far as the Col-de-Balme, which terextensive manufactories of ribbons, silk-lace and cord, minates the long vista at the distance of about 18 m. velvets, earthenware, and nails; it has also silk-spin- The first evening of our arrival, we merely went cuning-mills, and dye-works. In the environs are iron- riously along, looking in wonder on the buttresses founderies, quarries of freestone, and coal-mines. which at regular intervals seem to prop up the base

CHAMOSON, a parish and village of Switzerland, of Mont Blanc. They are, I believe, all composed in the cant. of Valais, dixain of Conthey, at the base of the calcareous strata, turned up against the graof a mountain of the same name, and near the r. bank nitic mass, and less precipitous than the rest of the of the Lucerne, an affluent of the Rhone, and 8 m. front; they afford a footing for trees differing in speW of Sion. Pop., Cath., 1,079.

cies according to height,—the first zone deciduous, CHAMOUILLEY, a commune of France, in the the next composed of pines,—then larches; forest dep. of the Haute-Marne, cant. of Saint-Dizier, on above forest, waving their tufty and dark shades, acthe r. bank of the Marne, 9 m. NNE of Vassy. Pop. cessible as far as 3,000 or 4,000 ft. above C. The 653. It contains some blast furnaces and forges. interval between each of these verdant buttresses is

CHAMOUNI, or more correctly CHAMONIX, a filled by a glacier. There are six or seven of them, celebrated Alpine valley and village of Savoy, at those of Tacconay and Boissons, before coming to C.; the N foot of Mont Blanc. The Arve, which rises and those of Montanvert, Des Bois D’Argentiere, and in the Col-de-Balme, a mountain closing up the N De la Tour beyond it. The Glacier des Bois is the end of the valley, flows through its centre, and near most considerable [by this term Simond evidently the middle of its course receives the Arveiron on means the Mer-de-Glace, of which the Glacier-desthe l., an impetuons torrent rising in the glacier of Bois is only the lower extremity). The cap of snow Bois. The stations from which tourists usually com- over the head of Mont Blanc, turned to hard ice mence the journey to C., are Geneva, and Mar- solely by the pressure of its own accumulating mass, tigny, a town in the W of the Valais. The route covers the neck and shoulders of the giant, and from the latter place passes over the Tête-Noire, hangs down to the ground, forming an irregular drafrom the Valorsine, or over the Col-de-Balme, at an pery of which the glaciers just enumerated are the alt of 7,200 ft., and introduces the traveller at the skirts. It is the quantity of snow falling upon the top head of the valley; that from Geneva winds along of Mont Blanc, -that is upon the upper third of its the banks of the Arve, and enters the valley at its Sheight,—where it never melts, and not the intenseextremity. The latter route, though not destitute of ness of the cold, which determines the progressive Alpine scenery, is less wild and picturesque than the encroachments at the lower end of the glaciers, over other ; but it is upon the whole a more agreeable ap- the green fields of the valleys.” proach, and better adapted to the generality of tour- There are, as we have already noted, two entrances ists. From Geneva to the Prieuré, the distance is to the valley at its head, from the Valais. These reckoned about 40 m., and can easily be travelled in diverge at the little v. of Triente. Saussure recomone day. The road from Geneva to Sallenches-mends that which passes over the Tete Noire as the which is 36 m., considerably more than half of the least steep and hazardous; but tourists generally journey-is well made, and accommodated to every ascend the Col-de-Balme, in order to enjoy the view kind of vehicle; but upon leaving the latter place, which it commands from an alt. of 4,000 ft. above its the country assumes a more alpine appearance, and level. Looking from this point to the W, the deep the roads acquire a similar character, and can be and narrow valley of C. is seen from one end to the passed only on horse-back, or in a char-à-banc. What other, and an amazing scene of alpine magnificence is properly called the vale of C., extends from the oppresses the vision; “A thousand towering dark source of the Arve to about 2 m. beyond the village and savage peaks,-lightning-riven battlements, at of Ouches, and is near 18 m. in length. Its breadth whose bases, hardened and heaped-up, great depths nowhere exceeds 15 m.; and in some places it is of ice bidding defiance to the sunbeams, and glaciers considerably less. The greater portion of the valley winding many a league downwards through their stretches from NE to SW; but about 1 m. S from cross ravines, like belts of brightness flung over a the Prieuré the direction is changed to W, and region black with pines; and beneath all, an oasis afterwards to NW, by which cause the tourist is pre- within a wilderness of snow, the green vale of C. vented from seeing the whole at one view. The val- smiling with rural beauty and the abodes of men.” ley is bounded on the E and SE by the great chain From the Col-de-Balme, Mont Blanc is seen in proof the Pennine Alps, which here, in a succession of file, from its summit to its base; and the summits of lofty pyramidal peaks called Aiguilles, and principally the principal Aiguilles are seen nearer and in the in Mont Blanc, divides it from the Val d'Aosta. It same range; but the effect of their amazing height of is from this side, and between the slopes of the mag- from 11,000 to 13,000 ft. above sea-level, is diminnificent Aiguilles de-Tour, Argentière, Verte, Dru, ished by the superior elevation and magnitude of du Midi, and Mont Blanc, that the glaciers which Mont Blanc, whose snowy pyramid rises in proud form so striking a feature in the scenery of C., de- supremacy above them all. The alt. of Mont Blanc scend to the very edge of the cultivated fields in the above the level of the valley is 12,386 ft., —

