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they were promptly killed and eaten; sometimes they were adopted by the natives, and speedily sank below the level of the Maoris themselves, marrying one, two, or three wives according to fancy or the esteem in which they were held by their adopted tribesmen. As trade grew up between the whites and the natives, the “Pakeha Maori,” or European, who sold his nation-right for a mess of savage pottaye, became an object of competition among the islanders, who found him a useful agent and interpreter. During the latter part of the days of Governor King, from 1805 to 1807, the first natives, amongst them several chiefs, voluntarily went to England and to New South Wales. These visits fired the missionary zeal of Samuel Marsden, who resolved upon acting the part of a St. Augustine to the Maoris. In 1807 Marsden accompanied Governor King to England, to enlist the aid of the Church Missionaries' Society in the establishment of a mission settlement in New Zealand. On his return to the Colony in 1810 he brought with him two lay catechists for his mission, Messrs. King and Hall, a carpenter and an iron-worker. When the missionaries arrived in Sydney the air was filled with rumours of rapine and murder, much exaggerated. These arose out of the horror excited by the ghastly ontrage known to history as the “Boyd” massacre.

It had been proposed by the merchants of Sydney about this time to form a New Zealand Company in New South Wales, and the preliminary arrangements had been completed before tidings of the massacre came to Port Jackson ; but when the tragedy was made known the idea was abandoned, and the catechists for the New Zealand Mission proceeded to Parramatta to wait until the public indignation had subsided. Meanwhile Mr. Kendall came to join the mission, but he also was sent to Parramatta with his wife and family, until continued peace on the New Zealand coast begat renewed confidence. During the time of the disorder in the mother colony, brought about by the quarrels of Governor Bligh with the officers of the New South Wales Corps, a disastrous license appears to have been taken by the shipmasters trading from Port Jackson to New Zealand, which provoked reprisals on the part of the natives, entailing some loss of life.

In the year 1814 Governor Macquarie gave Mr. Marsden leave of absence to go to New Zealand to establish his mission, provided the natives on the east coast of the North Island were reported to be in a peaceful condition. To obtain the necessary information Mr. Marsden despatched the brig " Active to the Bay of Islands, under the conmand of Captain Peter Dillon, who subsequently became celebrated for his discovery of the relics of La Perouse and his expedition on the island of Vanikoro. Mr. Kendall accompanied the brig, and several native chiefs returned in her to strengthen the chances of Mr. Marsden's visit. On the Governor's being satisfied with the report, the chaplain departed on his three months' leave of absence. He was accompanied by the catechists, Messrs. King, Hall, and Kendall, and a Mr. Nicholas. Jir. Marsden opened his mission at the Bay of Islands on Christmas

Day, 1814. The natives had made rude preparations for the event by enclosing half an acre with a fence, erecting a pulpit and reading desk in the centre, covered with native mats dyed black, and using as seats for the Europeans some bottoms of old canoes, which were placed on each side of the pulpit. A flagstaff was erected on the highest hill. After the celebration of the service, which was heard with much decorum and attention, Mr. Marsden preached from the passage in St. Luke, “Behold I bring you glad tidings of great joy.' The natives, of course, knew not what he said, so that the sermon was, perhaps, more picturesque in its entourage than edifying in its effects. At its conclusion the Maoris indulged in their war-dance, and thus Christianity and cannibalism came into contact. New Zealand was practically proclaimed a dependency of New South Wales by the appointment of Missionary Kendall as Resident Magistrate at the mission station.

After visiting the Thames, Mr. Marsden returned to New South Wales, leaving the catechists at the Bay of Islands. He did not again visit the mission until 1819, when an ordained clergy man, the Rev. S. Butler, was appointed to take charge of the station. The mission brig, the “ Active," which had been purchased by Mr. Marsden in 1814, was, however, kept running between Port Jackson and the Bay of Islands, so that the catechists were in constant communication with head-quarters, while the whale ships frequenting the Bay gave some measure of protection by their presence. Acting under instructions from Governor Macquarie, Marsden explored a considerable portion of the northern part of New Zealand. He appears to have been the first European who published a description of the Hokianga River, which had been made known to Governor King from the map of the North Island drawn by the Maoris, Tuki and Huri, on the floor of the Governor's house at Norfolk Island. In the year following he visited New Zealand in H.M. storeship the “Dromedary,” which was sent thither to procure spars for topmasts for the Navy. He remained at North Island for several months, exploring the Thames, Tamaki, and Kaipara districts.

