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name, called also Alvellos; which is inhabited by | ence with the Chimalapilla, to the SSE of SantaIndians of different tribes, who manufacture various Maria-Chimalapa, it has an alt. of 119 metres = 390 kinds of earthenware, and a species of butter from ft. above sea-level. After receiving the Jumuapa, turtles' eggs, which they send to Para and Maranhao. its rapids become inconsiderable. From the Mala

COAST-RANGE, a name frequently given to that tengo to the Jumuapa it has a course from S to N of range of mountains in North - Western America, about 38 m.; it thence runs NW to the junction of which extends, with occasional interruptions, from the Jaltepec, and NE from that point of confluence, the straits of De Fuca to the 34th parallel. Its most to the bar, 63 m. After the confluence of the Jaltenorthern peak, Mount Olympus, on the peninsula of pec, its current is scarcely perceptible, and during Cape Flattery, attains an alt. of 8,197 ft. The range the dry season shoals are to be met with below this is much broken; and is generally interrupted by point with only 18 inches of water over them. At spurs whose direction is at right angles with itself, La Horqueta the river divides into two branches, and between which lie a succession of valleys through which reunite after having formed the island of Tawhich the streams descending from the Cascade camichapa. From the N point of this island to the mountains find their way to the ocean. The princi- | bar, the river is navigable for every class of ships. pal of these spurs are the Elk and the Shaste moun- The shallowest water on the bar is 19 ft. 10 in. It tains, and the Boundary range. The Coast-range, has been proposed to establish a communication beupon its entrance into California, rises to the snow- tween the Atlantic and the Pacific by means of this line, and continues in close proximity to the coast, river, and the river Chicapa. See CHiCAPA. Two forming an elevated and iron-bound shore. The parties are reported to have recently crossed the bay of San Francisco forms some interruption to its isthmus by the route of these rivers, in 8 days, percourse, by dividing it into two arms which enclose forming 58 leagues of the journey in canoes, and 37 the common estuary of the Sacramento and San leagues on horseback. Joachin rivers; but these again meet, and finally COAZZE, a town of the Sardinian states, in the unite with the Californian range. The width of the prov. and 16 m. ESE of Susa, near the confluence of range varies from 10 to 30 m.

the Sangone and the Sangonetto. Pop. 3,000. COAST RANGE, a name sometimes applied, in COBADONGA, or COVADONGA, a village of Spain, Australian geography, to the range which, between in the prov. of Oviedo, 4 m. SE of Cangas-de-Ones. the parallels of 26° and 32° S, divides the waters Pop. 638. Here Pelayo gained a great victory over Aowing E into the ocean, from those which flow to the Moors in 718. wards the interior to join the Macquarie, or the Dar- COBAL, a river of Benguela, on the W coast of ling. The general direction of this range is NNE. Africa, flowing from the SE into the Rio-dos-Mortes,

COAT, a hamlet in the p. of Martock, Somerset. after a course of 210 m. Pop. 175.

COBAN. See VERA-Paz. COATE, a hamlet in the p. of Bampton, Oxford- COBB, a county of the state of Georgia, U. S., shire. Pop. 204.-Also a hamlet in the p. of Dur-comprising an area of 480 sq. m., bordered on the SE rington, Sussex. Pop. 62.-Also a tything in the p. by the Chattahoochee river; by the affluents of the of Bishop's Cannings, Wilts. Pop. 303.

river on the S; and by the Coosa on the N. Pop. COATES, a parish of Gloucestershire, 3} m. 7,539. Its cap. is Marietta. WSW of Cirencester, on the Thames and Severn COBBEH, a town of Central Africa, the capital canal. Area 2,330 acres. Pop. 373.—Also a parish of Darfur, or the chief residence of its merchants, in of Lincolnshire, 9 m. NW of Lincoln. Area 950 N lat. 14° 11', E long. 28° 8'. It was visited in 1793 acres. Pop. 47.–Also a parish of Sussex, 3 m. SSE by Browne, who describes it as a town about 2 m. in of Petworth, on the Rother. Area 510 acres. Pop. length, built on a plain, and during the rainy season 67.-Also a township in the p. of Barnoldswick, W. surrounded with a torrent. Its houses stand apart, R. of Yorkshire, 8 m. WSW of Skipton. Area 700 each occupying a considerable portion of ground, and acres. Pop. 101.