-an eleva. valley. The W side of the valley is formed by the tion greater than that of Chimborazo above the Breven or Brevent, an offset of the Buet group to- table-land on which it rises. It is snow-clad also for wards the N, and a long unbroken rampart of moun- 7,000 ft. Owing, however, to the vast buttresses tains terminating in a succession of aiguilles or sharp which it throws out towards the valley, its height peaks. “The valley of C.,” says Simond, “may be does not strike the eye of the beholder so much from compared to a street, with splendid edifices reared by this side as from the Allee-Blanche on the S or Itathe hand of Nature on either side; they are so high, lian side. On the N side of the valley are seen the and the interval-about half-a-mile-comparatively lower Aiguilles, called from their colour Aiguilles so narrow, that little more is seen than the ground Rouges; beyond them is Mont Breven; and nearer, story. The magnificent front of Mont Blanc, rising on the NW, the mountains of the Valorsine. A to the height of 11,780 ft. perpendicular above C., mountain called the Vaudange closes the W extreitself 3,000 ft. above the sea, occupies 6 or 8 m. in mity of the valley, where the Arve, the common length of that sort of street on the 'S side of it; and drain of all the glaciers, makes its exit from the valover the way stands the Breven, which is Mont | ley through a lateral chasm of “a depth to shudder at,” at Pont-Pelissier. This chasm extends 4 m. | ley, oats, beans, and potatoes. Flax succeeds better from near Ouches to Pont-Pelissier. It has been in the valley than in the open country; and the poformed by the waters working a lateral passage in a tato crop is uncommonly productive. Wheat is only rock of soft slate, near its junction with a mass of sown on some small spots in the bottom of the valley. hard granite.

The principal crop is hay for the cattle during win. When we consider the great elevation of the valley ter. Every proprietor divides his land into two above the level of the sea,—3,425 ft.,—and the im- equal portions; one-half is laid out in corn-fields, the mediate neighbourhood of those immense masses of other in meadows. This arrangement continues for ice and snow which form the glaciers, it is somewhat six years, after which the meadows are ploughed up, surprising that its mean temp. should seldom be more and the corn-fields converted into meadow. The than 10° or 11° below that of Geneva. Bourrit gives whole of the bottom of the valley is laid out in this the following state of the therm. as the average tem- manner; but the chief source of wealth arises from perature of the summer. At 9 in the morning, 52°; the pasturages among the mountains. Next to cheese, at mid-day, 66°; in the evening, 57o. This uncom- the most valuable production of the valley is honey. mon mildness may be in some measure owing to the It is of a pure white colour, and has a brilliant grain general tendency of valleys to concentrate the rays resembling sugar. It has an exquisite taste, and an of the sun; but more, perhaps, to the particular di- aromatic odour. It has long been a puzzling inquiry rection of the valley, by which it is exposed for near how the honey of C. acquires those peculiar properten hours in summer to the direct action of the sun's ties. The bees are the same as those of the neighrays. The climate, however, even in summer, is very bouring villages, and the hives of C. are often revariable. Saussure states, that on the 25th of July, cruited from them; and yet, beyond the precincts of at noon, in the shade, the thermometer rose to 77°; the valley, the honey is not distinguished by any of while on the 22d of the same month it was only 66°; those peculiar qualities. Saussure conjectures that it and in the morning of the 23d there was a strong may be owing to the larch-trees which abound in hoar frost. The fine season usually commences in the valley, and the leaves of which exude at certain June, and ends in September; though October, and seasons a kind of manna, in which the bees delight. even November, are sometimes agreeable months Honey is perhaps the only native luxury of which here. Winter, in general, begins in November, and C. can boast. Fruit of any kind is rarely met with; ends in May. During this period the valley is com- and the vine is entirely unknown. The apples, cherpletely covered with snow to a considerable depth; ries, and plums which grow here, are all of the wild the nights are clear; and the therm. often falls to 220 kind, and seldom arrive at maturity. The oak, the below the freezing point. While this dreary season chestnut, and walnut tree, are never seen. continues the inhabitants seldom go abroad; the The population of the valley is very considerable women occupy themselves in spinning and knitting, for its extent. If we were to judge, however, of the and the men in attending to the cattle, which are number of the inhabitants from the crowds which housed and fed with the hay gathered during the appear in every village upon the arrival of a stranger, short summer and autumn. The following remarks we should form rather too high an estimate of its of Saussure will enable the reader to form some idea pop.; for on those occasions every male person in of the length and severity of the winter. “I arrived the district presents himself

