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m.; and the extreme breadth from E to W, is very | agricultural produce for local consumption as food, nearly 14 m. The cathedral crowns a slight rising 15,000 tons of agricultural produce for the use of ground. It is a plain, massive, oblong pile, totally breweries and distilleries, 1,200 tons of exciseable destitute of what is usually regarded as cathedral and shop articles not received by direct importation, character. The chapel, which is regarded as the and 82,500 tons of stone, lime, turf, &c.; and in carcathedral of the Roman Catholic dio., is situated on riage from the town, to 72,000 tons of imports, 12,600 elevated ground. The interior has three altars, is tons of the produce of breweries and distilleries, and highly ornamented, and displays great magnificence. 55,000 tons of coals, manare, &c. The exports in The Bishop's chapel, on the lower Glanmire road, is 1849, were estimated in value at £2,030,145; and the a chaste building. Father Matthews' chapel, Char- imports at £2,301,145. The number of registered lotte Quay, is an imposing editice. The island on vessels belonging, in 1849, to the port of C., incluiwhich the central division of the city stands commu- ing Youghal, Kinsale, and intermediate places, was nicates across the N branch of the Lee by three 408 of aggregately 46,985 tons. The number of resbridges, and across the branch by six.— The Roman sels in C. harbour, in that year, was outward to Catholic schoolhouse at the W verge of the central foreign ports 66 of 10,169 tons, inward from foreign division of the town, erected in 1767, formerly the ports 522 of 95,321 tons, outward coastwise 2,057 of mansion - house, is a plain substantial structure. 221,890 tons, inward coastwise 2,218 of 259,812 tons. A large butter weighhouse, recently remodelled Steam-vessels constantly ply between C. harbour and and extended, is a fine building. The Commer- Dublin, and other places, and between the city of cial Buildings are situated in the South Mall; they C. and Cove, now Queenstown. The cargoes of large belong to a numerous body of proprietors. The merchant-vessels may be unloaded at Passage, and custom-house is situated on the E point of the island, taken up to the city by railway.—The Cork and Pasand extends across that point between the two chan- sage railway, in length, construction, traffic, and renels of the river. The new corn market consists of turns, greatly resembles the Dublin and Kingstown a very commodious suite of edifices, and of a large railway. See Passage.-C. is a very ancient coradjacent open area. The City and County court- porate town, and may be regarded as probably a house, situated at the W verge of the insular divi- borough by prescription. Under the new arrangesion of the town, was till 1846 the most ornamental ment, the municipal territory includes little more and imposing of C.'s public buildings. It was com- than the de facto city of C., and is divided into 8 pleted in 1835, at the expense of £22,000. It exhi- wards, each of which returns 2 aldermen and 6 counbits a magnificent Corinthian octostyle portico, with cillors, who elect a mayor from their number. The two intercolumniations at each return. The county annual income of the corporation amounts to between gaol, situated on the S bank of the S branch of the £6,000 and £7,000. The city sends two members to river, consists of a sheriff's prison, and a separate the imperial parliament. Constituency in 1841, 4,364. house-of-correction, with a common governor, and is The Diocese.] St. Barr, Barroc, or Finbarr, but at once one of the most extensive and best conducted called by his parents Lochan, is usually regarded as establishments in Ireland. The C. lunatic asylum, the founder of the bishopric of C. In 1430, the see a new and splendid edifice on the S side of the river, became united to that of Cloyne; and now, in terms above Sunday well, is a magnificent erection, and of the Church reform bill, C., Cloyne, and Ross, are contains 207 cells and 18 sleeping rooms.--The C. in- permanently united. The dio., in a general view, stitution, founded in 1803, and incorporated by char- extends W from C. harbour to Bantry bay, and S ter in 1807, has a proprietary of about 200 members, from the river Lee to the Atlantic. Its length from and is supported by voluntary subscriptions and by E to W, is 58 Irish, or 74 English m.; its breadth is the proprietary contributions of members. The new about 13 Irish, or 16 English m.; and its area is college, an extensive and splendid building close to 600,991 acres. Pop. in 1831, 314,100. The gross the county gaol, is reckoned with justice one of the amount of the episcopal revenue, apart from that of greatest ornaments of the city, and has recently been either Ross or Cloyne, is £2,630 ls.0fd.; and the nett opened under the auspices of government. The amount, £2,313 4s. 8£d. The total of parishes in the barracks at Cork on the N side of the river are situated dio. is 90; of benefices, 62.-The Roinan Catholic on a hill, commanding a magnificent view, under dio. of C. is still unannexed to any other diocese. which the railway tunnel passes. They are exten- Its parishes are 33; its parish-clergy are 33; and its sive, and possess a spacious square for exercise; a coadjutor-clergy, including 3 chaplains, are 42. The military prison has recently been attached to them. bishop's parish is Cork. The Dyke walk is a convenient and unique public History.] In 1172, the town-then walled, and regarded as a promenade, about an English mile in length, with place of considerable strength-was surrendered by Dermod Mactrees on each side. It runs between Sunday well Carthy, Prince of Desmond, to the English; in a brief period, it