shaded by trees: hence the pop. was comparatively COATES (GREAT), a parish of Lincolnshire, 2 small, not exceeding, in his estimate, 6,000, of whom m. W of Great Grimsby. Area 2,200 acres. Pop: the greater proportion were slaves; while few, if any, 245.

of the inhabitants were natives of Fur, but had emiCOATES (LITTLE), a parish of Lincolnshire, 2 m. grated from Dongola, Mahass, and the borders of W of Great Grimsby. Area 1,060 acres. Pop. 40. the Nile as far as Sennár. Fronting the town to

COATES (NORTH), a parish of Lincolnshire, 9 m. the E is a chain of low rocky hills running N and S NNE of Louth. Area 2,420 acres. Pop. 225. for several miles. To the W and SW, the plain of

COATHAM (East and West), a hamlet in the C. is bounded by a chain of rocky hills, called Gkerp. and township of Kirk-Leatham, N. R. of York. dah and Malha, 20 m. distant. To the S, at a disshire. Pop. 371.

tance of 12 m., is Jebel-Cusa; and on the SE, JebelCOATHAM-MUNDEVILLE, a township in the Wana. p. of Houghton-le-Skerne, 44 m. N of Darlington, on COBEQUID MOUNTAINS, a broad range of the Skerne, and on the Great North of England rail- hills in Nova Scotia, occupying the centre of Cumway. Area 1,500 acres. Pop. 138.

berland co. They are covered with remarkably fine ČOATHILL, or Cotehill, a township in the p. timber, among which the black birch and the maple of Wetheral, Cumberland. Pop. 253.

in particular attain a large size. The great northern COATICOOK, or KAWATIKOUCH, a river which road pursues a hilly and irregular course over these takes its rise in the state of Vermont, U. S.; runs mountains for 18 m. NE; passes into Lower Canada; crosses Stanstead COBERN, or COVERN, a town of Prussia, in the co.; and falls into the St. Francis, near the v. of prov. of the Rhine, gov. of Coblenz, on the l. bank Lennoxville, in Ascot township, Sherbrooke co. of the Moselle, 6 m. SW of Coblenz. Pop. 1,500.

COATSVILLE, a village of Chester co., in the COBHAM, a parish and village in Kent, 5 m. W state of Pennsylvania, U. S., 62 m. ESE of Harris- of Rochester. Area 2,800 acres. Pop. 758.-Also a burg, on the W branch of Brandywine creek. It is parish and village in Surrey, 5 m. WNW of Leathernoted for a chalybeate spring in the environs. head. Area 5,240 acres. Pop. 1,617.

COATZACOALCOS, a river of Mexico, rising in COBI, a town of Western Africa, on the Joliba, the Sierra-Madre, and flowing N across the isthmus near the frontiers of Banan.-Caillie. of Tehuantepec to the gulf of Mexico. At its confli- COBL See GOBI.

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COBIJA, or PUERTO-DE-LA-MAR, a town of Boli- | London; conducts an active commerce in grain, via, in the dep. of Potosi, 50 m. SSW of Atacama, in Seltzer water, oil, and gypsum; and is the staple place S lat. 22° 34', w long. 70° 21', at the mouth of the for the Rhine and Moselle wines. Through C. the Rio Salado. "It is a small place, but, as the only legal Dutch receive a great portion of their timber and seaport in Bolivia, is of rising importance. Pop. in iron. Few manafactures exist in C., excepting 1843, 793. See BOLIVIA, p. 849.

those of cotton, linen, tobacco, Japan ware, and COBLENZ, a village of Switzerland, in the cant. iron and bronze trinkets. A large woollen fair is of Aargau, 2 m. ESE of Waldshut, at the confluence held on the 15th, 16th, and 17th of July. An aqueof the Aar and the Rhine.