, in the expectation of at C.,” says he, "on the 24th of March, and found being hired as a guide. The valley is divided into the whole valley covered with snow. At the Priory three parishes; Ouches, in the SW ; Argentière, in it was 1} ft. deep; at Argentiere 4 ft.; and at Tour the NÉ; and that of La Prieuré or Chamouni, in the 12 ft. The heat of the sun softened the snow in the middle. Professor Forbes fixes the position of the day-time; but it froze again during the night to such latter village in N lat. 45° 55' 54", E long. 6° 51' 15". a degree that loaded mules passed over it without Bourrit, who visited the country about 1760, gives leaving any impression of their feet.” The appear- the following statement of the pop., viz., 300 in the ance of the valley at this season is grand, but by no district of Vaudagne; 1,000 in the parish of Ouches; means interesting. The immense space between the 1,200 in the Priory; 500 in Argentière. It is prosummits of the mountains and the bottom of the bable that since that period the number of the invalley presents one uniform white surface, unbroken habitants has considerably increased, for even then except by some rocks whose steep sides cannot re- the progress of pop. was very discernible; yet the tain the snow. The forests have a greyish hue; and Calendario Sardo returned it in 1825 at only 2,700. the Arve, which winds through the centre of the Bourrit remarks, that those who a few years prior to valley, appears like a black thread. The glaciers- his arrival had only three or four hives of bees, had which add so much to the beauty of the landscape then 40; that cheese and butter, which had formerly when the valley is clothed in green-produce no been made for home-consumption only, had become effect in the midst of all this prevailing whiteness; but articles of exportation; that woods, which used to the pyramids of ice, whose steep sides have remained rot on the place where they grew, had been cut down, bare, appear like emeralds under the fresh white and the land cleared and converted into corn-fields snow which covers their summits. The whole pros- and meadows; that small and very inconvenient pect, when illuminated by the sun, has, with all its houses had been replaced by others more spacious grandeur and dazzling light, something dead and and airy, and consequently more healthy. It is to melancholy. The severity of the winter, and the be feared, however, that the influx of strangers has shortness of the summer, which scarcely allows suffi- produced here as elsewhere the very opposite effect, cient time for the labours of the field, render it highly by leading the people to prefer the high but precariimportant to hasten if possible the melting of the ous profits of guides to the more slow but sure gains snow. The contrivance used for this purpose by the of regular industry. A considerable proportion of inhabitants of the higher part of the valley is both the male population also emigrate to Paris and the simple and elegant, and attended with small expense: towns of Germany, or hire themselves during the it consists in scattering black earth on the top of the summer-months to the people of the Tarentaise and snow, which, by absorbing more of the sun's rays the valley of Aosta, for the purpose of making cheese, than the white surface, facilitates the clearing of the in which they are said greatly to excel. The men of fields, and advances the labours of agriculture about C. are of a middle stature, stout and active. They three weeks.

are in general honest, faithful, religious, and distinThe chief crops raised in the valley are flax, bar- guished for acts of charity and beneficence. They

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have no hospitals or foundations in behalf of the lage, the Bussigney, and the Senonay. Its principal towns wero

Troyes, Arces-sur-Aube, Chalons-sur-Marne, Bar-sur-Aube, Lanpoor; but the old men and orphans, who have no

gres, Chaumont, Sens, Ivigny, and Tonnore, 3d. BRIE-CHAMmeans of subsistence, live at the houses of the inha

PENOISE, of which the principal towns were Meaux, Provins, bitants in regular succession. The government of Coulommier, Montereaux, and Chateau-Thierry. These three the valley is that of a small republic, and is intrusted districts now form the several departments of Ardennes, Aube,

