Slike strani

officer and sincere friend were honora-southern extremity, is now the most bly interred, this stone has been erected populous, as well as the most important, by his affectionate sister-in-law, Mary on the western continent, and vies, in Downie.'

commercial rank, with many of the prin* " The family of Dr. Davidson were cipal ones of the old world. It now ocresidents of Plattsburgh at this time; cupies the whole of Manhattan island, and Mrs. Davidson, in a work of hers being conterminous with the county of called . Selections,' has given an inter- New York. Its limits, therefore, extend esting sketch of events that occurred in to the narrow channel between the Hudher own family during the scene of son and East rivers, called Harlem river; those eventful days.

a distance of 14} miles, with a breadth After some months, the vessels were varying up to two miles, and an area of taken to the head of the lake, at White- 21 square miles. The southern porhall

. Circumstances of travelling just tion, forming about one sixth of the at that time gave me an opportunity, in whole, is occupied by the main body of the impressible season of childhood, to the population, amounting, in 1840, to see from the tall masts the British and 312,710, and in 1850 to 515,547. The American flags floating lazily in the number of buildings, in 1850, in the cornbreeze, the conquered lion' looking pact part of the city, was 37,730 ; the just as fierce and terrible as if he had valuation of real estate, $227,000,000, not been a captive among Americans. and of personal estate, $93,000,000. We were invited on board, and saw the The harbor is very capacious, with mutilated ships of war. They were good anchorage for the largest ships, making preparations to sink them in almost wholly free from shoals, and with the lake, which was afterward done, for currents strong enough to keep it usupreservation, and the soldiers were ally free from ice in the winter, even rolling cannon-balls into their holds, as when more southern ports are obstructweights.

ed. Governor's and Bedlow's islands “Commodore M‘Donough was pres- are strongly fortified; and the entrance ent—a man of middle stature; but there to the lower bay is defended by Fort was nothing in his looks or manner which Hamilton, on Long island, Fort Lafayindicated aught of the exciting scenes ette, on a rock in the water, and battethrough which he had passed. It is said ries on Staten island, opposite. The of him that, after the enemy's fleet hove Hudson river opens a natural navigable in sight, the men of his ship were as- channel of 150 miles to Albany, and sembled on the quarter-deck, when he with the various canals and railroads kneeled down, and, in humble and fer- heretofore mentioned; while the East vent prayer, commended himself, his river communicates with Long Island men, and the cause in which they were sound, which pours much trade into this engaged, to the God of battles,' and city. Lines of the most capacious and arose from that posture with a calmness splendid steamboats lead daily, and aland serenity on his brow which showed most hourly, in all directions; and new that he had received comfort and assu- channels of communication are now in rance from above.

preparation, which will still further fa" The dead of both armies were taken cilitate and extend the great commerto the small islands near the scene of cial relations of New York. action, and there buried. Those waters The streets in the lower and oldest now look as blue and as beautiful as if part of the city are generally narrow and never disturbed with war; and those crooked; but in the upper portion, to islands are as green and verdant as if which many of the inhabitants have never broken with new-made graves." changed their residences within a few

New York City.—The site of this years, they are straight, broad, well city, which was first occupied by Euro- built, and more agreeable. peans in 1614, or 1615, and then only The number of churches is 245. Of by the erection of a blockhouse near its these there are--baptist, 31 ; congrega



tional, 9; Dutch reformed, 17; friends, and dining-rooms, with apartments for 4; Jewish, 11; Lutheran, 5; methodist recitation, the family of the superintendepiscopal, 31 ; methodist protestant, 2; ent, and the eight instructors, the kitchpresbyterian, 35; associate presbyterian, en, &c. The system of instruction re4; associate reformed presbyterian, 2; sembles that practised in the other deaf reformed presbyterian, 4; protestant and dumb asylums in the United States, episcopal, 47; Roman catholic, 21; uni- being founded on the principles of the tarian, 2; universalist, 4; Welsh, 3; Abbé De l’Epée and the Abbé Sicard, miscellaneous, 16.

introduced into this country by Mr. Gal. There are about forty banks, exclu- laudet, at the expense of the American sive of eleven for savings. There are asylum at Hartford, about the year 1815. asylums for lunatics, at Bloomingdale; The Institution for the Education of colored, indigent, and aged, at 42d street; the Blind, is erected on land presented deaf and dumb, 50th street ; blind, 9th by James Boorman, Esq., at the expense avenue; orphans, 117th street, and 71st of the state, aided by a gift of fifteen street, 6th avenue, Prince street, 11th thousand dollars from Mr. Burke, and street, and colored orphans, 12th street; other donations. The building faces the lying-in women, Marion street; old la- Hudson river, at a short distance from dies, 20th street.

