« PrejšnjaNaprej »
face is estimated at 227 sq. m. Though C. is moun- , sphere; or blowing hot and sultry from the SE, arrive tainous, it is not of so rugged a character as many charged with moisture and fogs. In common with others composing the Ionian group; and its scenery the surrounding countries, C. is subject to earthis particularly sweet and enchanting. A lofty range quakes, which, however, are seldom so violent as to runs through its whole length, intersected by another occasion much damage. The shocks are said to be at the N extremity, in which occurs the highest point always from NW to SE. of the island. Mount San-Salvatore, or Pantokra- C. is scantily provided with wood; that required tora—the ancient Istone - in the NE part of the for mechanical purposes is chiefly brought from Alisland, has an alt. of 2,979 ft. above sea-level. From bania or Venice. Olives, vines, orange and lemon its summit the channel that separates C. from Epirus orchards, a few fruit-trees cultivated around the seems narrowed to a river, and the ranges of Chi- houses, and some oaks and elms, constitute the mæra and Pindus, with many intervening vales, are whole. Heaths of great size and beauty abound. visible; while to the S and SE the islands of Paxo, From the want of shelter, there is a proportional Cephalonia, and Santa-Maura, rest like distant clouds scarcity of game. Birds of passage do not resort to on the blue waters of the Ionian sea; to the NW the C. in equal numbers as to some of the other islands; coast of Italy is just visible above the horizon. This and when they do come, it is chiefly to shun the cold mountain is composed of scaglia limestone. The of Epirus. Wild swans, coots, and other aquatic N range is rocky and bare, except in some few places fowls, are abundant, owing to the numerous lagunes where the olive takes root; but the longitudinal and marshy grounds on the coast; fish is also plentirange is thickly covered to the summit with groves ful in the surrounding seas. C. has thus few indiof olive and cypress, and on the E side breaks into a genous sources to maintain a numerous pop. With succession of hills of moderate elevation, which, with the exception of goats, which appear to be a native the intervening valleys, are in some parts under cul- species, and from the milk of which a considerable tivation, and in others richly wooded. The culmi- quantity of cheese is made, all quadrupeds either for nating point in the longitudinal range is Santa- draught, for the saddle, or for subsistence, are brought Dacca, alt. 2,130 ft. The geological formation of the hither from the continent. Compared with the natuisland is nummulitic or scaglia limestone, with con- ral advantages possessed by C., neither agriculture siderable variation in the dip and strike. Many sili- nor commerce is sufficiently extended among its ceous beds occur in the limestone (Hamilton). The inhabitants. The territorial property of the island shores are bold and abrupt, particularly those which is vested in a few individuals, who, wanting capital face the Mediterranean; but on the SE side they are themselves, are obliged to obtain it at a great preflat, swampy, and considered unhealthy. There are mium, while they have an uncertain return for their only four small rivers, or rather streams, in the outlay and labour; and in some instances there is a island. One of these, the Potamo, discharges itself singular complexity and minuteness of division in into the harbour of C., about 2 m. from the citadel; the right of property, equally fatal to industry. Thus its course is sluggish, and its exhalations are sup- the land not unfrequently belongs to one person, posed to be injurious. In the low grounds, particu- while the olive-trees npon it are the property of anlarly in the vicinity of the harbour, are several other, and the right of cultivation is exercised by a marshy lakes or ponds; these were formerly more third! These old entail tenures are being gradually numerous, but of late years much has been done by done away. The surface, though susceptible of imdraining to bring them under cultivation. Among provement, is not peculiarly adapted either for the the bills are also several marshy lakes; the largest plough or the pasturage of heavy cattle. Wheat is the of which, 7 m. NW from the town of C., is about 6 grain chiefly cultivated. It is of excellent quality, and m. long by 2 m. broad. Beyond it is another of yields in the proportion of 7 to 1; but the whole more limited extent. The soil of the island is a stiff that is raised does not exceed four months' consumptenacious clay, extremely retentive of moisture; and tion of the island. In proportion as the olive-trees nearly two-thirds of its surface is