returned to the possession of the Irish. The English soon renear the new Lunatic Asylum, and that part of the acquired possession; and for generations held the place against western road on which are the county gaol and new the united forces of MacCarthy, O'Loughlin, and other Irish college buildings. Cork possesses a school of de- leaders; but they almost literally lived in a state of perpetual sign, a museum, two infirmaries-north and south, artillery, C. ceased to have the power of making any prolonged

siege. After the invention of gunpowder and the introduction of and various public charitable institutions. The resistance; its whole site being so thoroughly commanded by admanufacture of woollens and worsted stuffs as well jacent rising grounds, that no efforts of fortification could render as of leather, was, at one time, very extensive, but

it capable of long sustaining the assault of camnon. The city was has seriously decreased. Several very extensive dis- early in declaring, for the restoration of Charles II.; and it is a

singular fact that the king was proclaimed there eleven days be. tilleries and breweries exist here; other manufac- fore the proclamation was made in London. In the revolution of tures are metal - castings, iron - work, flour, malt,

1688 it supported the cause of James, and sustained a siege of

three days' duration; remarkable chiefly as having laid the foungloves, paper, cloth, and Blackpool ginghams, and

dation of the future fame and fortune of the hero of Blenheim.the numerous productions of the various departments Sir Richard Boyle, who had been made Baron Boyle of Youghal of artisanship. About 56 per cent. of all the fami- in 1616, was created Earl of C. and Viscount Dungarvon in 1620.

CORK HARBOUR, a celebrated capacious and ramitied estu. lies constituting the pop. are employed in manufac

ary and bay in the co. of Cork. The outer bay opens between ture, handicraft, or trade; 10 per cent. in agricul- Poor-head and Cork-head: looks to the SSE; has a width of G# ture; and 34 per cent. are not included in either of m. at the entrance; penetrates the land 24 m. to the commencethese categories of the working-classes.—The esti

ment of the entrance to the inner harbour, and its shore describes

nearly the segment of a circle; and, but for the middle of its W mated inland traffic of C. amounts, in carriage to the

side being intersected by the tiny estuary of the Ringabelia river, town, of 80,000 tons for exportation, 82,500 tons of the whole outor bay is an open road, with a somewhat uniform

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and comparatively bold coast. The passage from the outer to thermal and mineral springs, and for the magnifithe inner harbour commences at Roche's tower-point on the E,

cent views which it commands. in N lat. 51° 47' 33", E long. 8° 15' 14": extends in the direction of N by W; is about 2 m. long and m. broad; and has on

CORMANTINE, or AMSTERDAM, a fort of Upper both sides, but particularly on the W, somewhat bold shores. Its Guinea, on the Gold coast, in the kingdom of Fantee, N terinination is overhung on the E side by Carlisle fort, and on

10 m. ENE of Cape Coast Castle, and 90 m. ENE the W side by Carnden fort. It considerably contracts where commanded by these frowning military works; and it instantly of Cape Three Points, on a rocky hill near Great afterwards sends off the hidden bay of the Carrigaline or Anna. Cormantine. It was built by the English, and conbuoy estuary to the W, and begins at the Dog's nose promontory tinued in their power until 1663, when it was taken to lose itself in the expansion of the inner harbour. The distance by the Dutch. In 1807 it was pillaged by the due N from the tennination of the narrows to Cushkinny bay, a little E of Queenstown, is 39 m.; and the inner harbour, or the Ashantees, and soon after by the inhabitants of Cove, varies over this distance from 2 to 65 m. in width, and is Anamaboe. It has since been suffered to fall into beautifully and rather intricately varied by the projection of penin ruins.—Also a large native town, on the Gold coast sular trom its shores, and the studding of Spike, Rocky; and Mawls of Africa, near the mouth of the small river Etsin, bowline islands on the left side of its bosom. Spike island, with ita enormously expensive modern fortifications and barracks, lies and about 1 m. from the deserted fort of C. The 1 m. NNW of Carlisle fort or Dog's Nose point; Rocky island country in the vicinity is diversified with hill and with its small loop-holed turret, and its two powder magazines excavated in the solid rock, lies a $ m. WNW of Spike island; and

dale. A group of 5 hills, varying from 410 to 610 Hawlbowline island, with its naval and ordnance stores and ware.

ft. in height, on this part of the coast, and known as hous

gs NNW of Rocky island Great island, with the C. hills, forms a conspicuous object. the romantically situated Queenstown on its S shore, extends

