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lar rocks, rushing over the intermediate phate of lime, 2 pounds, 4 ounces; muspaces by steep and rough channels, in riate of lime, 1 pound, 124 ounces; and a furious and turbulent manner. The probably some muriate of magnesia and first of the falls is forty-seven feet in sulphate of soda. height, the second eleven, and the third The water is raised from the spring forty-eight; and such is the variety in by a forcing-pump, and distributed the directions of the sheets of water and through pipes and troughs to numerous the surrounding objects in that wild and manufactories, large and small, of differsecluded dell, which is shut in on both ent kinds, in the villages of Salina and sides by perpendicular banks of dark Syracuse, and a considerable tract of limestone, from one hundred to one hun- land lying between them.
In some dred and thirty feet in height, that the places are seen large buildings, in which impressions made on the mind of a the water is evaporated by artificial spectator are at once awful and pleas- heat; but the greater part is exposed, ing.
in shallow wooden vats, to the heat of SYRACUSE.—This is a large and flour- the sun, being covered by sliding roofs ishing village on the Erie canal, one when threatened by rain. A branch of hundred and thirty-three miles west of the Erie canal affords the means of easy Albany, at the junction of the Oswego transportation, and immense quantities canal. Population, 1850 22,235. of salt are annually transported to all
The great Salt-Spring, at Salina, is parts of the country. the most valuable in the Union, as it is The vats are about sixteen by seven abundant in water, very highly charged, feet, and four inches deep, and are supand the supply is taken to numerous plied with water sent from pump-houses manufactories, where the salt is extract- through hollow logs. Between the rows ed and purified by the most approved of vats, sufficient space is left for carts processes.
to pass, in which the salt is removed. The spring rises on the marshes of The salt made in this manner is coarse; Salina lake, a salt pond, six miles long that formed by artificial heat is fine. and two in breadth, whose waters are From fifteen to twenty-five boilers are impregnated to such a degree that its used, usually placed in rows, which are shores are lined with plants usually found supplied with salt water much in the only on the borders of the sea. The same manner as the vats; and heat is lake is surrounded by limestone hills, applied below, where fires are kindled containing petrifactions; and gypsum in furnaces. In some manufactories, abounds in the neighborhood. The spot steam-pipes are used for heating, and is a portion of that extensive region pass through the water. The new spring which reaches from the Atlantic to the at Salina yields water more strongly imPacific, between the latitudes of thirty- pregnated with salt than the old spring; one and forty-five degrees north, whose that is, in the proportion of fifty to sevcourse is here and there betrayed by enty. Fresh water being reckoned at 0, brine springs. In this state, such and water saturated with salt at 100, springs exist in the counties of Onon-| a cubic foot of water from the new daga, Cayuga, Seneca, Ontario, Niaga- i spring yields fourteen pounds of salt. ra, Genesee, Tompkins, Wayne, and Two mills on every bushel here are Oneida; but that of Salina is by far the to be paid to the state for pumping most valuable and productive. Accord- the water, and six cents a bushel on all ing to published statements, a bushel of the salt made. About three millions of salt may be obtained from forty-five gal bushels are manufactured annually; and lons of water; and analysis gives the the business, in all its branches, occufollowing results for forty gallons :- pies about three thousand men, in the
Weight, 355 pounds; saline matter of four villages of Syracuse, Salina, Gedall kinds, 56 pounds. Of this, muriate desburgh, and Liverpool. of soda is 51 pounds; carbonate of lime, A French colony for the Onondaga colored by oxyde of iron, 6 ounces ; sul country was planned in the year 1655, by the Jesuit Dablon, who procured at base, four feet thick. On the southern Quebec fifty soldiers, under the com- side there is a small creek, from which, mand of Lieutenant Lawson, and set by means of a wheel and shaft, power out with them the next year, to under- enough is obtained to work all the matake one of their missions at this place. chinery inside of the walls. The prison Under so powerful a guard, with the consists of two wings, and the main approbation of the Jesuit superior-gen- body of the house, which forms three eral, Francis Le Mercier, the expedition sides of a square ; the wings being two sailed
the river; but it was attacked hundred and forty feet long, and twentyby four hundred Mohawks, before they five feet deep, and the house two hunreached Montreal, who were jealous of dred and eighty feet long. It was begun the Onondagas, by whom the enterprise in the year 1816, and the cost was five was encouraged. The Indians being hundred thousand dollars.