the bank, and contains lodgings for a Schools.- Ward schools, 19; primary, large number of pupils, most of whom 3; schools of the Public School Society, are supported by the state. They are 18, and primary, 59. Both the ward taught the common branches of learnand the public schools are free to chil. ing, with vocal and instrumental music, dren of all classes, and wholly gratui- and several useful handicrafts best adapttous, even to the books used by the chiled to their abilities, chiefly the manudren. The latter were commenced about facture of baskets, rugs, bandboxes, and thirty years ago, through the exertions carpets. of a few benevolent individuals, at a The Croton Aqueduct.The city of time when public education was neg. New York is abundantly supplied with lected; and, under the charge of a very pure and wholesome water, by a work faithful and intelligent board of trustees, of greater length than any other in the and superintended by Mr. Seton, a de- country, and at a greater expense. The voted friend of the poor and ignorant, supply is derived from the Croton river, they rose to a high eminence, under the in Westchester county, at a point about liberal patronage of the state.

forty miles from the city. That stream The eighteen schoolhouses of this so- is dammed, and is capable of affording ciety, above-mentioned, are fine brick a much greater quantity than can be buildings, usually about eighty by forty needed in a long course of years. The feet, and two or three stories high, able aqueduct passes most of the way under to contain from five to twelve hundred ground, through a pipe of masonwork, children each. The monitorial system constructed in the most skilful manner, is practised.

but crosses several streams, the broad. The ward schools have since been est of which is Harlem river. The established, in which that system is not bridge thrown across is one of the most used. The trustees and other officers important constructions on the line. It are chosen annually by the people, and is 1,450 feet long, with fifteen archestheir schools are multiplying:

eight of them eighty feet span, and sevThe Institution for the Education of en of fifty feet span, 114 feet above tidethe Deaf and Dumb.-This institution is water at the top. situated near 33d street and 4th avenue. The receiving reservoir is at 86th The building is 110 by 60 feet, and con- street, about five and a half miles from tains about two hundred pupils, from all the city-hall. It covers thirty-five acres, parts of the state, many of whom are and contains one hundred and fifty millsupported and instructed at the public ions of gallons. There the water is reexpense. The building affords sleepingceived, and allowed to stand long enough

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to deposite the particles of sand and close of the war, was occupied by Genclay it has brought down, and then it is eral Washington. The Atlantic, and drawr off into the second or distributing several other hotels, stand opposite or reservoir.

near this favorite square. This reservoir is situated at 42d street, The Park.-This is the most central on the height of ground about three and important of the public squares, at miles from the city-hall. It is an im- the junction of two grand avenues of mense structure of hewn stone, resem- the city, Broadway and Chatham street, bling a modern fortress of the first class, containing the city-hall, the new citycovering four acres, and capable of hall, and the hall of records, and is containing twenty millions of gallons. surrounded by many other important From this iron pipes lead off, gradually edifices, such as the Astor house, Tambranching in different directions, with many hall, Stewart's store, museum, &c. stops, hydrants, &c.

It contains, also, a public fountain, withMany houses are now supplied with in a basin about one hundred feet in this excellent water, not merely for cu diameter, which has a variety of jets, linary purposes and drinking, but also that are occasionally changed. When for bathing, &c. There is also reserved the water is thrown in a single stream, a supply for the extinguishment of fires, it ascends to the height of seventy feet, of inestimable value to the city, which presenting a majestic appearance." has heretofore suffered most severely for

St. John's Park, in the western part the want of it.

of the city, is private, being accessible Several of the public squares are only to the inhabitants of the surroundadorned with beautiful fountains, some ing houses. It is closely planted with of which throw the water nearly a hun. trees, and has St. John's church fronting dred feet perpendicularly, not, as at it on the east. Versailles, after being raised by ma- Washington Square, between 4th and chinery, but by the force of the natural 6th streets, just west of Broadway, lies head.

in front of the university, and one of the Public Squares.-- The Battery, named reformed Dutch churches. from the use made of it in early times, Union Place, at the northern termiis a fine public walk on the southern nation of Broadway, is in an elliptical extremity of the island, shaded with form, enclosed with a fine iron fence, trees, and commanding a delightful view having a public fountain in the centre, upon the bay. Being exposed to the with ornamental jets, and is a delightful sea-breezes, and in full view of the nu-i place of resort to the inhabitants. merons boats and vessels of all descrip- Further up the city are other public tions, continually passing, the Battery is squares, as Madison Square, Hamilton a favorite resort in warm weather. square, and others, not yet regulated. Castle-Garden is a place of amusement, On the east are Tompkins square and formed in an old fort, connected with Bellevue, the latter the seat of the almnsthe Battery by a short bridge, near which house. floating-baths are moored in the bathing Wall Street, the central point of int

banks, insurance offices, &c, contains The Bowling-Green, just north of the the exchange and the cast me. The Battery, is a small circular green, sur exchange is of Quincy granite, thrre st.) rounded with an iron railing, shader ries high, and a basement, covering a with lofty trees, and ornamented with a block between four streets, and is 1971 beautiful fountain, where a stream of feet 7 inches on Wall street, 144 on one Croton water is thrown about ninety side, and 170 on the other, with a lar se feet into the air, and falls upon a beau- dome above, 100 feet high. tiful structure of marble, and thence The customhouse, at the corner of into a basin. The Washington, 1 Broad. Nassau street, is of white marble fr::in way, was the headquarters of Lord Sing-Sing, and in the form of a Grecian Howe, in the Revolution, and, after the temple, with a colonnade at each eui,


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