Marne, and Haute-Marne; and a part of the departments of to a register, a syndic, and 7 councillors. The chap- Meuse, Seine-et-Marne, Yonne, and Aisne. ter of Sallenche enjoys the sovereignty in all eccle- The more modern province of C., a part of the above, had an siastical matters; names the curates, and draws the area of 2,626,947 hectares; and is now comprised in the depart

ments of Ardennes, Aube, Marne, Haute-Marne, Meuse, Seinechurch-revenues. The curate of the Priory has the

et-Marne, and Yonne. Its capital was Troyes; and its other title of administrator, because, besides possessing the principal towns, Chalons-sur-Marne, and Arcis-sur-Aube. cure of souls, he has also the management of the The district which gives name to the well known sparkling temporalities of the chapter.— Incredible as it may Charente, and Charente-Inferieure, and forms part of the arron

wine called Champagne, is comprised in the departments of seem, the valley of C., till then unknown, was dis

dissements of Saintes, Jouzac, and Cognac. covered in 1741, by two Englishmen,the celebrated CHAMPAGNE, a canton, commune, and town of traveller Pococke and a Mr. Windham. An account France, arrond. of Belley. The cant. comprises 19 of their journey appeared in the Mercure de Suisse, com. Pop. in 1831, 7,910; in 1841, 3,018. It affords 1743. In 1760, M. de Saussure visited C. for the good resinous wood, grain, excellent cheese, wine, first time; and his great work on the Alps, published and silk. The town is 11 m. N of Belley. Pop. 562. about tifteen years after, together with Mr. Bourrit's CHAMPAGNE-DE-BOURZAC, a commune and Description des Glaciers de la Savoie, made the coun- town of France, in the dep. of the Dordogne, cant. try so famous, that as many as a thousand travellers of Verteillac, 13 m. N of Biberac. Pop. 2,434. used to visit it every season; now, the number is CHAMPAGNEY-LES-MARAIS, a commune of probably not less than four or five thousand. The France, in the dep. of Vendee, cant. of Chaillé-lesiwo first adventurers, in 1741, went with an escort Marais, 18 m. WSW of Fontenay-le-Comte. Pop. well-armed, slept under tents, with fires lighted, and 1,583. a watch all night!

CHAMPAGNE-MOUTON, a canton, commune, CHAMOUX, a village of Savoy, cap. of a mande- and town of France, in the dep. of the Charente, mento, 18 m. E of Chambery. Pop. 1,200.

arrond. of Confolens. The cant. comprises 8 com. CHAMOUZE, a mountain of France, in the dep. Pop. in 1831, 6,908; in 1841, 7,035. The town lies of the Drôme, cant. of Sederon.

amid fine meadows, watered by the Argent, 15 in. CHAMOVO, a town of Russia in Europe, in the W of Confolens. Pop. 1,222. It has a monthly fair, gov. and 45 m. NE of Moghilev, district and 17 m. and a considerable trade in cattle. NW of Mstislavl.

CHAMPAGNE-SAINT-HILAIRE, a commune CHAMP (LA), a village of France, in the dep. of of France, in the dep. of the Vienne, cant. of GenLozere, cant. of Saint-Amans, 10 m. NW of Mende. sais, 15 m. N of Civray. Pop. 1,424. Pop. 749. It has some manufactories of serge. CHAMPAGNEY, à canton, commune, and town

CHAMPA, CHAMPAWA, CHIAMPA, or Loi, a dis- of France, in the dep. of the Haute-Saône, arrond. ot trict of Cochin-China, forming the most southern Lure. The cant. comprises 9 com. Pop. in 1831, portion of Cochin-China Proper. It is separated on 10,879; in 1841, 11,477. It contains extensive coalthe W and N from Camboja by a chain of lofty mines. The town lies on the r. bank of the Bachin, mountains; on the E and S it has the Chinese sea. 10 m. ENE of Lure. Pop. 3,100. It possesses tanIt has about 140 m. of rocky shoaly coast. On the neries and tileworks, cotton manufactories, and a conE the surface is elevated and rocky; on the W it is siderable trade in tan; and in the environs cherries thickly covered with forests. Extensive plains of are extensively cultivated for the manufacture of barren sand occur in various directions. The in- kirsch-waser. habitants are Cochin-Chinese and Lawos or Laos. CHAMPAGNOLE, a canton, commune, and town