The progress of the missionaries in their task of Christianising and civilising the Maoris was at first painfully slow, but it became rapid and general during the ten years preceding the annexation of the islands by the British Crown in 1840.

Marsden had a veritable genius for administration, and he thoroughly believed in the saving efficacy of social organisation. He wished every convert to learn a trade. He himself had been a blacksmith before becoming a chaplain, and his helpers were wielders of tools of iron or steel as well as of the arms of the spirit. He sought to save men's souls by teaching them to dig and delve and to be cunning in the use of saw and hammer. He saw clearly enough that the future of the Maori, temporal and spiritual, lay in the annexation by the British Crown, and to this end he laboured. His ghostly comfort was material

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enough to be weighed and measured, but he was the man for the situation, and he knew it with the stolid obstinacy characteristic of his Yorkshire blood. Naturally perhaps, but nevertheless unfortunately, some of his coadjutors thought otherwise, and sowed seeds of Jissension concerning things immaterial to Marsden's organised scheme of temporal salvation. The Maoris, with their keen imagination, were quick to seize upon quibbles, and sects sprang up as quickly as mushrooms. Rival tribes made it a point of honour to select varying and opposing beliefs, and in contemning the adherents of churches other than their own.

The first difficulty that confronted the missionaries was a translation of the Bible. To obtain this they enlisted the services of a notable convert, Hongi, and another Maori chief. Mr. Kendall went to England, accompanied by Hongi : their views, however, were very opposite. The preacher wanted aid to put the Maori language into written form, writing being a mode of communicating thought unknown to the native race. Hongi wanted guns and ammunition to enable him to wreak his vengeance on his household enemies; but no word of this escaped him. In the end each got what he wished for. Mr. Kendall obtained the assistance of Professor Lee, who, with Hongi's help, constructed a grammar and vocabulary of the New Zealand language sufficient for the translation projected. On his arrival in England, Hongi was lionised. George the Fourth gave him a suit of armour, and various admirers presented him with guns and other gifts. On leaving England the Government provided him with a passage to Sydney on his way home. On reaching Sydney Hongi took up his residence with his friend, Mr. Marsden, and there met Hinaki, a neighbouring chief, on a visit to the venerable missionary. It appears that while Hongi was in England one of his Ngapuhi tribesmen had been killed by some connections of Hinaki's people. Here, then, was an immediate opportunity of trying his guns, and testing the invulnerability of his royal suit of armour. Hinaki sued for peace, but Hongi wanted war, and intended to have it. To this end he disposed of all his other presents and converted the proceeds into more muskets and more ammunition. Although Hongi and Hinaki sat at the same table, slept under the same roof, and travelled back to New Zealand on the same ship, none of Hinaki's arguments could induce the blood-lustful chief to abandon his design of having a practical test of the new instruments of warfare which he had procured in England. There was, therefore, nothing left for Hinaki to do but collect his followers on his return home and make the boldest showing possible. When the battle was fought he maintained a brave resistance for some time, but at length the new weapons prevailed, and Hinaki, together with a thousand of his followers, were slain, while numbers were taken captive. Of the slain 300 were cooked and eaten on the battle-field by the victors. Hongi next invaded the territory of the tribes rounil Mercury Bay, and then proceeded to Kaipara where he made a great slaughter. In 1822 he again visited the Thames and the Waikato, and ascended the Waipa, where he took several large "pas,” and proceeded thence almost to the Wanganui, slaying in this expedition about 1,500 of his enemies. His name spread terror wherever he went, and when remonstrated with by the missionaries he declared his intention of subjugating the whole island. In 1823 he won a victory at Rotorua, when many were slain.

In 1827 he declared war against Tara, and the tribe which had been concerned in the “Boyd” massacre, and during the early part of the year his followers plundered and burnt the Wesleyan Missionary Station at Whangaroa. The life of this remarkable savage terminated in March, 1828, from injuries received by a bullet-wound in the preceding year. It has been computed that about 10,000 persons were killed in Hongi's various raids, and some writers have not hesitated to double this estimate.