duct conveys good spring-water from a hill in the COBLENZ, COBLENTZ, or KOBLENZ, an adminis- vicinity of Metternich, across the bridge of the Motrative subdivision of Prussia, in the prov. of the selle, to all parts of the town.-Drusus erected on the Rhine, comprising the 12 circles of C., St. Goar, r. bank of the Moselle a castle called Confluens, which Kreuznach, Simmern, Zell, Kochheim, Mayen, Ade- became the nucleus of the future city. The Alton nau, Ahrweiler, Neuwied, Altenkirchen, and Wetzlar. hof, or old town, was the seat of a general council in Area 109.64 German sq. m. Pop. in 1831, 417,333; 860. In 1018 Henry II. gave this town to the archb. in 1837, 449,125; and in 1846, 485,000, of whom of Treves. It was early fortified, and has at various about three-fifths were Catholics.

times felt the desolating power of war. During the COBLENZ, an ancient and picturesque town, the Thirty years' war it passed successively to the Swedes, cap. of the above circle, and of the prov. of the Lower the Imperialists, the French, and the German ProRhine, in N lat. 50° 21', E long. 70° 30', finely situ- testants. In 1688, the French under Boufflers al. ated on the point of land formed by the confluence of most reduced it to ashes by a bombardment of 15 the Rhine and the Moselle or Mosel

, and, from this days. C. was the point of reunion for the French circumstance, called Confluentes or Confluentia by the emigrés who composed the army of Condé in 1792; and Romans. A wooden bridge (a a a), supported on formed the head-quarters of the Prussians when they boats, 485 ft. in length, crosses the Rhine; and one of invaded France in 1792 ; but was taken by the troops stone (6 bb), 480 paces long, and consisting of 14 belonging to the French republic about two years arches, the Moselle. The surrounding country is fer- afterwards, and remained annexed to France till re

stored to Prussia in 1815.-Extensive works on every side protect C., which is now one of the strongest places in the Prussian monarchy. The castle of Ehrenbreitstein, on the opposite side or r. bank of the Rhine-the works of which have again risen in considerable strength--forms one of its outworks; and on Mont St. Peter, or Fort Kaiser Franz, on the 1. bank of the Moselle, are strong works commanding the road to Treves and Cologne.-C. was the birthplace of Prince Metternich.

COBLESKILL, a township in Schoharie co.,

the state of New York, U. S., 42 m. W of Albany. COBLENZ

Pop. 3,583. It is watered by a stream of the same

name, an affluent of Schobarie creek. tile and beautiful, and many of the inhabitants find COBOLO, a town of Western Africa, on the Kates employment in cultivating the vine. The streets of river, to the E of the territory of Sierra Leone. C. are regular but narrow, the houses are well-built, COBOS-DE-RIO-FRANCO, a village of Spain, in and the public buildings handsome. One of the most the prov. of Burgos, 6 m. ESE of Palenzuela. conspicuous of the public buildings is a palace (P) COBRANA, a town of Spain, in the prov. of Leon, built by the elector of Treves in 1779. It stands on partido and 5 m. NE of Ponferrada, and 17 m. E of the l. bank of the Rhine, near an eminence crowned Villafranca-del-Vierzo, between the Boeza and the with the remains of an ancient castle; and has its Sil, and to the S of the mountains to which it gives principal front towards the Schloss platz or Grand its name. square (A). The church of St. Castor (c), at the COBRAS (ILHA-DAS-), an island and fortress of angle formed by the junction of the two rivers, is re- Brazil, in the bay of Nitherôhi, in the prov. of Riomarkable for its great antiquity. The French, while de-Janeiro. It contains, exclusive of the ordinary they held the city, converted this building into bar- garrison, 300 inhabitants. The fortress has accomracks. It is now appropriated to the civil and criminal modation for 1,000 men and 100 pieces of artillery. courts. There were formerly a Jesuits' college, several The excavation of an extensive dock on the N side monasteries, and other ecclesiastical establishments of the island was commenced by D. Pedro I., but is in C.; but most of these were suppressed during the still unfinished. period when both it and the surrounding country COBRE, a river of Guatemala, in the prov. of were in the hands of the French. A handsome quay Veragua, which runs S, and after a course of 45 m., extends along the Rhine, and another borders the falls into the Pacific opposite the group of the ConMoselle, both of which are used as promenades, as treras islands. Also an extensive mountain-range of well as for commercial purposes. Near the conflu- the island of Cuba, in the Departamento-Oriental, ence of the two rivers stands" a small and simple running NE abont 57 m., and connected on the W pyramid,” erected to General Marceau.—C. is the seat with the Sierra-de-Tarquino, and on the E with the of a justiz-senat or court-of-appeal for the regency, range of Las Cuchillas. of an Evangelical consistory, and a Catholic gym- COBRE, a town in the island of Cuba, 12 m. N of nasium with 274 pupils in 1836, an elementary school, Santiago-de-Cuba, built for the occupancy of the and a seminary for schoolmasters. The town-library copper-miners in this district, and already containing is valuable. Pop. in 1831, 12,214; in 1837, 13,696. from 5,000 to 6,000 inhabitants. The ancient copThe situation of this city gives it easy communica- per-mines here were reopened by an English comtion with France by the Moselle, and with Germany pany in 1833, and have been wrought with increasing and Switzerland by the Rhine. It has communica- activity ever since. All the principal mines are contion by steam-boats with Manheim, Mayence, Stras- centrated within a space of 1,200 by 600 yards. The burg, Treves, Cologne, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and I cupriferous repositories are enclosed in green slate,