CHAMPAGNAC, a commune of France, in the of France, in the dep. of the Jura, arrond. of Poligny. dep. of Cantal, cant. of Saignes, 12 m. N of Mauriac. The cant. comprises 30 com. Pop. in 1831, 13,592; Pop. 1,737.--Also a commune in the dep. of the in 1841, 13,825. The town is prettily situated on the Haute-Loire, cant. of Auzon. Pop. 1,045.–Also a r. bank of the Ain, 13 m. SE of Poligny, at the foot commune in the dep. of the Haute-Vienne, cant. of of Mont Rivel, on which are the ruins of a castle. Oradour-sur-Vayres, on the r. bank of the Tardouère, Pop. 3,276. It possesses manufactories of cotton fa11 m. SSE of Rochechouart. It contains manufac- brics, wire-drawing, and saw-mills, iron-forges, and tories of iron-wire and steel, and has several blast nail works; and has six annual fairs. The trade, furnaces and forges.

which is very active, consists in draught-horses, catCHAMPAGNAC-DE-BEʼLAIR, a canton, com- tle, sheep, grain, and timber. mune, and town of France, in the dep. of the Dor- CHAMPAGNOLLES, a commune of France, in dogne. The cant. comprises 10 com. Pop. in 1831, the dep. of the Charente-Inferieure, cant. of Saint7,526; in 1841, 7,132. The town is situated on the Genis, 13 m. N of Jouzac. Pop. 1,058. 1. bank of the Dronne, 11 m. S of Nontron. Pop. 921. CHAMPAGNY ISLES, a group on the NW coast

CHAMPAGNAT, a commune of France, in the of Australia, of which the southernmost is in S lat. dep. of the Creuse, cant of Bellegarde, 8 m. NE of 15° 20' 45“, E long. 124° 13' 15". Aubusson.

CHAMPAIGN, a county in the state of Ohio, CHAMPAGNE, an ancient province of France, which, under U. S., comprising a superficies of 464 sq. m., watered its counts of the house of Blois, is frequently mentioned in the by Mad river, and Buck, Nettle, Chapman's, King's history of the Middle ages. It was bounded on the N by Liege and Stony creeks. It is generally level, and in some and French Hainault; on the E by the duchy of Bar, the Toulois, and Lorraine; on the s by Burgundy; and on the w by Brie; parts marshy, but extremely fertile. Pop. in 1830, until the 14th cent., when the last mentioned territory was in- 12,130; in 1840, 16,721. The cap. is Urbanna. Also corporated with it, and the boundary in this quarter became the a county in the state of Illinois, containing an area Ile-de-France. It was divided into C. Proper, the Remois, the

of 792 sq. m., drained by Embarrass, Kaskaskia, SanRethelois, the Perthois, the Vallage, the Bassigny, the Senonais, and Brie Champenoise. These 8 divisions were also arranged gamon, Illinois, and Vermillion rivers. It consists under a more general classification, thus: Ist. HAUTE CHAN- of an undulating surface, with extensive prairies, and PAGNE, comprising the Remois, the Perthois, and the Rethelois. Its principal towns were Reims, Sainte-Menehould, Epernay, 1,475. Its cap. is likewise named Urbanna.

is generally fertile. Pop. in 1830, 12,131; in 1840, Vitry-le - Francais, Rethel, Sedan, Mezieres, Charleville, and Rocroy 20. BASSE CHAMPAGNE, comprising C. Proper, the Val- CHAMPANAGUR, a town of Hindostan, in the

prov, and 90 m. ENE of Bahar, and 3 m. W of Bog- CHAMPIER, a commune of France, in the dep. lipur, on the S bank of the Ganges. In 1809 it of the Isère, cant. of La Côte-Saint-André, 22 m. contained, Lakshmigunge inclusive, 1,500 houses. ESE of Vienne. Pop. 1,142. The pop. consisted chietly of weavers.

CHAMPIGNE', a commune of France, in the CHAMPANIR, or CHANPANIR, a prov. of Hin- dep. of the Maine-et-Loire, cant of Châteauneuf-surdostan, in Gujerat, on the E frontier; bounded by Sarthe, 18 m. from Segré. Pop. 1,210. It has 5 the rivers Mahi and Nerbudda, and by Malwah.— Its annual fairs, which are well-frequented. cap., of the same name, is situated on the brow of a CHAMPIGNELLES, a commune of France, in hill, rising in the midst of a nearly level country, 20 the dep. of the Yonne, cant. of Bléneau, 22 m. SW m. NE of Baroda. It is a small place, with a pop. of of Joigny. Pop. 1,330. It has a considerable trade about 1,000, chiefly silk-weavers.

