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to try the coal in their grates and fur- These principal streets so far alluded to, naces, and even to hire journeymen to form fine, large squares, which are subgive it a fair trial, after publishing hand- divided by streets of a second class, and bills, in English and German, with a inferior breadth, of which those running minute description of the manner of east and west bear the names of shrubs kindling and treating it. In 1812, Col. and inferior plants. George Shockmaker took nine wagons, Philadelphia is distinguished by its loaded with coal, from the Schuylkill neatness, as well as uniformity, and conmines to Philadelphia, and succeeded in tains many institutions of science, learnselling two of them. It was with diffi-ing, and beneficence, as useful as they culty that he could persuade any per- are honorable to the inhabitants. sons to try the remainder, which he left Philadelphia is remarkable for a neat without selling.

and pleasing style of building. HunThe amount of foreign coal imported dreds of houses, of the first class, have into the United States, in 1846, was basements and steps of white marble; 156,853 tons, worth $378,597; which is and the pavements, which are generally very small, compared with the above wide, are carefully washed and swept. estimate for the supply of anthracite Great cleanliness prevails through a from the mines of Pennsylvania. large part of the city, although the sur

Philadelphia.-This city was ori- face of the ground is so flat as to be ginally confined to a point on the west- rather unfavorable. Sewers have been ern bank of the Delaware, five miles constructed to a considerable extent, above its confluence with the Schuylkill, and the good habits of the people are and about one hundred from the ocean. the chief cause of this important feature The river is of sufficient depth for the in their city, which is favored by the free admission of vessels of the largest absence of great thoroughfares, the passize ; but the navigation is subject to a sage of carriages being confined to no long interruption, by ice, during the particular streets. winter months. The city now extends Markets.—The principal markets are quite across the broad, level space to the concentrated in Market street, in which Schuylkill, a distance of about two miles, a long line of buildings, well planned, while the northern and southern dis- and built for the purpose, extends about tricts, and several adjacent villages, a mile, and is proverbial for convenience having received portions of the increas- and neatness. Abundant supplies of ing population, now contain, together, a the best articles of food are displayed, large, compact mass of houses, with a with neatness and in good order, while population inferior to no city in the Uni- sufficient room is allowed to buyers and ted States, except New York. sellers. For good meat, butter, and

Almost without a single exception, some other products of the fine agriculPhiladelphia is laid out on a plan of tural districts in the neighborhood, perfect regularity. The streets are per- Philadelphia has long been celebrated. fectly straight, and those running north South of the city lies an extensive tract and south are crossed at right-angles by of fertile meadow-land, where rich pasthose running east and west, at equal tures and fine gardens abound; the benintervals. The former are distinguished efits of which are enjoyed by the inhabby the cardinal numbers—First, Second, itants. Third, &c., beginning near the Delaware, The large draught-horses, reared with as far as Independence square, in the great care by the Dutch farmers, for use centre of the city; and between the in their heavy wagons, are seen in great western limits and that point, by the des- numbers. ignation of Schuylkill-First, Second, The Philadelphia Library is one of Third, &c. The principal cross-streets the earliest, most extensive, and valuaare named after trees, as Walnut, Chest- ble, in the country, and was founded by nut, &c., except the central, which is the exertions of Benjamin Franklin, Market street, and one or two others. / about the year 1727, when a little

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The Custom-House, formerly the United States Bank, Philadelphia.

club of young men was formed by top of the basement story with six heauFranklin, and used to meet in Pewter- tiful Corinthian columns; the capitals Platter alley, for reading and debate, worked by the best Italian artists. This and commenced the collection by giving portico is of the height of two stories, their own books. Several of the mem- and communicates with the “ exchangebers afterward became distinguished room,” by means of nine separate winmen, particularly Thomas Godfrey, the dows, which may be used as doorways. . inventor of the mariners' quadrant. A hall passes through the centre of the Fifty new members were added in 1730, building, from Dock to Third streets, and, in 1742, Thomas Penn incorporated and another likewise communicates with it. The colonial legislature, in 1769, this from the north side. The basement comprehended several other libraries story is fifteen feet in height, is arched with it, under an act conferring upon it throughout, and has twelve doorways on its present name. “This,” says Frank- the Third-street front and flanks.

On lin, “was the mother of all the North the right or north side of the ball, is the American subscription libraries, now so postoffice, seventy-four by thirty-six feet, common.”

and on the left are several insurance The American Philosophical Society, offices and banks, and the session-room opposite the Philadelphia Library, is of the chamber of commerce. Two another of the principal institutions of flights of stairs, one on each side of the the city, which claims Franklin as its hall, ascend to the second floor; at the founder. In 1743, he formed a small head of these is the entrance to the exsociety for the purpose of pursuing cu-change-room, which is on the east front, rious experiments and inquiries; and, extending across the whole building, after its decline, and that of a second, and occupying an area of 3,300 supercommenced in 1750, the American Phi- ficial feet. The ceiling, extending to losophical Society, and the American the roof, is of the form of a dome, and Society for the Diffusion of Useful supported by several marble columns. Knowledge. These two societies were Its pannels are ornamented with splencombined, in 1769, under a common did fresco paintings, representing Comtitle, and Franklin was elected presi- merce, Wealth, Liberty, &c., beautifully dent. Provision was made, by David executed, appearing to have as striking Rittenhouse, to observe the transit of a relief as sculptured work. The roof Venus. Several subjects of great pub of the building is oval, and surmounted lic importance were early considered by by a circular lantern that rises forty this society, which show the science and feet. benevolence of the members.

The Customhouse, located in Chestnut The American Historical Society, street, is a splendid edifice of white which has distinguished itself by the marble, on the plan of the Parthenon of publication of the writings of their late Athens, except that the side colonnades president, Mr. Dupongeau, was formerly are wanting. only a department of the Philosophical The Girard Bank is a marble buildsociety.

ing, with six beautiful Corinthian colThe Exchange is situated at the cor- A portion of it is represented ner of South, Third, and Walnut streets, in our engraving of the exchange. and on the angle formed by the inter- The Bank of Pennsylvania, opposite section of Dock with Walnut and Third the Girard bank, has two fronts, on streets. It was built in 1833, by the Second and Dock streets, each with six merchants and citizens of Philadelphia. Ionic columns. It is coustructed entirely of marble—is The Statehouse, containing the halls a rectangular parallelogram in form, of the old Congress, is interesting from ninety-five feet front on Third street, by its associations with the important peone hundred and fifty on Walnut street. riod of the Revolution, and especially On Dock street, however, is a semicir- with its commencement. Independence cular projection, ornamented from the hall, the apartment east of the entrance,


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