which is penetrated with crystalline sulphuretted ; two form one chamber of 17 members, viz., 6 depuiron. The transportation of the ores to the sea is ties from the nobility, and 11 from the towns and now facilitated by a railroad which follows the valley rural districts. The assent of the deputies is necesof the Rio-del-C. It was formerly carried by mules sary to the imposition of taxes. The ministry is · to Santiago at an average cost of a dollar per cwt. composed of a minister-of-state, and 3 privy counSee article CUBA.

cillors. Each duchy has its own system of internal COBURG, a town of_Upper Canada, in the town- administration, taxation, and excise; but there is ship of Hamilton, on Lake Ontario, 103 m. from only one high consistorial court for ecclesiastical Kingston, and 72 m. from Toronto. It is a neat and affairs and public instruction. It is understood that thriving town, with a good harbour. Pop. 3,347. A negotiations for forming a closer union among the large cloth factory has recently been erected here. small Thuringian states have recently been brought The chief exports are flour and pork. The Wesleyan to a conclusion. They are 8 in number, viz., Weimar, conference founded Victoria college here in 1835. It Meiningen, Altenburg, Coburg-Gotha, Rudolstadt, is a handsome building, and received a charter in Sondershausen, Reuss of the elder, and Reuss of the 1842.

younger line. The difference in the laws of these COBURG, or SACHSEN-COBURG-GOTHA, a sove- minor powers has created the necessity of establishing reign duchy of Central Germany. It forms a com- one general code for all of them, which is to be pact territory on the N border of Bavaria, but is drawn up by a body composed of the representatives composed of two distinct portions of territory,--the of the different governments and collective comprincipality of Gotha --and that of Coburg. The mittees elected from the several chambers. It will duke of Sachsen-Gotha, who holds the 12th place in be competent to this assembly to revise the different the confederacy, was the chief of the second branch penal systems of the states, to assimilate them, and of the Ernestine line. His possessions were the two to carry the same revision through all the other principalities of Gotha and Altenburg, lying in Thu- judicial and financial departments of the administraringia. These were quite separated: the W part, tion. The political independence of the several or the principality of Gotha, being surrounded by states will not be affected by this arrangement, which Prussia, Schwartzburg, Weimar, Hessen-Cassel, and is, in fact, an application to the internal laws of the Meiningen; while the E, or the principality of Alten- various duchies of a principle similar to that which burg, composed of two districts, was enclosed by established the Zollverein with regard to the imports Prussia, Saxony, Reuss, Weimar, Schwartzburg, and of commerce. The contingent army of the united Coburg. The surface of these two principalities was duchies is 1,366 men, and the annual revenue about nearly 1,100 British sq. m.; with a pop. in 1818 of £50,000. The debt on 1st July, 1849, amounted to about 193,000. The succession was in the male line; 2,934,384 thalers, of which 540,000 thalers were conbut Duke Frederic IV. died in 1825, and with him tracted on account of the Thuringian railway. There this branch of the Ernestine line was extinguished. are in the united duchy 9 towns, 10 market-towns, The government of these territories was then ad- and 429 villages and hamlets, the chief of which are ministered under the name of Meiningen, Coburg, Coburg and Gotha. and Hildburghausen, till some difficulties about the COBURG, the capital of the above duchy, is a wellsuccession of these side-lines