The exrepulsed, the party proceeded; and, af- penses of the prison, in the year 1839, ter some delays and dangers, arrived at were $51,671.21, and the money that the appointed place of settlement. This was earned in the same year was $60,is supposed to have been on the borders 161.46. The prisoners number, in the of Salina lake, as mention is made of a course of a year, from six to seven hunsalt-spring. They were for a time very dred. Every sabbath they are instructkindly treated by the Onondagas, who ed in the great truths of the Bible, inhabited this region. Scarcely two and the younger portion are taught readyears, however, had elapsed, before ing, writing, and arithmetic. When strong symptoms of hostility were ex- this prison was first built, there were hibited ; several murders were commit- five hundred and fifty cells ; but lately ted, and a large army of the Six Nations a few more have been added. These was assembled.
cells are arranged in four stories, and The colonists became alarmed, and are seven feet high, seven feet long, and resolved on flight. By practising the three and a half feet wide. They are greatest caution and secresy, they suc- very well warmed, lighted, and ventilaceeded. Canoes were made with all ted, and everything fixed for the comfort haste in the house of the Jesuit, and a of the prisoners. The space between young Frenchman, who had been adopt- the cells and the outside wall is ten feet ed by the Indians, and enjoyed their full wide, and is open from the roof to the confidence, persuaded them to make a ground. The passages to the cells are great feast ; at the close of which they three feet wide, extending out from the betook themselves to sleep; and when wall in front of each cell. They being they awoke the next day, their intended constructed in this manner, perfect sivictims were not to be found. Having lence can be preserved through the launched their canoes in the night, and night, as the slightest noise or whisper taken their young countryman with is heard by the watchman on guard bethem, the colonists got such a start of low. This precaution is taken in order their enemies, that they arrived in safety to prevent any conversation during the at Montreal.
night. The same care is taken in the AUBURN.—This beautiful village, sit- daytime, for they are made to work uated on Owasco lake, is worthy of the without speaking The prison-bell rings pleasing associations connected with its soon after daybreak, which is a signal name, which Goldsmith's favorite poem for the prisoners to rise, and soon after has celebrated. Population, 9,548. the keeper unlocks the doors. The
The stateprison, located here, is quite prisoners then come out of their cells, a handsome building. It stands back each one taking his pan that is used for about eighty feet from the road, and his food, his kettle for water, and his covers, including the grounds, about tub. They then put these different twenty-five thousand square feet. The things in their respective places, and in wall that surrounds it is two thousand lockstep walk to the workshops, where feet long, thirty feet high, and, at the they work until the prison-bell rings
again, and then in the same manner go the honor of the inestimable improveto the eating-room. The tables that are ments which have been made, although used here are very narrow, to prevent he was accused of occasional practices any intercourse. In about half an hour of unnecessary severity, in the punishthey are ordered, by the ringing of the ment of offenders or suspected persons bell, to return to the workshops, and among the prisoners under his charge. here work until twelve o'clock, when Not a word is allowed to be spoken again they go and take their dinner in by the convicts while at work; and each the same way. As evening comes on, small party of laborers is attended by a the prisoners go to the place where they sentinel, at whatever employment, and left their tubs in the morning; and when every infringement of the rule of strict the word of command is given, each silence which he can observe is instanttakes his own up and proceeds to the ly reported and punished. Their cells mess or dining-room, where each one are solitary, although arranged side by takes his can of water and his pan of side in long rows, and separated only by food, and then all walk in the same single walls; and sentinels are so posted, close step to their cells. As they enter, at night, that no communication can be they pull the door to after them, and carried on between any of the prisoners. are then locked in by the turnkey, who in the largest prisons, where a thousand has two keys entirely different from any or more persons are confined, a dead others in the prison. The prisoners are silence reigns from the bour of retire. divided into companies; and each com- ment till that of breakfast. A few men pany occupies a separate gallery. The are sufficient to guard a great number, turnkeys go around through the differ- thus isolated in mind, and yet made to ent galleries in stocking-feet, to see if move and act in compact bodies. A the convicts are in bed.