CORMATIN, a commune of France, in the dep. of almost quite across the head or nearly widest part of the inner barbour, so as practically to terminate it, and to reduce the fur

the Saône-et-Loire, cant. of Saint-Gengoux-le-Royal, ther marine navigation to two narrow sounds along its ends. The 14 m. SW of Chalons. Pop. 766. It has a paperE sound is overlooked at the commencement of its E shore by the mill and some manufactories of tiles and bricks. v. of East Passage; it expands at the NE corner of Great island into a lagune of 1 m. or upwards in width, which receives the

CORME, or Corino, a town of Spain, in Galicia, Middleton river; it then deflects at a right angle, and proceeds in the prov. and 30 m. W of Corunna, on the E 3 m. W to Foaty island; and it finally becomes lost in a chain coast of the gulf Ria-de-Lage-y-Corme. of very narrow sounds, which zone Foaty island, Little island, and

CORME - ROYALE, a commune and town of two or three intermediate islands. The W sound, or main chan nel of the Lee, proceeds 24 m. nearly due N; it is overlooked on France, in the dep. of the Charente-Inférieure, cant. the W shore by the bustling and pretty little town of Passage, or of Saujon, 8 m. W of Suintes. Pop. 1,217. West Passage; and it terminates right in front of the S extremity CORMEILLE - EN - PARISIS, a commune of of Little island. The continuation of this sound over 24 m. bears NW; has a mean breadth of at least 1 m.; it then debouches France, in the dep. of the Seine-et-Oise, cant. of round the point of Black Rock castle, becomes contracted in Argenteuil, 10 NW of Paris. Pop. 1,194. It breadth, and proceeds W, more as the effluxion of the tide upon contains quarries of gypsum. a river than as properly an estuary, to the city of C.--From the Land's Emi to the entrance of Cork harbour, is big of France, in the dep. of the Eure, arrond. of Pont

CORMEILLES, a canton, commune, and town leagues. The best place for large ships to anchor is off the garrison, in from 8 to 5 fath. Merchant-ships may ride off Queens | Audemer. The cant. comprises 15 com.

Pop. in town in smoother water and less tide; they may go also further | 1831, 10,164; in 1841, 9,659. The town is 8 m. up the harbour of Passage, and ride any where between the first house and Ronan's point. Vessels drawing 16 or 17 it, may, with

SW of Pont-Audemer, and 34 m. WNW of Evreux. spring-tides, go up to Black Rock or to the town of Cork. Pop. 1,331. It has extensive manufactories of lea

ther, parchment, paper, linen, hosiery, &c., cotton, CORKBEG, a parish in co. Cork, 5 m. SW of and wool spinning-mills, and in the environs are Cloyne. Area 2,661 acres. Pop. 1,603.

several oil-mills. Grain, leather, and linen form its CORLAY, a canton, commune, and town of chief articles of commerce. France, in the dep. of the Côtes-du-Nord, arrond, of CORMEILLES-LE-CROC- the ancient Curmi. Loudéac. The cant. comprises 5 com. Pop. in 1831, liacaa commune and tow of France, in the dep. 7,771; in 1841, 7,405. The town is 16 m. SW of of the Oise, cant. of Crèvecaur, 21 m. NNW of ClerSt. Brieuc. Pop. 1,202. It has a considerable trade mont. Pop. 1,349. It has some manufactures of in pigs, honey, fruit, and legumes. Fairs are held woollen fabrics, and a considerable trade in grain. monthly.

CORMERY, a commune and town of France, in CORLAY (LE-HAUT), a commune of France, in the dep. of the Indre-et-Loire, cant. of Montbazon, the dep. of the Côtes-du-Nord, cant, and a little to 10 m. SE of Tours, on the l. bank of the Indre. the N of Corlay, 15 m. NW of Loudéac. Pop. 1,608. Pop. 1,015. It has an active trade in grain.

CORLEONE, a town of Sicily, 18 m. S of Paler- CORMICY, a commune and town of France, in mo, near one source of the Belici. Pop. 16,000. It the dep. of the Marne, cant. of Bourgogne, 8 m. NW is large and well-built, and contains several churches of Reims. Pop. 1,482. It contains quarries of freeand convents, a college, and some other public build- stone and extensive tile-works. ings. Agriculture forms the chief occupation of the CORMOLAIN, a commune of France, in the dep. inhabitants. In the environs is a mineral spring. of Calvados, cant. of Caumont, 10 m. SSW of BayThe district comprises 4 cant., viz. Bisacquino, Chiusa, eux. Pop. 1,002. C., and Prizzi.

