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the navigation of that noble stream by often been declared to be destitute. A steamboats, coasting and foreign vessels, characteristic anecdote is told, by tradiadds another very important branch to tion, of the sagacity and Christian liberthe extensive commerce of the state. ality of William Penn, which forcibly

The Susquehannah, though flowing illustrates the truth, that the way which through regions abounding in various is right is usually that which is most products, is naturally so much broken profitable in the end. The Indians once by the irregularity of the surface, that it came to him with a complaint that they was navigable only for boats, and at had been under some misapprehension great risk; and, at the same time, the in the terms of a bargain they had made more important agricultural portion of with the white men, who had purchased the state, west of the mountains, offered of them a large tract of land. The colstrong inducements to the opening of a onists at the same time represented that channel of communication between it the bargain, though hard for the Indians, and the commercial capital. The ex- was a fair one, and that they were ready ample of New York encouraged the un- to fight for it. Penn, however, in condertaking; and Pennsylvania embarked sistency with the principles of the gosmore extensively than any other state in pel, which be professed, inquired of the the construction of canals. Immense Indians how much more they considered labors were performed. Railroads were the land worth than they were to rein some places connected with them. ceive; and, on being informed, made But the first results proved unfavorable, such an addition of the articles used in and a general depression for a time suc- trade as fully satisfied them, though receeded, so great that the legislature at ally of trifling value, and thus not only length resorted to a temporary suspen- prevented immediate bloodshed, and sion of payment; but arrears are now other evils attendant on war, but conpaid, and prospects improving. firmed the grateful wildmen in their pa

Tue History of the settlement of cific spirit and friendly attachment to the Pennsylvania, and the early years of its colonists, most favorable to the permacolonial existence, have ever been re- nency of a good understanding and free garded with peculiar interest, on account trade for the future. of the professions and character of the The relations between Pennsylvania people, and especially their founder. and Connecticut were disturbed for a The carliest European colony was plant- number of years, after the settlement of ed in this state by Swedes, in 1627, or a colony from the latter in the valley of 1628, and conquered by the Dutch, from Wyoming, which was claimed under the New York, in 1655. But the English patent of King Charles, as it lay in her having taken possession, in 1681, Wil territory, as marked out by the two liam Penn obtained a grant of land on parallels extending to the South sea. the Delaware, landed at New Castle, The encroachments of the French in and entered upon the government of the west, on the Ohio river, threatened about 3,000 inhabitants-Swedes, Eng- Pennsylvania, as well as Virginia ; but, lish, Dutch, and Finlanders.

until the Revolutionary war, her inland A place called by the Indians Coa- position, and the obstacles presented by quanock, was chosen for the site of a her mountains, contributed to secure city, and named Philadelphia, a name her from most of the trials through which corresponding with the pacific principles many of the other colonies had to pass, of the society of Friends, of which Penn in the early stages of their history. was so distinguished a member. By his Having no internal enemies, in consemild, just, and humane treatment of the quence of the just and pacific policy Indians, he set an example worthy of pursued by Penn, khe had litte to disimitation, and

poor savages, so turb the peaceful lives of her inbabit. often misunderstood, abused, and mis- ants, until the Revolutionary war inrepresented, opportunities to display some volved her in a full share of the public of the virtues of which they have too sufferings and losses. Her capital, after

gave the

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serving as the seat of government, sub- , were established in Philadelphia in her sequently to the capture of New York, colonial days, chiefly by the labors and was threatened by the enemy, in 1778. A example of Dr. Franklin, who for a long strong expedition having been sent from time exercised a great influence on the New York to the Delaware, succeeded country, and whose fame is universal. in maintaining itself in Pennsylvania for Massachusetts, however, lays a claim to a time: after several battles, Washington a considerable share of the honor of his retreating to Valley Forge. The ene- character and life, as he was a native of my were, however, ere long, compelled Boston, and there received his apprento retreat, and evacuate the country on ticeship in the art which had so strong the west of the bay and river.

an influence in directing his practical The "whiskey rebellion," which broke course in life. out in a part of the state, soon after Printing was introduced into the the restoration of peace, kept the coun- bounds of the present state of Pennsyltry for a time in a state of alarm; but, vania, in 1687, when the first sheet, an after its suppression, Pennsylvania soon almanac, was published by William began to share with other members of Bradford. The first newspaper issued, the Union, in the career of prosperity was “ The American Weekly Mercury," which has so greatly distinguished our a half-sheet of “post-paper," by Andrew country, and has been one of the most Bradford, dated Dec. 22, 1719. There remarkable of the states for the extent was at that time only one other in the and success of its manufactures. Her colonies, viz., at Boston. The second iron-mines and manufactories, with her was commenced in 1728, and passed, in coal-mines, are the grand sources of her a few months, into the hands of Benjawealth, although her commerce is con- min Franklin. It existed more than a siderable.

