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Newark, the most populous town in able for manufacturing by water-power. the state, is situated on a fine, level tract The stream makes a perpendicular deof ground, on the west side of Passaic scent of seventy feet over a precipice, river, nine miles west from New York, in a sheet of foam, which is partly conand forty-nine northeast from Trenton. cealed by a projecting rock. A deep Vessels of one hundred tons come up to sluice, cut through the hard bank, draws the wharves; the New Jersey railroad off the water for the numerous manufacpasses through the town, on the way from tories below, so that the river is left alNew York to Philadelphia; and here is most dry in the summer-season. the commencement of the Morris and The town contains two banks, a phiEssex railroad. The Morris canal pass-losophical society, with a library, an es through the place, which opens a chan- academy, fourteen churches, and twenty nel of transportation between New York two thousand inhabitants. It was choand the Delaware river.

sen for the site of a great cotton manuThe principal streets are wide, well facturing place by Alexander Hamilton, built, and shaded with trees. Two large who, with his associates, were incorporasquares, in the middle of the town, add ted, in 1791, with a capital of a million much to its beauty. It contains three of dollars. The early period at which banks, a courthouse, twenty-five church- their design was formed testifies to their es, an apprentices' and a circulating li- intelligence and foresight, as the invenbrary, a mechanics' association, and, in tions of Arkwright were almost un1850, 38,885 inhabitants. The coast- known in the United States. A board ing-trade is considerable, and a whaling of directors was appointed, consisting and sealing company was incorporated of William Duer, John Dewhurst, Benin 1833. Manufactures of several kinds jamin Walker, Nicholas Low, Royal are carried on to a great extent, espe- Flint, Elisha Boudinot, John Bayard, cially in leather, carriages, &c.

John Neilson, Archibald Mercer, ThomNewark was first settled by a colony as Lowring, George Lewis, More Furfrom Connecticut, in May, 1666, in com- man, and Archibald M'Comb; and Wilpliance with the “concessions” sent to liam Duer was made the principal officer. New England by Lord Carteret. Cap. In 1792, when this spot was selected, tain Robert Treat, John Curtis, Jasper there were not more than ten houses in Crane, and John Treat, having been sent the place, which was named in honor from-Guilford, Branford, and Milton, in of Governor William Paterson. Major that state, and made a favorable report, L'Enfan was appointed engineer, and especially in favor of this place, they began to cut the race on a scale unnewere sent again, and laid out the town, cessary large and expensive, and resignwith the main streets and squares. Thir- ed in a short time. He was succeeded ty families, from those towns and New by Mr. Colt, who adopted a more eco Haven, at length arrived; but the Hack- nomical plan; and the first factory was ensack Indians refused to let them land, completed in 1794. It was ninety by until they had satisfied their demands. forty feet, and four stories high ; and They soon made a purchase, to the sat- yarn was spun in it that year by water. isfaction of the wild men, giving them The year preceding, the operation had one hundred and thirty pounds New been performed by ox-power. In 1794, England currency, twelve Indian blan- calico-printing was done, on unbleached kets, and twelve guns, for a tract of land muslins purchased in New York. The now including the townships of Spring- society at the same time directed the field, Livingston, Orange, Caldwell, and superintendent to plant mulberry-trees; Bloomfield.

and, at the proposal of Mr. Colt, a teachPATERSON. This town, thirteen miles er was employed to instruct the worknorth of Newark, and seventeen north- children gratuitously on the sabbath. west of New York, is situated at the This was, no doubt, the first sabbathfalls of the Passaic, at a spot abounding school in the state, if not in the Union. in romantic scenes, and peculiarly favor- It differed, however, from our common