CORMONSO, a town of Illyria, in the gov. of CORLETO-PERTICARA, a town of Naples, in Trieste, circle and 7 m. W of Gorizia, in a mounthe prov. of Basilicata, district and 18 m. SSE of tainous locality, near the l. bank of the Indrio. Potenza, on the brow of a hill, near the r. bank of Pop. 3,600. It is surrounded by an old wall, and is the Sauro. Pop. 3,900. The environs afford excel-defended by a fortress. Silk is extensively cultivated lent fruit and wine.

in the environs. CORMACHITI CAPE-the Crommyon promonto- CORMOR, a river of Venetian Lombardy, in the rium of the ancients--a promontory of the island of delegation of Udine, which takes its rise 2 m. N of Cyprus, on the N coast, opposite Cape Anamur in Tricesimo; runs S; and after a total course of 30 Asia Minor, in N lat. 35° 24' 40", and E long. 32° m., unites with the Stella at Palazzolo. 55' 45”: 65 m. to the SSE of the cape is a small CORMOZ, a commune of France, in the dep. of village of the same name.

the Ain, cant. of Saint-Trivier-de-Courtes, 16 m. N CORMAJOR, or CORMAYEUR, a village of Pied- of Bourg-en-Bresse, on the l. bank of the Sevron. mont, in the prov. and 15 m. WNW of Aosta, on Pop. 1,061. the l. bank of the Dora-Baltea, at the foot of Mont CORNAC, a commune of France, in the dep. of ('ormet, and 5 m. SE of Mont Blanc, at an alt. of the Lot, cant. of Brétenoux, 19 m. NNW of Figeac, 3,996 ft. above sea-level. It is celebrated for its and 27 m. NNE of Cahors. Pop. 1,506.

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CORNAGO, a town of Spain, in Old Castile, in | ning-mill, 2 manufactories of cloth, some iron-works, the prov. and 35 m. SE of Logrono, partido and 8 and quarries of freestone. m. W of Cervera, on the Linares, which is here CORNET. See SAINT-PIERRE. crossed by a bridge. Pop. 1,409. It contains an CORNETO, a town of the Papal states, in the ancient castle, a parish-church, a custom-house, and deleg. and 11 m. N of Civita-Vecchia, near the l.

Agriculture and the manufacture of bank of the Marta, 3 m. NE of the entrance of that sackcloth form the chief employments of the inha- river into the Mediterranean. Pop. 2,000. It hus bitants of the town and its environs.

an ancient cathedral, and several convents, and gives CORNAMUCKLAGH, a village in the of Kil- its name to the united bishopric of Monte-Fiascone croan, co. Galway. Pop. 128.

and Corneto. It possesses a considerable trade in CORNARD (GREAT), a parish of Suffolk, 14 m. corn and oil; and in the vicinity are the alumSE of Sudbury, bounded on the W by the Stour. mines of the Tolfa,—the richest in Italy,—and saltArea 1,610 acres. Pop. 938.

works, the annual produce of which is 4,000 quintals. CORNARD (LITTLE), a parish of Suffolk, 21 m. Near this town are the ruins of the ancient Tarquinii SE of Sudbury. Area 1,480 acres. Pop. 396. of the Romans.

CORNAREDO, a town of Venetian Lombardy, in CORNEY, a parish of Cumberland, 4 m. SE of
the delegation and 9 m. WNW of Milan. Pop. 1,300. Ravenglass. Area 3,890 acres. Pop. 273.
It was sacked by Barbarossa in 1167.

CORNFORTH, a township in the p. of Bishop's
CORNAS, a commune of France, in the dep. of Middleham, 64 m. SSE of Durham, intersected by the
Ardeche, cant. of Saint-Peray, near the r. bank of | Hartlepool Junction railway. Area 1,570 acres.
the Rhone. Pop. 1,000. It is noted for its wine. Pop. 700.

CORNAU, a town of Hanover, in the county and CORNHILL, a chapelry in the p. of Norham, co. 5 m. NE of Diepholz, on an affluent of the Hunte. of Durham, 2 m. E of Coldstream, bounded on the Pop. 296.

W by the Tweed. Area 4,430 acres. Pop. 823. CORNBROUGH, a township in the p. of Sheriff- CÓRNIA, a river of Tuscany, which takes its rise Hutton, N. R. of Yorkshire, 11 m. N of York. Area on the W side of Monte-Cerboli; runs SSW; and 920 acres. Pop. 63.

after a total course of 29 m., falls into a lake comCORNCAIRN, a village in the p. of Ordiquhill, municating with the Mediterranean 4 m. E of PiomBanffshire. Pop. 94.

bino. The basin of this river is remarkable for the CORNE', a village of France, in the dep. of the volcanic phenomena, lagunes, and mineral springs, Maine-et-Loire, cant. of Beaufort, 14 m. WSW of which are to be found in it. Baugé. Pop. 1,900. In the vicinity are quarries of CORNIER-DES-LANDES (Saint), a cominune fine slate.

of France, in the dep. of the Orne, cant. of TincheCORNEAS, a town of Spain, in Galicia, in the bray. Pop. 2,132. prov. and 26 m. SE of Lugo, partido of Santa-Maria- ČORNIGLIO, a town of Parma, in the prov. and de-Fuensagrada, near the l. bank of the Sarria. 25 m. SW of Parma, and on the river of the same

CORNEDO, a village of Venetian Lombardy, in the prov. and 11 m. NW of Vicenza, district and 3 CORNIL, a commune of France, in the dep. of m. SE of Valdagno. Pop. 1,870.