were decided by a built town, situated in a pleasant valley, watered by family compact, in which Coburg Proper was made the Itz, 106 m. E by N of Frankfort-on-the-Mayne, over to the house of Saxe-Coburg in exchange for and 40 m. S of Gotha. The market-place forms a the duchy of Saalfeld, which was ceded to Meiningen. handsome square, and contains the town-hall and The principality of Lichtenburg was ceded to the government-offices. The palace or castle, built in duke by the Congress of Vienna in 1816, but sold to 1549, the usual residence of the reigning prince, is a the king of Prussia. The existing arrangement has noble structure. There are 5 churches, a gymnasium united the principalities of Coburg and Gotha; the founded in 1605, an academy, a normal school, an former on the S side of the Thuringerwald, and observatory, theatre, 2 public libraries, and a cabinet within the basin of the Rhine, and including the of natural history. The residences of the better newly-acquired territories of Konigsberg and Sen- classes are distinguished by much elegance; and nenfeld, containing about 200 sq. m.; and the latter, there is no poverty or squalor, but, on the contrary, on the N side of the Thuringerwald, and within the much appearance of substantial comfort in those of basin of the Weser, containing 590 sq. m., being a the lower. Of course C. cannot compete in size with total of 790 sq. m. with a pop. in 1841 of 144,045; the capital towns of larger states; it is, in fact, a sort and in 1846 of 147,195. This pop. is chiefly of the of miniature city, in which everything is pleasing, Protestant religion; the Catholics, in 1837, amount- although on a somewhat small scale. It has its ing only to 2,238. -- Part of this state consists of historical associations too. Wallenstein besieged it fertile valleys and plains, which are productive of in vain in the Thirty years' war, and it boasts of grain, flax, hops, potatoes, carrots, aniseed, woad, fruit, being able to show the room where Luther slept and most of the other common products of Germany. while in concealment here, and the pulpit from which Other parts are hilly or mountainous, especially that he preached. Among its manufactures are those of part of Gotha which comprises a portion of the an-woollen, linen, and cotton fabrics, and porcelain. It cient Thuringian forest. The upland tracts are has 6 annual fairs, and a considerable trade in wool. either covered with pine forests, or afford good pas- The pop. is about 9,700, many of whom are employed turage for sheep. The principal minerals are iron, in marble quarries, and iron and copper works, in the copper, coal, manganese, marble, alum, gypsum, and neighbourhood. In the vicinity are the castle of chalk. The manufactures are leather, glass, wire, Callenburg, and the palace of Roseneau. From the gunpowder, soap, and paper, and particularly potash, castle a view is obtained of an immense expanse of which, with cattle, grain, wool, slates, linen thread, country on all sides. Immediately at the foot of the and woollen articles, constitute the principal exports. hill on which the fortress stands, lies the city of C., The rivers Steinach, Itz, and Rodach, are tributary embosomed in hill and woodland. In other parts of branches of the Mayne. The Werra afterwards be- the landscape are rich fertile plains stretching for comes, under the name of Weser, one of the great miles towards the horizon; and these again are rivers of Germany.--The government of this state is varied by well-wooded hills, and valleys of picturesque an hereditary constitutional monarchy. Each of the beauty. The interior of the fortress amply repays a principalities has its own elective assembly; and the visit; many parts of it are kept as they were two or

