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is that in which the Declaration of In- state and the country at large, are likel: dependence was adopted and signed, to participate in the advantages of Bu and in which Washington was appoint- enlightened a measure. ed commander-in-chief of the army. The practice of humanity and Chi

The large square, in the rear of tian philanthropy, which is made that edifice, is shaded by many fine old prominent a feature in the system or trees; and Washington square, just be the friends, or quakers, has shown its yond it, which was enclosed but a few influence in various important departyears ago, has several elegant churches ments. The improvements in prisonaround it, and many fine bouscs. But discipline, which we have noticed at the most conspicuous public place is some length in the description of New Independence square, before named, sit- York, in which state the plan which now uated between Chestnut and Walnut prevails in this country, and, to a con

siderable extent, in Europe, was first Girard College.—This splendid edi- brought into operation at Auburn, have fice strikes the eye with admiration from been partially adopted in this city. Dr. a distance, presenting a noble colonnade, Rush, of Philadelphia, however, first of white marble, of great size, and the recommended radical improvements, elegant proportions of the most celebra- founded on somewhat similar grounds, ted Grecian models. It has been erect- in 1787, at a time when public opinion ed with immense sums of money be was so unprepared to put them into opqueathed by the late Stephen Girard, eration, and even to appreciate them, long an eminent merchant of Philadel- that they were regarded as visionary. phia, for the education of orphans. The A prison was erected, in 1790, on a plan peculiar restrictions laid on the execu- corresponding with his views, which was tion of the will, in several particulars, the first step in the way of improvement. threw embarrassments in the way of the The prisoners were treated with more speedy execution of the enterprise, and humanity, kept clean, and subjected to the institution has never gone into op- regular hours, labor, and silence, being eration.

watched day and night. They were Schools.-Philadelphia has long been credited for the products of their labor; supplied with schools, in much greater and half the excess of the amount, after proportion than the state at large, in fines and expenses, was paid on the exwhich they were neglected, until 1809, piration of the sentence. But several and were but little extended or improved grand defects of the old system were by the act of the legislature of that year. retained in that prison, which further Within a few years past, exertions have experience condemned. One of the been made to establish a universal sys- principal of these was

the common tem of common education, aná great rooms, in which numbers of convicts advances have been made in some parts spent their time together, by day and of the state ; but a large proportion of by night. No vigilance was sufficient the inhabitants being indifferent to the to prevent demoralizing intercourse ; claims of education, has presented great and reformation--the great object in obstacles to the rapid change so desira- view—was not satisfactorily secured. ble. The German population, distin- The prison has since been demolished, guished as they generally are for indus- and others have been erected, on differtry and frugality, are too much opposed ent plans, on the northeastern borders to the improvements desired by many of the city. of their fellow-citizens; and all attempts The Penitentiary, near Fairmount, is made to rival the noble example of New an immense edifice of granite, with a York and some other states, have been large yard, 650 feet square, surrounded disappointed. In Philadelphia, howev- by a wall forty feet high. The plan of er, the public schools have been placed this building is wholly different from upon a very high footing within a few any before erected. It is designed for years; and not only the city, but the solitary confinement, in the strictest

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sense of the term. Rows of cells, on Medical instruction was first given
one level, are arranged in seven long by Dr. William Shippen, in 1764, in
lines, radiating from an octagonal build- a course of anatomical lectures, to ten
ing in the centre, where a single senti- pupils. Dr. John Morgan was his as-
nel is placed to watch and listen, guard-sociate the next year—both being grad-
ing several hundred convicts. Objec- uates of Edinburgh. Dr. Kahn was
tions have been made to this system, on made professor of botany in 1768, and
the ground of expense, and the difficulty in 1769 Dr. Bush of chymistry, while
of finding occupation for the prisoners, Dr. Bond was clinical lecturer in the
useful to them, or profitable to the insti- Pennsylvania hospital. This medical
tution, as well as to the evil effects, college has now about four hundred stu-
physical, mental, and moral, sometimes dents.
resulting from uninterrupted solitude. The United States Mint was erected
General Lafayette remarked, facetious- in 1830, after one of Mr. Strickland's
ly, while on a visit to this prison during designs. It is entirely of white marble,
its construction, that solitary confine- has a front on Chestnut street of 122
ment had been tried on him at Olmutz, feet, and one on Centre square. The
without changing his character or hab- whole process of making money, assay.