covered with trees, are productive and the oil-market favourable, geneprincipally olives, so that C. may be said to abound ral agriculture is neglected in C.; but recent official with what are generally considered sources of mala- papers state that the cultivation of wheat and corn is ria. Dr. Hennen, in his Topography of that island, extending. Unlike the other Ionian islands, C. prostates that there is scarcely a sq. m. free from duces no currants. Its wealth may be said to consist them, either as they proceed from decaying vege- almost solely in its olives; and this originated in a tables, underground moisture, or the more open great measure from the encouragement long ago swamp; and that every shower of rain, if succeeded held out by the Venetians, who, while in possession by heat, at whatever season of the year, is produc- of this island, offered a specific reward for the plantative of miasmata.” Out of 153,000 acres, of which tion of each tree. Under the operation of this the island consists, 90,000 were under olives or vines bounty, C. was soon covered with olives, and their in 1833, 22,000 were used for agricultural purposes, propagation is still continued; so that, though the 7,500 for pasture, and about 33,500 were lying waste surface is comparatively destitute of woods, numerand uncultivated. — The climate may generally be ous copses everywhere appear. There are now, it is characterized as extremely variable, even more so to said, upwards of 3,000,000 of olive-trees on the island, the feelings than is indicated by the therm., though of four different species,---the mirtades, glicoglieydes, that often shows a difference of 20° of temp. in the codiglyes, and yenoglies, which last are the most comcourse of a few hours. The range on the average of mon. The second species produces two kinds of four years was from 44° to 90°; and the number of olives; those of the third, being the largest, are redays on which rain fell was 96 annually. Snow is served for salting. There are 1,080 oil-mills or rarely seen in the low grounds, and never lies, even presses; and the inhabitants are enabled to export on the mountain-tops, except for a very short period. annually 300,000 jars, each containing 33 lbs. of oil, The sudden transitions from heat to cold render it of a yellow colour and thick consistence, which iù necessary for the inhabitants constantly to defend respect of quality ranks the fourth in European comthemselves by a more than ordinary quantity of merce. The olive-tree produces fruit only once in clothing. These changes arise from the predominant two years; but circumstances are so favourable to its winds, which either passing over the gigantic moun- cultivation, that the product of oil might be here tains of Epirus on the E, on which snow rests doubled, or even tripled.-A small quantity of wine throughout six months of the year, chill the atmo- 1 is made in C. It is of a deep red colour, and very
strong. Principally from mismanagement and ne- churches, and 233 priests. Under Venetian sway, glect of the vines, the whole annual vintage does not an archbishop named by the senate was appointed exceed four months' consumption of the island, and by the pope, and, on his arrival, was received with leaves 30,000 casks of 136 lbs. each to be imported both ecclesiastical and military honours. The greater for use. The care of the vines is superseded by the part of the pop. adhere to the Greek church, at the attention bestowed on the olives; and, as if they were bead of which is a proto-papa or chief priest, chosen plants of the same nature, both are cultivated but by an assembly of the clergy and noblesse. He is once in two years. When preparing the ground for always of a noble family, and is invested with episcoolives, vines are planted as a secondary object along pal powers. A cathedral, several churches, and some with them; and when the period of greatest matu- convents both of monks and nuns, are under the rule of rity approaches, it commonly becomes necessary to the proto-papa, who receives a salary from government root them out, that the olives may be preserved. A of 100 dollars a-month. He remains five years in ofquantity of salt, sufficient for exportation, is procured fice, and then returns to the ordinary class of papas, refrom lagunes at Eftimo, Castrades, and Potamo. It taining nothing but some slight external decorations is exported to Albania, not being so fine as to render as a badge of his former greatness. The lower clergy it acceptable in Italy; and, even in Albania, it bears have a regular salary of only from 10 to 18 dollars a lower price than what is imported from other per ann., in addition to their fees on masses, marplaces. Gall-nuts and liqueurs in small quantities riages, baptisms, and burials: hence many are obare the only exports from C. All the oil is car- liged to apply themselves to manual labour. Among ried to Venice; other commodities are exported the manners of the Corfiotes we find some remarkto Leghorn, Trieste, Ancona, and Constantinople.- able instances of weakness and superstition. The The imports to C. are equivalent to at least seven festival of Saint Spiridion is particularly remarkable months' consumption of the year. The inhabitants for the display of credulous delusion which attends it. are totally dependent on other countries for all the larger quadrupeds, for a large supply of grain, and