Correze, cant. and 6 m. SW of Tulle, on the l. bank CORNEGLIANO, a town of Piedmont, cap. of a of the Correze. Pop. 1,203. mandamento, in the prov. and 5 m. NW of Alba, CORNIMONT, or HORNENBERG, a commune and and 24 m. SSE of Turin. Pop. 1,816. Silk is ex- town of France, in the dep. of the Vosges, cant. of tensively cultivated in the environs. — Also a town of Saulxures, 13 m. E of Remiremont. Pop. 2,740. It the Sardinian dominions, in the prov. and 3 m. W of is noted for its cheese; and has a cotton spinning-mill. Genon, on the gulf of Genoa. Pop. 2,035. It has CORNING, a village of Painted Post township, some manufactories of white-lead and soap.

Steuben co., in the state of New York, U. S., 213 m. CORNEILLA - EN - CONFLENT, a village of WSW of Albany, on the S side of Chemung river, France, in the dep. of the Pyrenees-Orientales, cant. intersected by the New York and Erie railroad, and and 5 m. SW of Prades. Pop. 357. It has ferrugi- connected by a canal and Seneca lake with the Erie nous springs.

canal. It has also railway communication with the CORNEILLA-LA-RIVIERE, a commune of coal district of the state of Pennsylvania, by means France, in the dep. of the Pyrenees - Orientales, of which it carries on an extensive trade in lumber, cant. of Millas. Pop. 1,131. It affords excellent coal, &c. wine.

CORNISH, a township of York co, in the state of CORNEJO POINT, a headland of Bolivia, in the Maine, U. S., 76 m. SW of Augusta, bounded on the dep. and 55 m. ESE of Arequipa, on the N side of | N by Great Ossipee and Saco rivers. Its soil is Porto Ilay.

highly productive. Pop. in 1840, 1,263. — Also a CORNELLANA, a town of Spain, in Asturias, in township of Sullivan co., in the state of New Hampthe prov. and 17 m. WNW of Oviedo, partido of Bel- shire, 58 m. WNW of Concord, separated from Vermonte, on the l. bank of the Narcea.

mont on the W by the Connecticut. Pop. 1,726. CORNELLY, a parish of Cornwall, it m. W of CORNO, a river of Venetian Lombardy, in the Tregony. Area 1,480 acres. Pop. 119.

delegation of Udine, which takes its rise 5 m. SW of CORNER. See Gornou.

Palmanova, passes S Giorgio, where it becomes navi. CORNER INLET, an extensive shoal bay of the gable; and after a total course in a S direction of 11 SE coast of Australia, on the NE side of Wilson's m., unites with the Ausa in the marsh of Santo. promontory, in S lat. 38° 45', E long. 146° 30'. The Giuliano. entrance, if m. across, is open to the E.

CORNO-GIOVINE, a village of Venetian LomCORNERSBURG, a village of Trumbull co., in bardy, in the prov. of Lodi-e'-Crema, district and 3 the state of Ohio, U. S., consisting in 1840 of about m. SE of Codogno, and 19 m. SE of Lodi. Pop 30 dwellings.

1,373. CORNERSVILLE, a village of Giles co., in the CORNO (Monte), the summit of the Gran-Sasso. state of Tennessee, U. S., 61 m. S of Nashville. Pop. d'Italia, the highest point in the whole chain of the in 1840, about 60.

Apennines, ENE of Aquila, in Abruzzo-Ultra, in N CORNESSE, a commune of Belgium, in the prov. lat. 42° 27', E long. 13° 36'. It has an alt. of 9,521 of Liege, 4 m. E of Verviers. It has a woollen spin- / ft. above sea-level.

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CORNOL, a parish and village of Switzerland, in 1 feet in height. So completely have these vast inounds the cant. of Berne, 6 m. ESE of Porentruy, at the shifted their whole bulk from spot to spot, that the foot of the Reptach, or Mont Terrible. Pop. (Cath.) ruins of ancient buildings originally overwhelmed by 739. It is noted for its pottery manufactures, and has them, have again been laid bare in the rear of their considerable gypsum quarries.

line of progress. Though some of the Cornish valCORNON, a commune of France, in the dep. of leys are very fertile, and the landscape in some the Puy-de-Dôme, cant. of Pont-du-Château. Pop. quarters exceedingly romantic, still the general asin 1841, 2,607. It produces good wine.

pect of the surface is dreary and barren. CORN-PLANTER, a township of Venango co., in Rivers.] Owing to the constant moisture of the the state of Pennsylvania, U. S., 217 m. WNW of atmosphere in this co., and to the extent and consiHarrisburg. Pop. in 1840, 427.

derable height of its mountain-districts and the nuCORNSAY, a township of the p. of Lanchester, co. merous springs to which they give birth, the rivers and 8 m. WNW of Durham. Area 2,370 acres. and streams of C. are more numerous, and, in proPop. 201.

portion to the shortness of their course, larger per. CORNUAILLE (LA), a commune of France, in haps than in any other quarters of the island. Of the dep. of the Maine-et-Loire, cant. of Le Loroux- these, the principal are the Tamar, Lynher, Fowey, Béconnais. Pop. 1,363.