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three centuries ago. A room called the Horn room, pesa, now generally called Cochabamba, built in a is lined with oak, inlaid with different sorts of wood; beautiful but marshy valley, on a small river, in N and along the walls, at intervals, are panels formed lat. 17° 22' 33" [Angelis), 150 m. NW of La Plata. of a sort of mosaic of wood, each representing inci- COCHABAMBA, a large river of Bolivia, which dents of the chase. In another room are some fine rises in the S declivity of the Sierra-Nevada-de-C.; portraits of the heroes of the Thirty years' war, and ranning E by S, and being swelled by numerous Tilly, Wallenstein, Duke Bernard of Saxe Weimar, tributaries, assumes the name of the Rio-Grande. It Gustavus Adolphus, &c. There is also the room then sweeps round to the town of Santa-Cruz-de-lawhich Luther occupied; and his bedstead and table, Sierra, at the eastern extremity of the Sierra, whence and some other veritable relics are carefully pre- it runs NW, and after uniting with the Chaparé reserved here.

ceives the name of Mamoré. See MAMORE'. COBURG PENINSULA, an arm of land pro- COCHE, a small island of the Caribbean sea, lyjecting about 50 m. NNW from the mainland of Ning WNW and ESE, between Margarita and the Australia, between Mount- Norris bay on the NE, shore of Cumana. Its SE end is in 10° 44' N lat., and Van - Diemen's gulf on the S. Its greatest and 63° 59' W long. It was first discovered by Cobreadth is 15 m. It is joined to the main by a neck lumbus; and, with the adjacent islands of Cubagua, of land 5 m. in length, and only 2 m. in breadth. Los Testigos, and Los Trayles, constituted a valuable On the N side of this peninsula, 27 m. to the W of acquisition to Spain. At this time the coast of the Cape Croker its NE extremity, is situated Port Es- Spanish main, from Paris to Cape Vela, was named sington. See Port Essington.

Costa-de-las-Perlas; and so actively was the fishing COCA, a town of Spain, in Old Castile, in the for pearls carried on in these islands that, at the Conprov. and 25 m. NW of Segovia, partido of Santa- quest, Coche alone furnished 1,500 marks a-month; Maria-de-Nieva, at the confluence of the Eresma the yearly fifth of the king amounted to 15,000 duwith the Bottoya. Pop. 500. It contains an ancient cats; and until 1530 the fishery averaged £173,000 castle, a church, and a convent.

annually, whilst the American mines only yielded, COCA, a river of New Grenada, in the intendancy during the same period, £434,000 sterling. This proof Ecuador, formed by the junction of the Maspa ductive source of revenue had become nearly extinct and Cosanga, which take their rise in the Andes, in in 1683: the destruction of the oysters themselves the prov. of Pichincha, and which unites with the probably contributing as much to this decay as the Napo 65 m. W of Napotoa.

cutting and setting diamonds, which had become comCOCACHACRA, a village of Peru, on the road mon in the 16th cent. Till lately, the Indians of C. from Lima to Pasco by the quebrada of Matucanas, occasionally resumed this traffic, and sometimes pro12 leagues E from Lima and 3 W from San-Gerom- cured a few pearls, generally, however, of the seed mo-de-Surco, near the Rio-de-San-Mateo. It has an kind, which they sold at Cumana for 5s. a dozen. alt. of 5,386 ft. above sea-level.

When the republic of Columbia assumed the sole COCAES, a parish of Brazil, in the prov. of Mi- right of fishery on this coast, its government farmed nas-Geraes, 90 m. NNE of Villa-Rica. It contains this right to the house of Rundell and Bridge of Longold mines.

don.--The isle is of considerable height except in its COCAGNE, a harbour on the NE coast of New NW point, which is low, and from which a bank of Brunswick, in the parish of Dundas. It has a wide sand extends NW about 3 m. mouth, with 10 ft. water upon the bar at its mouth COCHECTON, a township of Sullivan co., in the at low water, and 14 ft. at high water. Its chief state of New York, U. S., i31 m. SW of Albany, export is timber. The river of the same name is bounded by the Delaware river on the W. Pop. 622.

occupied byn mills, and the scanty pop. along its COCHÉREL, Shakilet of France, in the dep. of

course are chiefly English.

COCAL, a parish of Brazil, in the prov. and 200 Eure, com. of Houlbec-Cocherel, on the r. bank of m. NNE of Goyaz, 20 m. E of Agua-Quente. It the Eure, 12 m. E of Evreux. contains gold-mines.