History.) This island - the Corcyra, Drepanum, Macris, or
Scheria of the ancients --- was successively subject to the Greeks many articles of wearing apparel. Grain from the and Romans. When Italy was overrun by the barbarians, C. Morea and Romelia forms the principal import; be suffered universal pillage; and under the emperors of the East, sides which, 600 horses, 7,000 cattle, and 10,000 participated in the different contests for dominion. At a later sheep and calves, are annually brought from the period, when Charles, king of Naples, approached its shores with
the design of conquest, the evils of war were averted by the same quarter. Salt-fish is imported from England, voluntary submission of its inhabitants. But having thrown off Holland, Leghorn, and Genoa; wine from Dalmatia the Neapolitan yoke, it experienced an attack from the Genoese, or the Archipelago; woollen and cotton cloths from mately expelled. The apprehensions of the inhabitants were,
who succeeded in taking the chief towns, though they were ultiTrieste and Smyrna; Indian goods from Constanti- ; however, so much excited, that they implored the aid of the ve nople, Turkey yarns chiefly by the trade of Corfu; netians, and in doing so committed the island to their adminisnevertheless, the total balance is in favour of the tration. The Genoese returned, and were again repulsed. A island, as the value of the exports exceeds that of the famous Barbarossa had before unsuccessfully invaded the
more formidable enemy now appeared in the Turks, who under the imports by about one-tweltth. Almost the whole island. In 1716, a powerful Ottoman army, aided by a large trade is carried on in foreign bottoms; for the only train of artillery, invested the capital; but after a brave defence vessels lately belonging to C. were 2 or 3 barks of by Count Schulemburg, the commander, they were forced 10
retire with the loss of 15,000 men and 64 pieces of cannon. The above 300 tons each, and a few galliots, which visited Venetian government showed their gratitude to the count by the neighbouring islands. The island is provided erecting a white marble statue of him, with an appropriate inwith three harbours, or rather roadsteads. "That of scription, which still adorns the esplanade of the cap. The French
made themselves masters of C. towards the latter end of the last Gouin, about 2 leagues from the town of C., is the cent., and were allowed to retain it by the treaty of Campo Forbest, consisting of a bay 1 m. in diam. completely mio in 1797. The fifth article of that treaty declares that " his land-locked, and with deep water close to the shore. Majesty the Emperor, king of Hungary and Bohemin, consents Small quantities of naval stores were always kept in netian islands of the Levant, viz., Corfu, Zante, Cephalonia,
that the French republic shall possess in full sovereignty the Ve. an arsenal here in the time of the Venetians; and, Santa-Maura, Cerigo, and other islands their dependencies; as in order to facilitate communication with C., a rail. well as Butrinto L'Arta, Vonissa, and in general all the former way was constructed in the year 1790. The situation Venetian establishments in Albania, situated lower than the gulf
of Lodrino." In 1799, C. was taken by the Russians and Turks: is reputed unhealthy, from the neighbourhood of in 1890 the republic of the Seven united Ionian islands was constagnant marshes and salt-pits.--The island is di- stituted under the protection of Russia and Turkey; but by the vided into the 7 cantons of C., Liapades, Peretia, peace of Tilsit these islands were once more given up to France,
from whom Britain took them in 1809-10, with the exception of Agrafus, Spagns, Strongili, and Milichia. It sends 7 C., which was given up by the peace of Paris in 1814. Sco members to the legislative assembly, and 1 to the Ionian Republic. senate. The total pop. of the island amounted in Authorities.] Marmora, Istoria di Corfu.--Quirini Primordia 1803 to 44,526; in 1833 to 60,007, besides 9,040 Corcyror-Spon et Wheeler, Voyage tom. i. --Olirier, loyage tom.