in wood. CHAMPAPOOR, a town of Hindostan, in the CHAMPIGNEULES, a commune of France, in prov. and 17 m. N of Bahar, on the S bank of the the dep. of the Meurthe, cant. and 4 m. N of Nancy, Ganges.

near the l. bank of the Meurthe. Pop. 754. It conCHAMPAUBERT, a commune of France, in the tains some paper-mills. dep. of the Marne, cant. of Montmort, 15 m. SSW of CHAMPIGNEULLE, a commune of France, in Epernay. Pop. 178. It is noted for a victory gained the dep. of Ardennes, cant. of Grand-Pré, 12 m. ESE by Napoleon over the Russians, in 1814.

of Vouziers, on the r. bank of the Agrion. Pop. 312. CHAMPCENEST, a commune of France, in the It has some forges and blast-furnaces. dep. of the Seine-et-Marne, cant. of Villiers-Saint- CHAMPIGNOL, a commune of France, in the Georges. Pop. 240.

dep. of the Aube, cant. of Bar-sur-Aube. Pop. 1,185. CHAMP-DE-BORT, a village of France, in the CHAMPIGNY, or CHAMPIGNY - SUR - MARNE, a dep. of Cantal, 18 m. NE of Mauriac. Pop. 1,725. commune of France, in the dep. of the Seine, cant.

CHAMPDENIERS, a canton, commune, and town of Charenton-le-Pont, on the I. bank of the Marne, of France, in the dep. of the Deux-Sèvres, arrond. of 10 m. ESE of Paris. Pop. 1,580. Fairs are held Niort. The cant. comprises 12 com. Pop. in 1831, twice a-year. This locality produces fine rye-straw 7,237; in 1841, 7,605. The town is situated on an for the manufacture of bonnets. In the vicinity is affluent of the Sevre-Niortaise, 12 m. N of Niort. the castle of Cueilly. Pop. 1,424. It possesses a hat manufactory, tan- CHAMPIGNY-LE-SEC, a hamlet of France, in neries and tile works, and is celebrated for its butter. the dep. of the Maine-et-Loire, cant. of Sanmur, and Fairs are held 8 times a-year, the trade of which, com. of Souzay. Pop. 188. The environs afford consisting chiefly in horses, cattle, mules, &c., is ex- good red wine. tremely active.

CHAMPIGNY-SUR-VENDE, a commune and CHAMP-DES-OISEAUX (LE), a hamlet of town of France, in the dep. of the Indre-et-Loire, France, in the dep. of the Seine-Inférieure, cant. cant. of Richelieu, 9 m. SE of Chinon, on the Vende. and com. of Rouen. Pop. 1,500.

Pop. 1,113. CHAMPDIEU, a commune of France, in the dep. CHAMPIGNY-SUR-YONNE, a commune of of the Loire, cant. and 4 m. N of Montbrison. Pop. France, in the dep. of the Yonne, cant. of Pont-sur1,005.

Yonne, 12 m. NW of Sens. Pop. 1,608. CHAMPDRAY, a commune of France, in the CHAMPION, a town of Belgium, in the prov. dep. of the Vosges, cant. of Corcieux. Pop. 1,093. and 4 m. NNE of Namur.

CHAMP-DU-BOULT, a commune of France, in CHAMPION, a township of Jefferson co., in the the dep. of Calvados, cant. of Saint-Sever, 6 m. SW state of New York, U. S., 12 m. E of Watertown, of Vire. Pop. 1,719.

and 152 m. NW of Albany. Its surface is hilly; and CHAMPEAUX, a commune of France, in the its soil, watered by Black river and its tributaries, dep. of the Seine-et-Marne, cant. of Mormant, 9 m. is generally fertile. Pop. in 1840, 2,206. The vilNE of Melun. Pop. 446. It contains a fine church. lage contained at the same period about 200 inhaMill-stones are extensively quarried in the environs. bitants. Also a township of Trumbull co., in the A little to the S is the castle of Aunoy.

state of Ohio, about 5 m. N of Warren. Pop. 541. CHAMPEIX, a canton, commune, and town of CHAMPION BAY, an anchorage on the NW France, in the dep. of Puy-de-Dome, arrond. of Is- coast of Australia, under the SW extremity of soire. The cant. comprises 17 coin. Pop. in 1831, Moresby's range. It is sheltered from the SW by Point 10,178; in 1841, 10,374. The town is situated in a Moore. A point on the enclosing coast is in S lat. deep mountain gorge, on the Couze, 8 m. NW of Is. 28° 47', E long. 114° 37'. Coal has been discovered, soire. Pop. 1,684. It has 4 annual fairs, the trade and metalliferous ores, near this bay; and an atof which consists in sheep, oxen, goats, and grain. tempt is now making to form a settlement on this