Camel or Alan, and Fal. The Tamar is one of the CORNUDILLA, a town of Spain, in Old Castile, largest in the W of England. It rises in a moor near in the prov. and 28 m. NE of Burgos, partido and Moorwinstow, in the NE corner of the county, and, 10 m. Ñ of Bribiesca, near the r. bank of the Oca. - receiving numerous accessions in its way, flows SSE, Also an ancient town of Catalonia, in the prov. and passing Launceston, to which it is navigable, and 25 m. NW of Tarragona, partido and 5 m. NNE of Calstock, Saltash, and Davenport, till it falls into Falcet, in a mountainous locality. Pop. 1,657. It Plymouth sound, after a course of 54 m.- The Lynhas a parish-church, and a custom-house; and pos- her rises from the Alternon hills, W of Launceston, sesses several flour-mills, and distilleries of brandy. and, flowing SSE by Callington, becomes navigable

CORNUS, a canton, commune, and town of France, in the Lynher creek, a kind of lake which it forins in the dep. of Aveyron, cant. of Sainte-Affrique. The between Trematon - castle and Anthony. It then cant. comprises 4 com. Pop. in 1831, 7,157; in 1841, empties itself into the Tamar, about 1 m. below Salt6,634. The town is 18 m. ESE of Sainte-Affrique, ash, after a course of 22 m.-The Fowey rises in an on the Borac. Pop. 1,813. It has manufactories of elevated tract between Bodmin and Launceston. It paper-makers' felts.

becomes navigable a little below Lostwithiel, and CORNVILLE, a township of Somerset co., in the afterwards expands into a wide and deep haven, state of Maine, U. S., 42 m. NE of Augusta, watered which opens into the sea about 1 m. below the town by Wessaransett river, an affluent of the Kennebec of Fowey. It is 30 m. in length.—The Camel or river. Pop. in 1840, 1,140.

Alan, has its source about 2 m. to the N of Camel. CORNWALL, a county of England, forming the ford, in the NW part of the county. After being SW extremity of the island of Great Britain, and reinforced by various tributaries, it becomes navigabounded on all sides by the sea, except on the E, ble for barges near Egloshel; and at Padstow, forms where it borders on the co. of Devon, from which it a harbour, which opens into the Bristol channel. It is separated by the river Tamar. From this boun- has a total course of 28 m., 7 of which are navigable. dary to the westward, the land continually decreases A bar of sand, thrown up by the winds and tides in breadth, and assumes a cornuted form, whence its across its mouth, renders the entrance impracticable name is supposed to have been derived. It is bound- for vessels of any considerable burden, and dangerous ed by the Bristol channel on the N; by the British even for small vessels except in fair weather and at channel on the S; and by the Irish or Atlantic sea on full tide.—The Fal is the most considerable river in the W. Four-fifths of its outline are washed by the the central part of C. It rises to the W of Roche

Its length from NE to SW at the Land's end,' rocks, and flowing by Grampound, is reinforced by has been calculated at 78 m.; its breadth from tributaries which swell into a large basin near Truro. N to S at 43 m.; its circumf. at 250 m.; and its It afterwards, with other tributaries, and after the square contents at 866,474 acres, of which about reunion of its own erratic branches, forms Carrig650,000 are arable, pasture, and meadow - land; roads, and then flows onwards to the sea at Fal. the remainder may almost be denominated waste mouth, where it forms a spacious harbour, now aclands. William of Worcester states, that between cessible for the largest steamers, at all times of the Mount's bay and the Scilly islands there had been tide, up to the inner harbour.—The Tidi, a tributary woods, meadows, and arable lands, and 140 parish of the Lynher, which flows past St. Germains; the churches, which before his time were submerged by Looe or Trelawney, which flows past the towns of the ocean. Uninterrupted tradition leaves no doubt East and West Looe into the British channel; the that a vast tract of land which stretched anciently Hel, which falls into the gulf in which the Fal opens; from the E shore of Mount's bay to the NW rock of and the Heyl, which forms the broad estuary opening Scilly has, since the age of Strabo and Solinus, been into the bay of St. Ives; are also all considerable overwhelmed by the sea. Borlase remarks, that the rivers in this co. submarine forests in this vicinity show a subsidence Harbours and fisheries.] The chief harbours or of 12 ft. on these shores; and that the ground which trading ports of C. are Padstow, Boscastle, Porbreath, has sunk must have been a marshy plain, like the St. Ives, Penzance, Truro, Looe, Fowey, Hayle, and lower lands of Gulval and Ludgvan, and adjoining Falmouth; and the exports, amounting to nearly parishes.