century. Several others were published Coal-Mines.— Among the natural in the middle and latter part of the last productions of the state of Pennsylvania, century; and the first German paper those of the coal-mines take the most appeared at Germantown, in 1739. important place. On both sides of the There were not fewer than six magaAlleganies lie extensive and apparently zines before the Revolution. "The inexhaustible beds of excellent coal, ma- American Daily Advertiser" was the first ny of which are on the immediate banks, daily paper in America, and commenced or near to the sources of streams, which its daily appearance in 1784. “ The have been rendered navigable where the Pittsburgh Gazette," the first newspaper aid of art and science have been required; in the western part of the state, began and the immense and increasing sup- about 1786. “An imperfect list of the plies, annually transported, subserve the periodical journals” published in the convenience and comfort of millions of state, between the close of the Revolupeople, not in this territory alone, but tionary war and 1828, given in the Amerin half the states of the Union. Nu-ican Almanac for 1835, names thirty-six. merous steamboats and railroad-cars, as The number has since greatly increased, well as manufactories of different kinds, in every department. borrow their motive-power from these State-GoverNMENT.-The governor mines; while almost entire towns and is chosen by the people for three years, cities derive from them their vast sup- but cannot hold the office over six years plies of fuel.

in nine. He must be thirty years of

age, The coals of Pennsylvania are of two and have resided in the state for seven kinds; and it is remarkable that, while years. The senate consists of thirtythat on the eastern side of the Allega- three members, elected by the people nies is authracite, that on the west is for three years, one third being chosen bituminous. The latter has rendered annually. A member must be twentyPittsburgh the Birmingham of America. five years of age, and have resided four

LITERARY INSTITUTIONS, &c.-Liter- years in the state, and the last year in ary publications and scientific institutions the district in which he is chosen. The

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one years

house of representatives consists of one abilities of the machinery employed in hundred members, elected annually by mining and transporting, that the prosthe people. A member must be twenty- pects of the business are almost too great


have resided in the to be mentioned. Professor Bakewell state three years next preceding his remarks, that the proximity of coal-: election, and the last year in the district mines and beds of iron ore afford strong, for which he is chosen.

evidence of the provision made by the All judicial officers are elected by Almighty for the benefit of man. Pennthe people at the regular state election. sylvania, says the Merchants' Magazine, The judges of the supreme court hold is the only state which has direct access, their offices for fifteen years; those of by water, at once to the ocean, the lakes, the court of common pleas hold theirs and the Mississippi : we perceive that for ten years; and 'the associate judges her position justifies high anticipations of the court of common pleas hold theirs of her future wealth and prosperity. for five years. The secretary of state The real estate of Pennsylvania, accordis appointed by the governor, and holds ing to the same work, was estimated, in office during his pleasure. The treas- 1846, on the best data, at one thousand urer is elected annually by the joint four hundred millions of dollars, and ballot of boih houses of the legislature. the personal property at seven hundred The legislature meets annually at Har- millions ; making an aggregate of two risburgh on the first Tuesday in January. thousand one hundred millions, or more

The Merchants' Magazine, just quo- than three times that of New York. ted, well describes Pennsylvania in the Such an estimate must surprise almost following figurative language :

every one; but, to sustain it, the writer “She is, indeed, the keystone state. gives the following statements : "Each While one arm rests on the Atlantic, of the three vast beds of anthracite coal, she lays the other on the Ohio, and her in this state, are about five miles in hand plays with the waters of the lake. breadth, and sixty-five in length, with Within her hills is stowed the fuel of an area of 325 square miles, or 208,000 ages; and iron, the world's civilizer, to acres; that is, in all, 975 square miles, bind the continent, and insure the sta- or 624,000 acres. If the supply of coal bility of this great government; Erie, from anthracite mines, for 1847, is estiher outlet on the lake, Pittsburgh, the mated at 2,800,000 tons, at four dollars head of the eastern branch of the mighty per ton, which is the average price at valley, and Philadelphia, not only the tide-water, we have an amount of eleven beautiful city of the plain, but destined millions two hundred thousand dollars. to be the leading city of the north, a city Most of the mines are owned by citiworthy so great a state. In her present zens; and the balance of trade with competition, her rivals are east. The other cities is constantly in favor of mass of productions of the forest, agri- Philadelphia." culture, and the mines, are derived from It is amusing to record some of the Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and anecdotes related of the coal-trade in its the ascending trade of the Mississippi early days. Mr. Charles Miner, of valley.”.

Wilkesbarre, and Mr. Cist, sent off the The coal-mines of England, it has first ark-load of coal from Mauch Chunk, been remarked by the president of the on the 9th of August, 1814. The boat British Statistical society, have yielded soon ran against a rock, which broke a more profits than were ever derived from hole in it. The men prevented the leak the gold-mines of Peru; but, without from sinking it, by taking off their coats the aid of steam, they would have been and stuffing them into the hola When comparatively worthlese. The products ar leng:h the carg, reached Philadel : of the Pennsylvania coal-mines are al- phia, the expenses ainounted to fourteen ready so great that it would be difficult dollars a ton. The owners then found to estimate them; and such are the an- it necessary to call at houses, blacknual increase of the demand, and the smith-shops, &c., and urge the people

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