iii. -Scrofan, Voyages tom. I. iii.--- Histoire et descrip. des iles lo. strangers, dispersed in the town of C. and in 85 vil- niennes. Paris 1823, 8vo. – Mustoxidi. Notizie per serrire alla lages containing from 150 to 2.000 each. The num
Corfu 1804, 810,----Goodison's Hist, and Topog. ber of pupils attending the primary schools in 1848 Essay. Lond. 1822-Gifford's Visit to the Morea. 1837.-- Mures
Journal, 1842.-Parl. Papers. was 1,359 boys, and 362 girls. The mass of the native pop. receive little instruction, and the educa- CORFU, the capital of the above island, and the seat tion of women, except what is slenderly bestowed in of government of the Ionian republic, is built on an the convents and government schools, is altogether irregular prom. on the E side, in N lat. 39° 37' 39". neglected. A university was founded at C. in 1823. It is protected on the land-side by a double line of The number of students attending it in 1845 was 75. gloomy fortifications which are now, however, in There are also in C. an ecclesiastical seminary for progress of demolition, it having been determined to the education of young men dedicated to the priest- restrict the defences—and flanked on the E by a hood, and a minor college. There is an extensive strong citadel built on a steep precipitous rock which printing establishment in the cap. It belongs to forms the apex of the promontory and has its summit government, but several important versions of the split into two lofty peaks, and on the W by New scriptures in the Albanian, Jewish-Spanish, and Mo- fort situated on another rocky eminence rising about dern Greek, have issued from it. The ecclesiastical | 100 ft. above the level of the sea. Opposite to the establishment is of a mixed nature, partly according town lies the small island of Vido, the ancient Ptyto the Greek, and partly according to the Roman cha, which forms and commands the harbour. It is Catholic rites. In 1829, the island contained 767 | 280 ft. in height, and about 2 m. in circumf., and
consists entirely of limestone rock with very little / m. SW of its entrance into the gulf of Tarento. Pop. soil. It is nearly destitute of vegetation. C. being 13,204. Its streets are narrow, tortuous, and dirty, the most important of all the Venetian possessions and the houses mean; but it possesses a fine castle, during several centuries, and having since been a 5 churches, several convents, an alms-house, and a subject of keen contest among the belligerent powers custom-house. It is supplied with water by means of Europe, is fortified with more than ordinary care; of an aqneduct. The environs produce oranges, olives, and even since 1824 the British government has ex- and citron in great abundance, and afford good wine. pended nearly £400,000 upon them, especially upon This town occupies the site of the ancient Sybaris.the islet of Vido, which may now be regarded as nearly Also a town in the prov. of the Terra-d'Otranto, disimpregnable. About 15,000 inhabitants — chiefly trict and 15 m. SSE of Lecce. Pop. 2,460. Greeks, Venetians, and Jews-dwell in the town, to CORINALDO, a town of the Papal states, in the whom may be added the English troops by which delegation and 25 m. W of Ancona, between the the island is garrisoned. C. contains à naval and | Misa and Cesano. It has six annual fairs. military hospital, barracks for a number of men, and CORINGA, a town of Naples, in the prov. of powder-magazines. By an accidental explosion of Calabria-Ultra, in the district and 11 m. $ of Nione of the latter, towards the earlier part of the 18th castro, and 17 m. WSW of Catanzaro. Pop. 3,000. cent., not less than 2,000 persons were killed and it suffered severely from an earthquake in 1783. In wounded; and by a similar catastrophe in 1789, 600 | the environs are mines of alum and of red-ochre. lost their lives, 4 galleys and several barks were sunk CORINGA, a town and port of Hindostan, in the in the harbour, and many houses severely damaged. presidency of Madras, and prov. of the Northern As C. was the seat of government, it contained a palace Circars, district and 34 m. ESE of Rajamundri, on for accommodating the governor - general when the a bay of the same name, at the mouth of the prinVenetians held it: this is now occupied by the univer- cipal arm of the Godaveri, in N lat. 16° 40', and E sity founded by Lord Guilford. A noble new palace long. 82° 18'. The port of C. is one of the best on was erected during the governorship of Sir Thomas the W side of the bay of Bengal, being defended from Maitland, in front of which is a spacious military es- the SW monsoon by Point Godaveri, and affording planade, occupying the flat summit of the promon- accommodation to vessels of the largest size. A mud tory between the town and the citadel. There are in bar crosses its entrance, but is penetrated by vessels the town an archiepiscopal palace, a cathedral, several without much difficulty. Craft of small size are built monasteries, and a theatre; and an excellent race- in considerable numbers at this port, -the wet-dock, course affords amusement to the amateurs of that constructed here, being the only one between Bomsport. The houses are in general very diminutive, bay and Calcutta. The trade, consisting in teak, salt, although consisting of two or three stories high; the &c., is extremely active.-C. was originally a French streets are narrow, with small arcades on each side. colony. In 1759 it fell into the hands of the English. A government steamer from Malta, after touching at An inundation, which took place in 1787, destroyed Cephalonia, Zante, and Patras, visits C. about the 7th a portion of the town, and a great number of its inand 20th of every month. The Austrian steamers habitants. between Trieste and Athens touch at C.; and there CORINNA, a township of Penobscot co., in the is a sailing-packet to Otranto once a-month.