COCHIN— from Cacu’hi or Koch'Hi, 'a morass, COCCAGLIO, a town of Venetian Lombardy, in with the nasal termination frequently added by the the gov. of Milan, deleg. and 12 m. W of Brescia. Portuguese, –a small principality on the coast of MaPop. 1,800.

labar, between the parallels of 9° 30' and 10° 30' N, COCCONATO, a town of the Sardinian states, in and the meridians of 76 and 77°; bounded by Malathe prov. and 20 m. NNW of Asti. Pop. 3,000. bar prov. on the N; by Dindegul on the E; and by

COCHABAMBA, a department of Bolivia, com- Travancore on the S; and by the sea on the W. Its prehending the greater part of the valley of the river area amounts to about 3,000 sq. m., of which about of the same name, and the N declivity of the Sierra-one-fourth was annexed to the district of Malabar in de-Santa-Cruz. Its area has been estimated at 55,200 1791, when the raja of C. placed himself under the sq. m. The climate is mild and healthy; and the protection of Great Britain, as a safe-guard against soil produces sugar, cocoa, fruit, and grain, so abun- the aggressions of Tippu. Its eastern boundary is dantly, that the district obtained the name of the formed by the Western Gháts, and by some of their granary of Peru. Large berds of cattle are reared inferior branches, which are covered with woods simiin it; and, besides its magnificent river, it is watered lar to those of Malabar, and affording jack-wood, by numerous small streams, which flow through spa- (Artocarpus integrifolia) fit for builders and cabinetcious valleys,—that of Arqua being the most cele- makers, viti or black wood, poon, teak, and crambo brated, in which the richest estates are situated, and or iron-wood; but the timber is generally found inseveral valuable sugar farms. Of late, the inhabi- ferior to that felled in the British provs., chiefly, pertants have directed their attention to the growing of haps, on account of damage received in its being cotton, and manufacturing coarse cotton cloths called dragged to the water's edge. The teak is also said tucuyos. Salt, and a variety of other minerals, are found to be deficient in an essential oil peculiar to that in Cochabamba; and the woods produce many of the wood, and useful as a preservative of iron from rust. best dyeing drugs. One gold and several silver mines The iron-wood is little used on account of its exceswere formerly worked in this prov., and were produc- sive weight. The forests of C. may be regarded as a tive. The pop. of the dep. is estimated at 250,000. continuation of a line of forest commencing at Cape It is divided into the 6 provinces of Sacaba, Tapacari, Comorin on the S, and joining the Company's forests Arque, Palia, Clissa, and Misque.—The cap. is Oro- 1 at Eruad on the N; from 15 to 30 m. distant from the sea on one side, and on the other extending to dry season shoals in many places to 2 ft., and even to the foot of the Western Ghats. The timber felled in only 6 inches in some parts where it disembogues into the raja of C's. forests is floated down the backwater the sea at Palliport 14 m. N, and at Allepi 45 m. S to the depot at the town of C. Towards Cacadu, the of C. It empties itself into the sea by 6 mouths, of hills are covered with grass, and the soil appears good. all which the only navigable one for ships is that on In the N there are some narrow valleys in which rice the S bank of which C. is situated. The anchorage is successfully cultivated.

is 2 or 3 m. off the bar in 5 fath., and is good and Many foreigners have been naturalized in this ter- safe from September till the end of May. The flow ritory; among them the Jewish and Christian colo- of the tide is 3 ft., and, during full moon and change, nies are the most remarkable. The Jews are divided 4 ft., which gives a mid-night tide of 16 ft. Within into two classes: the Jerusalem or White Jews, and the bar, the Backwater expands into a fine esthe ancient or Black Jews. The latter are despised tuary 12 m. long, and from 3 to 6 m. wide, with by their fairer brethren as an inferior race, and bear depth for large ships. The position of C. was too so close a resemblance to the Hindus, as not to be advantageous to escape the notice of the Portuguese, easily distinguishable from them. The period at who, taking advantage of a difference between the which their ancestors were established in Malabar raja of C. and his neighbour the Zamorin, offered is not known; but their own traditions, as well as their assistance to the former, and in return obtained the jealousy of the other Jews, who are evidently a permission to build a fort near his capital in A. D. more recent colony, render it highly probable that 1503. It soon became a Aourishing place under the their religion was introduced at a very early period. protection of the Portuguese; but they were obliged Matancheri, about a mile above the town of C., is the to surrender it to the Dutch on the 7th of January, principal settlement of these Jews; but they are also 1663. It was reduced in size, and fortified by its new numerous at Tritur, Parur, Cinotta, and Maleh masters; but was even then considered as “almost a The Christians are descendants of those converted little Batavia,” being surpassed in extent and importby the Nestorian missionaries or exiles in the 5th ance by no town on the coast except Goa. It was cent. They inhabit villages peculiar to themselves, the principal Dutch settlement in the peninsula, till which are called towns of the Nasr'anes or Christians; the war with Holland in 1795, when it was occupied and their numbers, though much reduced by perse by the British troops; but it was not finally ceded to cution, are still considerable.