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sabbath-schools, in being taught by a Washington once visited the Rev. Dr. hired teacher. In 1796, in consequence Jones, pastor of the presbyterian church of losses of money sent to England for in that place, to inquire whether Chrismachinery, the misconduct and igno tians of other denominations might be rance of foreign workmen, and the nov. admitted to partake of the communion elty of the undertaking, the company at the semi-annual celebration of it by failed; and the building was leased, and his people, which he had understood was used for spinning candlewick and yarn, approaching. The reply was : “ Most until it was burnt, in 1807. In 1814, certainly; ours is not the presbyterian's Mr. Roswell L. Colt, son of the gentle table, general, but the Lord's." The man above-named, purchased the shares general replied: “I am glad of it; that and revived the company; and the place is as it ought to be. I propose to join has long been one of the most flourishing with you on that occasion, though a memmanufacturing towns in this country, ber of the church of England." though it suffered a great and unavoida- The Source of the Passaic.-The picble interruption after the war of 1812. turesque scene represented in the aeThe supply of water is very valuable, companying engraving, is at the head and has been enlarged by a dam, four and of the principal stream of New Jersey, a half feet high, erected on the top of the on whose banks are situated some of the fall; and the water is distributed by most important towns mentioned in the three short canals, at different elevations. preceiling pages, and whose waters form The Passaic is navigable for sloops; and the picturesque cascade, and turn the it not only has good common roads, bat busy wheels of Paterson. the Morris canal, and a railroad to Jer- The Passaic rises in Somerset and

Morris counties, and makes a remarkaMorristown. This is the capital of ble bend round the county of Essex, so Morris county, and stands on a fine, ele- as to form almost its entire western, vated plain, in the midst of a varied and northern, and eastern boundaries. It picturesque region. It is distant fifty has several tributaries, the principal of miles from Trenton, nineteen from New- which are the Pompton and the Rockaark, and twenty-six from New York. way. The former is formed by the conThe streets are wide, straight, and laid Muence of the Pequannock and the Ramout at right-angles; and in the centre of apo, which rise in New York. Most of the town is a large square, surrounded the regions watered by the Passaic and by neat dwellings, and several churches its branches are rough and wild, aboandand other public buildings. A large and wg in mines, and in forests, which supsplendid hotel here, erected by Mr. Giv- ply fuel for reducing them. The failure ens, was accidentally burnt in 1846. An of the latter, however, has been the aqueduct, about a mile in length, supplies chief cause of the abandonment of some the village with water; and there are of the mines. several manufactories at Speed well, on Standing at the source of the Passaic, a small stream. The Morris and Essex amid the romantic and solitary scenery railroad, extending hence to Newark, which surrounds him, a spectator may was finished in 1838, and affords impor- reflect with interest on the peculiarities tant advantages to the town.

of the country through which it flows, Washington retreated to this spot, in and the various useful ends to which its 1777, after the battle of Princeton. His waters are applied, during its short but headquarters are still pointed out, as well varied course. It is not in vain that it as different points connected with inter- has its head at so considerable an eleva esting associations of that important sion above the ocean. In its short, but period. Several important events, and busy career, it performs an immense many interesting incidents, occurred in amount of labor, in turning wheels which the two seasons when Morristown was move a variety of machinery, whose prodthe residence of Washington. Hosack, ucts are so valuable as to add materially in his “Life of Clinton," mentions that I to the wealth of the state.

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This state, one of the largest of the original thirteen, lies between New York and Virginia, two of the other most extensive of that number, with Ohio on the west, the most populous and flourishing of the younger members of the Union ; while its eastern boundary divides it from New Jersey, and it adjoins Maryland for a short distance on the southeast. Lake Erie touches it on the northwest. The Allegany ranges divide it into two parts:

forming three distinct, though unequal sections, counting the mountainous part as the central one. These mountains deriate considerably from their general line in the interior of Pennsylvania. They cross the boundary of Virginia with a course nearly northeast, soon incline northeasterly, and at length run for some distance eastwardly; then stretching again more northwardly, cross the New York line in the usual course, northeast. The most easterly ridge enters the state in York county, and is cut through by the Susquehannan, a river which, instead of conforming its direction to that of the mountains, crosses the entire range nearly at right-angles.

The Delaware river, which forms the whole eastern boundary, rises in the state of New York. A system of canals forms an important line of navigation for boats and arks from the Lehigh river to Philadelphia, by which the productive coal-mines at Mauch-Chunk seud thousands of tons to that city. The Delaware communicates, also, at different points, with the Delaware and Hudson canal, the Morris canal, and the Delaware and Chesapeake canal, and, through the Schuylkill, by the improved navigation of that river, and the great Western canal line, to the Ohio. At the same time, the numerous and long lines of railroads, crossing the country in different directions, meet the Delaware at Philadelphia; while

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