ing, refining, and coining the metal, is
The House of Refuge, for juvenile de carried on in this building. The mint
linquents, in the same vicinity, is con- was established in 1790 ; and in 1793,
ducted on the same general plan as other they commenced coining in the building
similar institutions at New York and now occupied by the Apprentices' Li-
elsewhere, and with similar beneficial brary company, in Seventh street. Mr.
results Vagrant and convicted boys R. M. Patterson has been at the head
and girls are placed there, under the of this establishment for several years.
charge of keepers and instructors, and Since the discoveries of gold in Cali-
are trained in good schools and various fornia, the amount of coinage has been
kinds of useful business, and then ap- largely increased.
prenticed, chiefly to humane persons in The Naval Hospital is situated about
distant and retired country situations. two miles southwest from the centre of
Some of the boys have been sent to sea; the city. The expense is defrayed by
and many unfortunate children have funds contributed by the officers and
been rescued from ruin by such humane seamen of the United States navy, out

of their pay. The building is on an The Pennsylvania Hospital. - This eminence, commands an extensive view, noble institution was founded by Dr. and makes a fine appearance from a disThomas Bond, in 1751, aided by Frank- tance. The front is 386 feet in length, lin and others. The grounds are fine, three stories high, and it is large enough and it contains a statue of William to lodge three or four hundred persons. Penn, with West's celebrated picture The first story is of granite, and the of Christ healing the sick, presented by second and third of marble, both of its author, a native of this state.

which kinds of stone are found in abunThe University of Pennsylvania, on dance in the vicinity of Philadelphia.. Ninth street, has two fine edifices, one The western side of Philadelphia is of which is for the medical department. a scene of much bustle and business. The origin of this institution is traced Several fine bridges cross the Schuylback to 1764, when a subscription was kill, and the wharves below are landing. opened for an academy and charity- places for vessels coming from Delaware school, in which English, mathematics, bay and the ocean, for the canal-boats and Latin, were to be taught. It was of the Schuylkill navigation, and the incorporated and endowed in 1753; and Union canal, which leaves that line at among its pupils was Lindley Murray, Reading for the Susquehannah. Above, author of the English grammar.

a fine stono dam crosses from bank to incorporated as a college in 1755. bank, and shows the first of the long

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and expensive series of works which form finished in 1813, at an expense of one an uninterrupted channel of communica- hundred and twenty thousand dollars, tion between the Schuylkill coal-mines and exceeded the largest of all others and the city. Fairmount, a high, steep by ninety-six feet in the span. It was eminence, rises near the same spot, on fifty feet wide at the abutments, and the top of which are the immense reser- thirty-five in the centre, being by this voirs for the supply of Philadelphia with form braced against lateral pressure. water, which is raised from above the The Permanent Bridge was erected, milldam, by five large waterwheels, and at the foot of Market street, by a comallowed to stand for a time in two reser- pany incorporated in 1798, and cost voirs, of the capacity of eleven millions $300,000, including the land. The work of gallons, until it deposites the earthy was a great one, at that early day, when particles. It is then distributed through no such structure had been undertaken out the city, through pipes more than a in the country; but it was successful. hundred miles in extent.

Indeed, it might be regarded as an enThe Wire Suspension-Bridge. This terprise of magnitude at any period, as wonderful and beautiful specimen of art the depth of the river presented formiwas erected in 1842, at the expense of dable obstacles to the sinking of piers. fifty thousand dollars, by Mr. Charles The western one was founded at a depth Elliot, for the city and county of Phila- of forty-one feet below high-water level. delphia. It occupies the site of the Fountain Park. This is not only one celebrated Wernwag's wooden-arched of the most remarkable situations in the bridge, the longest in the world (with country, in point of picturesque beauty, an arch of three hundred and forty feet but also endeared to us by historical asspan), burnt down a short time previ- sociations of the most romantic characously, and connects the two sides of the ter. Here, by the shore of the SchuylSchuylkill at a very important point. kill (or Manayone, as it was called by

The length, from one abutment to the the aborigines), occurred some of the other, is 343 feet, and from one of the most desperate fights recorded in the supporting rollers to the other, at the annals of Indian warfare. Here, the apex of the columns, 357 feet, while the axe of the first settler under Penn awoke breadth, including the floor and the foot- the echoes of the woods. At the hour ways, is 27 feet. The wire, of which an that the battle of Germantown was raimmense quantity was used in the fab- ging around Chew's house, here, at least ric, is one eighth of an inch in diameter. three miles from that celebrated spot, This is formed into five cables for each the Hessians were endeavoring to crush side; each is constituted of 260 strands, a band of continentals, inferior in arms two inches and five eighths in diameter, and discipline, but not in iron courage. weighing four tons, and able to support After twelve bloody onsets, that poured eight hundred tons. Seventeen short from the hill into the valley, the contiand smaller cables, hanging from each nentals drove their enemies across the of these, to support the floor-beams, are river, at the ford, whose traces are now made of smaller wires, and able to sup- obliterated by the rising of the waters, port two tons each.

from Fairmount dam. This ford is sitThe large cables pass over iron roll- uated on the southern verge of Laurel ers on the pillars, by which the tension hill, one of the most beautiful spots on is equalized, and are fastened around the globe, whose spires and monuments many strong iron bars, transversely im. are now visible from the mansion. bedded in rocks or masonry.

The tow- It was here that William Penn loved ers are enormous columns of granite, to wander, contemplating, either in his from the state of Maine. The iron was walks on shore, or in his excursions on quarried at Juniata, and manufactured the river, the rise and progress of his at Easton-all in this state.

much-beloved colony. In those wanThe arched bridge spoken of above, derings, perchance, he already saw-for the predecessor of the wire-bridge, was he was a deep thinker-his colony rise

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