Great Britain till 1814. The Portuguese or Dutch The government of C. is a sort of feudal despotism, town was regularly built, and had many handsome such as prevailed in the other states into which the public edifices; but has been in a state of decadence W coast of the peninsula was divided before the in- since 1806, when orders were given to destroy all the vasion and conquest of Tippu. The raja had few fortifications and public buildings. At a small disprivileges beyond those of other nàzirs, or nobles, ex- tance SE of the Portuguese town, is Matan-Chini(m), cept the right of calling on them for military service or the Malabar town, the houses of which are built in in time of war, and collecting some trifling tolls and the Indian style. The pop. of C. is very large, and very duties. The language of the natives of C. is the Ma- poor, comprehending Mahommedans, Jews, and Chris. yalan or Maleyaïm, often called Malabar by the Euro- tians, among the latter a body of Protestants, descenpean settlers, a dialect widely diffused, and nearly dants or converts of the Dutch settlers. The trade, allied to the Támul, spoken on the opposite coast. though diminished since this place lost its political imThe Sanscrit is the language of literature and reli- portance, is still considerable. The exports are timgion. The principal towns in C. are Cochin, Diam-ber, sandal-wood, pepper, cardamoms, cassia, with the per, Cranganore, and Virapelly.

various products of the palm. Ships from Bombay The city of Cochin, whence the principality derives to England get fresh supplies here at a very low rate, its name, is no longer included within its limits. It and without sending a boat on shore. The harbour, is in N lat. 9° 56}', and E long. 76° 16' 15"; 150 m. so conveniently situated near the forests on the neighNW of Cape Comorin, on the S entrance (a a a) of a bouring mountains, affords great facility for shiplagune, called the Backwater of C., formed by a sud-building; and, in 1800, vessels were completely den inundation of the river Coch’hi, in the middle of equipped and sheathed in the docks at C., at the

rate of £14 per ton, including all charges. C. is the see of a Roman Catholic bishop, whose diocese includes Ceylon.

COCHỈN-CHINA, one of the three great political and administrative divisions of the empire of ANNAM, (see that article,) as it is called by the natives and the

Chinese, or the Cochin-Chinese empire, as it is still aut a

frequently termed by European writers. It forms the central division of the empire; and the natives call it Dang-traoing or the Central country,' in opposition to Tonquin, which they distinguish as 'the Exterior country. The name Cochin-China was introduced by the Portuguese, who, finding the country called Koe-chen or Cochin, added the word China to distinguish it from the then important port and district of Cochin in South Malabar. It is bounded on the N by Tonquin; on the E and S by the Chinese sea; on the SE by the Cambodian prov. of Saigun or Dongnai; and on the W by Cambodia and Laos.

Physical features.] Nature has divided this counthe 14th cent. This basin, which extends to the N as try, extending from about the parallel of 18° to 11° well as S of C., a distance of 170 m., from Chowghaut s, into highlands and lowlands, the former lying to in Malabar on the N, to Trivanderam the capital of the W and bordering on Cambodia, the latter stretchTravancore, within 50 m. of Cape Comorin, on the ing along the coast. The principal mountains from S, in a course nearly parallel to the sea, and with a Cape St. James to the city of Hué appear to be combreadth varying from 12 or 14 m. to 200 yards, in the posed of granite or syenite; some of the lower hills



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