In the year 1825 the first New Zealand Association was formed in London. It was composed of men of influence, among whom was Lord Durham. A vessel was fitted out for the purpose of exploring the country and conveying settlers to New Zealand. The command of the ship, called the “Rosanna," was given to Captain James Herd, a seaman well acquainted with the New Zealand coast. No later than the year 1822 he had been in the Hokianga River in the ship“Providence," when he witnessed a deed of conveyance of land froni native chiefs to one Charles, Baron de Thierry, who, in his absence, was represented by Mr. Kendall. With the exception of Marsden, all the early missionaries seemed determined to do all they could to deprive Great Britain of her sovereignty over the islands. Captain Herd bought two islands in the Hauraki Gulf, and a strip of land at Hokianga. The “Rosanna arrived in Hauraki Gulf in 1826, reached the Bay of Islands on the 26th October of the same year, and proceeded thence to Hokianga, where a record of this early attempt at colonisation is still preserved in the designation of Herd's Point. A war-dance at one of the places visited by the “Rosanna” was said to have terrified the immigrants, who insisted upon being carried back to England, a stipulation having been made between them and the company before leaving the port of departure, that they should be reconveyed to England if they disliked remaining in New Zealand ; and of all the intending settlers, some sixty in number, only four preferred to remain. The “ Rosanna ” went to Sydney early in the year 1827, where the stores of the expedition were sold by public auction, and Captain Herd, and those of the party who felt disposed to do so, sailed for England. The cost of this venture is said to have been £20,000.

From 1820 to 1830 was a time far surpassing in bloodshed and ruin anything witnessed in the islands before or since—a result of horror due to the fact that the Maoris had thoroughly learnt the lesson instilled into their minds by the bloody victories of Hongi, and not a “brave ” in the North Island but possessed his fire-lock. During the decade between 1830 and 1810, however, New Zealand gradually drifted

into a new phase of existence, and began to respond to the dominance of the white man. In England more than one influential believer in the future of Australasia had long been keenly watching the fortunes of New Zealand, and Great Britain was soon to learn that these islands were not indifferent to France also. In 1829 a deputation waited on the Duke of Wellington, then Prime Minister, to urge that New Zealand should be acquired and settled. His Grace, interestedly advised, flatly refused to think of any such thing. It was then that he made the historic remark that, “supposing New Zealand to be as valuable an acquisition to the Crown as the deputation wished to make out, Great Britain had already colonies enough.” It is noteworthy that the capital of New Zealand is named after the great man whose sole connection with the colony was a flat refusal to include it in the Empire. The singular indifference of English statesmen to the great possibilities of New Zealand is now a matter for marvel. The truth is, that the missionaries stood in the way of annexation, and they were listened to. They represented the one element of self-sacrifice in a community of greed and lust; but they were, after all, only human. They had tasted of the sweets of power, and represented all the vague majesty of British authority, and they were loth to lose pride of place and privilege—and annexation meant nothing less to them. By a singular obtuseness the Governors of New South Wales gradually relaxed their supervision of New Zealand as a dependency of the mother colony.—a sin against patriotism which the governing missionaries in North Island did their utmost to encourage--and “No Man's Land” was rapidly becoming British only by virtue of the nationality of those who exploited it. The white inhabitants of New Zealand comprised at this time fo classes--first, the missionaries and their immediate dependents; second, the " Pakeha Maoris” or de civilised whites who had thrown in their lives and their lots with the native race; third, the whalers and scalers of the South Seas-mere birds of pleasure and passage; and fourth, the traders and others settled at the Bay of Islands. In the last-named beautiful inlet had been founded a marine Alsatia, a Bohemia of villainous license, known as • Kororareka" (now Russell), where, on occasion, as many as a thousand whites indulged in unbridled and brutalising debauchery, no fewer than thirty-five large whaling ships at a time lying off its beach in the Bay. Matters, indeed, had reached such a pitch that the better-disposed of the inhabitants formed themselves into a vigilance committee, each niember of which attended the meetings armed with musket and cutlass.

In 1830, so horrible had become the outrages of the traffic in preserved and tattooed human heads, that Governor Darling prohibited the commerce, and, inferentially, the secret murders due to it, by attaching a penalty of £10, coupled with exposure of the name of the trader who should engage in it. The missionaries, utterly powerless to stem or turn this gathering flood of vice and violence, were moved in 1831 to induce the various chiefs of the neighbourhood to petition the

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