£1,000,000, chiefly consist in fish, tin, and copper; Physical features.] C. is intersected from E to W the imports in timber, coal, iron, hemp, and such by a ridge of rugged and bleak hills, some of which other necessaries as fishing and mining require.--are of considerable height. Brown-willey, the high- Having such a number of rivers entering the sea by est, rises 1,368 ft. above the level of the sea. Carra- deep creeks and broad estuaries, the fisheries of C. ton-hill has an alt. of 1,208 ft.; Kit-hill, of 1,067 ft.; might be expected to be extensive and profitable; Henborough or Hensbarrow-down, of 1,034 ft.; and but are less so than they might easily become. Codenborough or Cadouburrow, of 1,011 ft. On the The coasts abound with oysters, turbot, inackarel, N coast a considerable extent of surface has been in- whitings, and a great variety of other fish; one undated by sands, constituting hills several hundred species of which, the pilchard, is taken in sutti

sea.

It

cient numbers to constitute a considerable and pro- | The stock of sheep is estimated at about 200,000, ductive branch of commerce. The pilchard - fish- producing 5,900 wool-packs a-year. Goats are exery is exclusively carried on along the coasts of tensively reared; and red deer were plentiful between C. and Devon, particularly Cornwall. Its chief Launceston and Stratton when Borlase wrote, in stations are at St. Ives, on the N coast; but prin- 1758. Leland also mentions that they were found cipally on the S coast, at Looe, Polperro, Fal- in his time near St. Neot’s. Tiro or three are still mouth, Mount's bay, and Mevagissey. Dr. Borlase occasionally seen, says De la Beche; but they are states the average of 10 years' pilchard-fishing, end- now very rare. There is nothing peculiar to this ing with 1756, at 29,795 hhds. The Lysons state county, either in its plants or animals, unless it be that from 1807 to 1811 this trade almost wholly de- the pyrrhocorax, a red-billed red-legged crow, termed clined, but revived in 1811, and that afterwards great the Cornish chough. But though more common quantities were sold for manure. The average ex- here than elsewhere, it is said to be getting rare port of 3 years, ending with 1832, was 26,641 hhds.: even here. but in 1832 it amounted to 31,618 hhds. The aver- Minerals.] Cornwall is distinguished beyond all other counties age produce is 60,000,000 of fish, or 21,000 hhds. In of England, and indeed beyond most districts of the same extent 1817 the take amounted to 100,000,000. The price and otherwise barren inountains. The tin mines of this co. hare

in any quarter of the globe, by the minerad richness of its bleak averages from Is. to 1s. Od. for 126. They are largely for centuries furnished employment to thousands of its inhabicured for exportation, chiefly to Italy. The total tants. The Phænicians-if we may credit Herodotus, Strabo,

and other ancient historians and geographers-considered their capital employed in this fishery is estimated at

commerce with C. for tin to be of such importance that they £200,000 to £250,000.

anxiously concealed the situation whence that metal was obis Climate.] From its vicinity to the Atlantic, the tained. Diodorus Siculus describes the locality where this trade climate of C. is extremely damp; but except to per- Iktas, now generally admitted to be St. Michael's mount. Copper

was conducted, and which, in the Augustine era, was named sons of consumptive habits, it is highly salubrious; also was known at an early age to be a produce of this co. and the inhabitants are in general healthy, and re- was then obtained from mines more especially worked for tin: markable for longevity. While the average of deaths though now it constitutes a source of wealth far more valuable at the age of 70 and upwards for all England and phuret of copper, and the peroxide of tin, crystalline or other

and important than that of tin, Copper pyrites, or the bisulWales, in 1816, was 145 in every 1,000, the average wise, and more or less pure, are the chief ores.

The cupreous for C. was 188. It is, however, still higher in some sulphuret of tin, or tin pyrites, however, has been found, though of the other counties of England, as in Northumber

all the tin is procured from the peroxide; but the sulphuret or

copper, and the black ore, are found in sufficient quantity to be land, excluding the mining-districts, and in Cumber

of practical importance. The great metalliferous district extends land, Westmoreland, and the N of Lancashire, where from Dartmoor in Devonshire, on the E, to the Land's end, on it has been 198; and in the N. and W. Riding of the W; but the various veins containing these ores are not dis

tributed equally over this district: they are, in a great measure, Yorkshire, it has been as high as 210. The mean