CHAMPENOUX, a commune of France, in the part of the coast. dep. of the Meurthe, cant. of Nancy. Pop. 615. CHAMPLAIN, a township and port of entry in

CHAMPE'ON, a commune and town of France, in Clinton co., in the state of New York, U. S., borthe dep. and 7 in. NE of Mayenne, cant. of Le dered on the E by Lake Champlain, 185 m. NE of Horps. Pop. 1,394. It contains an iron-forge. Albany, and 15 m. N of Plattsburg. It is level in

CHAMPE'TIERES, a commune of France, in the the E, and is drained by Chazy river. The soil condep. of Puy-de-Dôme, cant. and 4 m. SW of Am- sists of a fertile clay loam. Pop. in 1840, 3,632. The bert. Pop. 1,539. It has some manufactories of village lies on the Chazy river, 5 m. from its mouth. woollen coverlets.

Pop. about 400. CHAMPFROMIER, a commune of France, in CHAMPLAIN (LAKE), a large lake, chiefly bethe dep. of the Ain, cant. of Châtillon-de-Michaille, longing to the United States of America, which 12 m. E of Nantua. Pop. 1,397.

forms the boundary between New York and VerCHAMPGENITEUX, a commune of France, in mont; and stretches in its N extremity for about 5 the dep. and 13 m. E of Mayenne, cant. of Bais. m., or, including the channel of the Chambly, 35 m., Pop. 1,819.

into Canada; occupying a considerable part of the CHAMPHAUT, a village of France, in the dep. central section of that remarkable valley stretching of the Orne, cant. of Merlirault, 17 m. E of Argen- from New York to the St. Lawrence. Its direction tan. Pop. 200. Iron is wrought in the surrounding is nearly from N to S. It is a long, narrow, and district.

deep body of water, about 110 m. in length, and varying in breadth from to 15 m. In its extreme is partly navigable by vessels of 150 tons, and S part, for 20 m. from Whitehall, it has the appear- throughout by barges. — In the neighbourhood of ance of a river not exceeding a į m. in breadth. N Lake C., both on the United States and Canadian of this it expands to 3 m.; and, still expanding as it frontier, the plan of a ship-canal to connect the lake stretches N, it reaches to 15 m. above Burlington, with the waters of the St. Lawrence is exciting much its widest part. Its mean breadth may be esti- interest. It appears by the survey to be quite pracmated at 5 m.; its area at 600 sq. m. It is inter- ticable, requiring only two locks during its entire spersed with above sixty islands, the largest of which length of 34 m.; and, including the widening of the are the North and South Hero islands, and the isle Chambly canal, now in operation between Whitehall Lamotte, all belonging to the state of Vermont. Its and Troy, is estimated to cost under 1,500,000 doldepth is sufficient for the largest vessels. The wa- lars. When completed, with another short canal ters which form this lake are collected from a large from Lake C. to the Hudson, there will be more than tract of country, a great proportion of the rivers | 1,500 m. of uninterrupted internal navigation, exwhich rise in the state of Vermont falling into it, and i tending from the Illinois coast, on Lake Michigan, several also bringing their tributary streams from down to the city of New York, and enabling vessels New York, and from Canada, to which last province carrying 300 tons, and drawing 9 ft. of water, to pass its own waters flow N through the Richelieu, Sorell, through without discharging or lightening their caror Chambly river, into the St. Lawrence, at the head goes. The government of Canada is friendly to the of Lake St. Peter. This lake was discovered by Sa- undertaking, and the charter granted is very liberal. muel de Champlain, in 1609, from whom it derives The grand canal which joins Lake Erie to the Hudits name; and since this period there are many indi- son, 64 m. in length, has extinguished, in a commercations to show that its waters have fallen nearly 30 cial sense, the falls of Niagara. By these two canals or 40 ft. from their former height. The rocks in vessels from all the great lakes above the falls will several places appear to be marked by the former be able to reach Whitehall without breaking bulk; surface of the lake many feet higher than the present the time of transit will be shortened by several days; level of the water; and fossil shells and bodies of and the route will be open earlier and later in the trees are frequently found at the depth of 15 or 20 year than that of the former northern route.