plot is impossible : one man can not The stateprison at Auburn is impor- even form an acquaintance with anothtant in an historical point of view, be- er. Whenever they move, they are recause it is that in which a new system quired to march at a regular step, in of prison-discipline was commenced, single file, and close together; a difficult which has since been extensively adopt. march, which requires strict attention. ed in the large stateprisons of this coun- They often receive their food on retry, and, with various modifications, in turning from work, without stopping; France and elsewhere. It was invented for being marched through the kitchen, and first practised by Mr. Lynds, after each takes his can from a table, and carward superintendent of the Sing-Sing ries it to his cell. prison. The grand object of it is to Religious services are often held in prevent all conversation and interchange chapels connected with the prisons, and of thoughts between the convicts. In chaplains usually find many of the conall prisons previously in use, where con- victs accessible to their private instrucsiderable numbers of persons were con- tions. Each cell has a Bible, and sabfined, unless for offences of peculiar bath-schools are often kept by benevokinds, or under oppressive systems of lent people of the neighborhood. In government, numbers of prisoners were, some cases, also, as in New York city, from time immemorial
, placed in com- societies provide temporary lodgings mon halls, often in a very crowded man- and work for discharged convicts, and ner; and not only immoral conversation, otherwise interest themselves in their but the basest crimes, might be indulged welfare.
So great were the evils of that sys- The Prison-Discipline Society, which tem, that many innocent persons have was formed in Boston about twenty-five been ruined by their contact with felons years ago, early recommended the prinof the worst character, while awaiting ciples on which the Auburn prison was trial. The expense of keeping and conducted, and greatly contributed to guarding men in such circumstances was their general adoption in the United very great; and to Mr. Lynds belongs States and foreign countries.
GENEVA.—This place is conspicuous The Geneva College was one of the among the lake villages for the beauty earliest institutions which adria of its appearance from the water. It plan of studies adapted to young 1:8 stands at the outlet of the lake of the preparing for other professions in same name, upon the western bank ; those usually termed *“ learned ;" and, and the houses of some of the more like several others since established in wealthy inhabitants occupy the summit different places, affords instruction in of the higher ground, which rises one practical branches to such students as hundred and twenty feet, just behind the prefer to pursue them. The buildings busiest streets, and descends with a hasty occupy a remarkably fine, agreeable, but graceful slope to the water, adorned and commanding situation, on the ele by the gardens, green with useful plants, vated shore of the lake, near the southand gay with blooming flowers. The ern extremity of Main street. surrounding country presents that gen- This college, incorporated in 1825, tly-varied surface peculiar to this part has professors of mathematics, natural of New York, where, for many miles, philosophy, Latin and Greek, statistics the ground has the appearance of hav- and civil engineering, modern languages, ing been channelled from north to south. history and belles-lettres, chymistry and The lowest depressions are occupied by mineralogy. There is also a medical several of the small lakes, while the department, commonly called heights of the intermediate ridges com- The Medical College of Geneva.—The mand extcasive and pleasing views over building belongs to the medical departthe gently-undulated country between. ment of the college, which is under the
The settlement of Geneva was begun direction of four professors. The inin the year 1794, by Mr. Austin and Mr. habitants of this beautiful town have Barton ; and the act of incorporation distinguished themselves by their liberwas passed in 1812. The number of ality in providing and supporting instidwellings is about five hundred; and tutions of the most valuable character; there are nine churches, a bank, &c. and few places of equal size can be found