arranged in groups, in still minor districts. Manganese has lien annual temp. at Penzance for 21 years was 54° 5', obtained near Calstock on the S, and near Linkinghorn on the E. being nearly 4° above that of London. The winters The neighbourhood of Callington is both stanniterous and cupriare more mild here than in any other part of the ferous; and as true silver-lodes are found in it, it may also be

terned argentiferous. The St. Austell district is principally stanisland; and severe winters do not occur more fre- niferous, the copper-lodes being chiefly contined to its SE side, quently than in cycles of 6 or 8 years. Myrtles, if including the present very productive mine of Fowey-Consuls, only sheltered from the sea-breezes, will flourish in

and the Crimnis lodes, from which much valuable copper ore has

The St. Agnes district is for the most part startthe open air all the year round; but trees unshel- niferous, particularly near the town and beacon, the principal extered, especially on the coast, can seldom withstand ception being the Great St. George and Wheal-Leisure mines the violence of the winds. The spring shows itself near Piran Porth to the E, and Wheal-Towan and some other very early in buds and blossoms, but its progress is ruth, and Camborne, is chietly enpriferous, tin ore being compa

mines on the SW. The great mining district of Gwennap, Redless rapid than in counties where it is later in appear ratively rare, except near the latter place. Silver ores were once ance. The bat is seen fluttering about in every week raised in suflicient quantities in Dolcoath mine to be profitabile, of an ordinary year. The air is tempered by the sea

and cobalt at Wheal-Sparnon near Redruth. The Breague, Ma

razion, and Guinnear district, is of a mixed stanniferous and breezes both in summer and winter; but grapes rarely cupriferous character, the Gwinnear subdivision being argentiripen in the open air, and even hazel-nuts and wal- ferous as far as regards Wheal-Herland, from which muriate of nuts seldom arrive at maturity.

silver and other silver ores were obtained in profitable quantities. Soil, produce, &c.] The soil of C. is generally dependently of the principal groups, lend occurs N of Truro, at

The St. Just and St. Ives district is principally stanniferous. Inlight, and largely intermixed with gravel. It is va- Gaitas; and at Wheal-Rose, near Newlyn, considerable quantirious, however, but may be comprehended under ties of the same ore have been obtained. In the latter vicinity

there are also other lead-mines, as well as in the country extendthree heads: the gritty and black, -the shelvy and

ing thence towards Penhale-point and New-quay. Lead-tuines slaty,--and the reddish stiff soil approximating to have also been worked at St. Merryn, St. Issey, Pentire N of St. clay. The hills and higher grounds are entirely co- Minver, and near St. Teath. Antimony is found at St. Merryn, vered with the first. Considering the nature of the Endellion, and between the latter place and St. Teath, on the x; soil and its remote situation, with the otherwise di

and near Mevagissy, and between St. Germains and Landrake,

There are mines within the co. in which copper and verted pursuits of its population, agriculture is consi- tin, cobalt and tin, &c., are simultaneously worked, and nickel, derably advanced in this co. Rather less than one- bismuth, arsenic, zinc, and antimony, are procured in more or sixth of the wheat required for the consumption of tite iron ore, and mines or quarries of soap-stone and China-store.

less abundance. There are also several fine lodes of rich hema. the co. is supplied from other sources. Besides the About 7,000 tons of the latter, and 5,000 of the former, are ammuusual grain produce, and potatoes, a few acres of ally shipped from Charlestown and Pantewan, principally for the hops are grown in the parishes of Gorran, Ruan, St. potteries. Argillaccous schistus forns the principal substratum

of the soil; but at Land's end, and some other parts, it consists Keverne, Manaccan, &c., the average produce of of granite, and elsewhere of serpentine; there is also some greenwhich, however, for 7 years previous to 1835, was stone or trap. Slates of excellent quality are abundant. In the only 1,345 lbs. Lime is largely employed as ma

rock of St. Michael's mount the white topaz is found; and some nure, as are weeds, pilchards, and sea-sand, of the importance at present in this district, but it is chietly obtained

mines atford abestos. Manganese is the metal next to copper in Jast of which there are many distinct sorts, the sand beyond the limits of the county in Devonshire, where there are of almost every different cove being different.—The numerous manganese mines. Gold is found particularly in the cattle are of various breeds. The indigenous variety the ore; but it is not abundant.

tin stream-works in the valleys, where the soil is washed from is small, coarse, and hardy; generally black, short

We return to tin and copper, the staple commodities in the horned, and thick-boned; but the prevailing breed is wealth of C. Tin is almost exclusively found in this co. only

In 1750, 18,698 blocks of a cross between this and that of Devonshire. The and in Devon: but principaliy in C.

tin, each weighing from 331 to 3 35 cwts., were produced from number of cattle exported from the co. considerably

In 1800, 16,397 blocks; average price £5 is per exceeds that imported. Cornish butter is celebrated. cwt.; and in 1838, 29,321, worth £4 ?s. per cwt. Aner being

been extracted.

on the s.

Cornish ore.

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