state of Maine, U. S., 64 m. NNW of Augusta, waCORGNAC, a commune and village of France, in tered by a head-branch of Sebasticook river, and very the dep. of Dordogne, cant. of Thiviers, on the r. fertile. Pop. in 1840, 1,704. bank of the Isle. Pop. 1,268.
CORINTH, or KORINTHOS, a city of Greece, the CORGNALE, a town of Austria, in Illyria, in the cap. of a department of the same name, situated on circle of Pisino, 12 m. E of Trieste. Pop. 800. In the isthmus of C., between the gulf of Lepanto on the the vicinity is the celebrated stalactite grotto of Vilc | W, and that of Ægina on the E, in N lat. 37° 54' 15", eniza.
E long. 22° 52' 45"; 48 m. W of Athens, on the verge CORGO. See Kongo.
of a plain somewhat elevated, and at a little distance CORHAMPTON, a parish of Hants, 4 m. NE of from the S extremity of the gulf bearing its name. Bishop's Waltham. Area 2,410 acres. Pop. 181. * The present town of Corinth,” says Mr. Dodwell,
CORHUT, or CHOORHUT, a town of Hindostan, in describing its appearance in 1805, “though very thinly the prov. of Allahabad, 30 m. ESE of Rewat, on a peopled, is of considerable extent. The houses are mountain, near the l. bank of the Jone.
placed wide apart, and much space is occupied with CORIA, a town of Spain, in Estremadura, cap. of gardens. There are some fine fountains in the town, a judicial partido, in the prov. and 35 m. N of Ca- one of which is extremely curious, on account of the ceres, on a rising ground on the l. bank of the Ala- fantastic ornaments with which it has been enriched gon, which is here crossed by a handsome bridge of by the singular combinations of Turkish taste.” Tur7 arches, but the river has forsaken its ancient chan- ner, who visited it a few years later, supposed it to nel here. Pop. 1,770. This town, the Caurium of contain 1,000 Greek and 300 Turkish houses. Durthe Romans, is defended by ancient walls, and by a ing the late revolutionary struggle it was pillaged and small but strongly built fort erected in the 15th wasted by every party. Of 6 churches which it once cent. The principal buildings are the cathedral, the contained, the walls of one only were entire in 1829. churches, of which there are several, and the ducal In 1834, it presented only a waste heap of rubbish, palaces. There are also several convents. The sur- out of which arose from 40 to 50 miserable huts. Lord rounding scenery is very fine. A road leads N over Nugent found the town, in 1844, “small, but clean the Sierra-de-Gata to Ciudad-Rodrigo. Fairs are and neat, with a prosperous-looking little bazaar.” held twice a-year. The partido comprises 18 pueblos. Modern C. stands upon ground which may have been
CORIA-DEL-RIO, a town of Spain, in Andalusia, occupied by part of the suburb of Lechæum, the N in the prov. and partido and 8 m. SSW of Seville, on port. There are but few ruins at C., and of these the r. bank of the Guadalquivir.
little is known. Seven majestic Doric columns of its CORIANO, a village of the Papal states, in the ancient temple, each measuring 18 ft. at the base, legation and 35 m. SE of Forli, and 7 m. SE of and about 25 ft. high, form its most interesting relic. Rimini. It has a monthly fair.
“ The chief produce of the territory,” says Dodwell, CORIGLIANO, a town of Naples, in the prov. of “is corn, cotton, tobacco, and oil, and a better wine Calabria-Citra, district and 7 m. WNW of Rossano, than that of Athens, which the Turks quaff freely in on a hill near a small river of the same name, and 4 spite of their prophet, in order to counteract the bad