The ft. in the earth; not only along its shores, but in the distance to be cut is only 20 m., and over a level low lands, at the distance of 2 or 3 m. These and country; and the fall from the St. Lawrence to Lake other circumstances leave no doubt that at a foriner C. is only 16 ft. period the waters of this lake were higher, and CHAMPLAN, a village of France, in the dep. of spread over a larger extent of ground. At present, the Seine-et-Oise, cant. of Longjumeau, 11 m. SE the waters rise froin about the end of April to about of Versailles, on the l. bank of the Yvette. Pop. 441. the end of June; but this increase seldom exceeds 4 Gold and silver plated ware are manufactured here. or 6 ft. The lake is early frozen round the shores, CHAMPLATREUX, a hamlet of France, in the but it is not commonly altogether shut up with ice dep. of the Seine-et-Oise, cant. and 2 m. S of Luzaruntil the middle of January. About the middle of ches, and com. of Epinay-Champlatreux, and 16 m. March the ice generally thaws in the broader parts, ENE of Pontaise. Pop: 30. There is here a chaand it is not uncommon for many square miles of it teau, one of the finest in the environs of Paris. to disappear in one day. From the 20th of April to Gypsum is wrought in the neighbourhood. the 20th of June, the waters of the lake rise from 4 CHAMPLEMY, a commune and town of France, to 8 ft.

The scenery along its shores is highly in the dep. of Nièvre, cant. of Prémery, 22 m. ESE of picturesque, and rendered grand near the centre and Cosne. Pop. 1,271. towards the head by the lofty mountain-ranges in CHAMPLITTE, a canton, commune, and town the distance on both sides. The towns of Burling of France, in the dep. of the Haute-Saône, arrond. ton, St. Alban's, Plattsburg, and Whitehall, stand of Gray. The cant. comprises 17 com. Pop. in upon its shores. Fort Ticonderoga, now in ruins, 1831, 10,953; in 1841, 10,285. It is celebrated for but which figured largely in the French and Ameri- its grapes. The town is situated on the r. bank of can wars, and was at one time considered impreg. the Salon, at an alt. of 754 ft. above sea-level, and 15 nable, stands on a little peninsula on the W side of m. NNW of Gray. Pop. 3,084. It contains a church the lake, 24 m. above Whitehall. About 18 m. to and an hospital; and possesses distilleries of brandy, the N of it, and on the same side of the lake, is Crown wax bleacheries, manufactories of linen, floor-cloths, point, another peninsular fortress of historical re- and hats. It has a considerable trade in grain and nown, though now in ruins. Burlington stands on wine. Fairs are held six times a-year. the E side of the lake, 82 m. N of Whitehall, and 75 CHAMPLOST, a commune of France, in the dep. m. S of St. John's in Canada. At Plattsburg, on of the Yonne, cant. of Brienon, 15 m. ENE of Joigthe W side, 107 m. from Whitehall, a British feet ny. Pop. 1,417. under Commodore Downie, and a British army CHAMPMOTTEUX, a commune of France, in under Sir George Prevost, were signally defeated by the dep. of the Seine-et-Oise, cant. and 9 m. SW of the Americans on the 11th of Sept. 1814. Below Milly, 12 m. SE of Etampes. Pop. 409. It contains the boundary line between the States and Canada, a a church in which is the tomb of the chancellor De little N of Rouse's point, which is 25 m. above St. l’Hopital. Large quantities of honey are produced John's, and 132 m. from Whitehall, is a very strong in this com. fort, which, though within the 45th degree of N lat., CHAMPNIERS, a commune and town of France, was given up to the United States by the treaty of in the dep. of the Charente, cant. and 6 m. NNE of 1842. Ash island, 4 m. N of Rouse's point, is gene- Angoulême. Pop. in 1841, 4,062. It contains oilrally assumed as the termination of the lake and the mills, and tile-works, and has 6 annual cattle fairs. commencement of the Chambly, Richelieu, or St. The environs afford considerable quantities of saffron. John's river. The lake is well stored with fish, particu- CHAMPOEG, a settlement in Oregon, on the E larly salmon, salmon trout, sturgeon, and pickerel; and side of the Walamet river, 55 m. above its junction the land on its borders and on the banks of its rivers with the Columbia, and 25 m. above the falls of the is good. It is sufficiently deep for the largest ships; Walamet. If these falls were avoided by a canal, but is navigated by steam-boats and sloops generally the river would be navigable for a small steamer to from 80 to 100 tons burden. The distance from the C.; but above this point it becomes shoal and rapid. lake to the St. Lawrence, traversed by the Chambly, CHAMPOLY, a commune of France, in the dep

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