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1831 Thirteen chiefs appeal for protection to the English Government.

1 Waikato captures Pukerangiora Pa (Waitara). 1832 Repulse of Waikato at Nga-motu Pa. 1833 Appointment of James Busby as Resident Magistrate at the Bay of

Islands. 1831 Battle of Howhenua and Pakakutu near Otaki.—Wreck of the

“Harriet” at Cape Egmont.-Shelling of Waimate Pa near Opunake by H.M.S. “Alligator.” Thierry annonnces himself the Sovereign

Chief of New Zealand and defender of its liberties. 1835 Formation of the second New Zealand Association.- Formation of a

confederation called “The United Tribes of New Zealand.”—Ngati.

Awa tribes take possession of Chatham Islands. 1836 Waikato captures Maketu Pa (Bay of Plenty). 1837 Lord Durham and Edward Gibbon Wakefield attempt to revive the New

Zealand Association. 1838 The settlers at Kororareka form a vigilance committee.--Arrival

at Hokianga of Bishop Pompallier (Ř.C.).—Discovery of Pelorus

Sound by H.M.S. “Pelorus." 1839 French whaler “ Jean Bart" captured by Maoris at Chatham Islands.

Founding of the New Zealand Company, and despatch of its first colonising expeditions.- New Zealand incorporated with New South Wales, and Captain Hobson appointed first Lieutenant-Governor.-

Battle of Kutitanga (Otaki). 1810

First appearance of a steamer in New Zealand waters.--Arrivals of immi

grants at Port Nicholson.--Arrival of Captain Hobson, and the sign. ing of the Treaty of Waitangi.-The Queen's sovereignty proclaimel over all New Zealand.-Auckland founded. - The Nantes-Bordelaise

Company send settlers to Akaroa. 1841 Auckland proclaimed the seat of government.--Issue of Charter of Incor

poration to the New Zealand Company. -New Zealand proclaimed

independent of New South Wales. 1842 Settlement founded at Nelson.- Arrival of Bishop Selwyn.-Death of

Governor Hobson. 1843 The Wairau dispute.-Captain Fitzroy takes office as Governor. 1844-5 Governor Fitzroy makes wild experiments in taxation. 1844 Hone Heke hews down the flagstaff at the Bay of Islands. 1845 Destruction of Kororareka by Heke. --Arrival of reinforcements of troops

from Sydney and Hobart.--Unsuccessful attack on a pa at Ohaeawae.

-Recallof Governor Fitzroy and appointment of Captain George Grey. 1846 Capture of Ruapeka peka pa (Bay of Islands) and conclusion of the war

with Heke.--Outbreak of hostilities in the Hutt Valley, near Wellington.-Seizure of Te Rauparaha at Porirua. – New Zealand Government Act passed (dividing the colony into two provinces, and granting representative institutions). ---Te Heu Heu overwhelmet

and buried by a land-slip. 1847 Minor outbreak at Wanganui.- Arrival of the New Zealand Fencibles. 1818 Sir George Grey sworn in as Governor-in-Chief over the islands of New

Zealand and Governor of the provinces of New Ulster and New

Munster.--Founding of Otago.-Severe earthquake at Wellington. 1849 Incorporation of the Canterbury Association. 1830 Surrender of the New Zealand Company's Charter.–Founding of Canter

bury. 1851 Final dissolution of the New Zealand Company. 1852 Discovery of gold at Coromandel. 1852-3 Third Constitution (division of the colony into six provinces). 1853 Boundaries of the provinces proclaimedl. -Departure of Sir George Grey. 1854 Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard assumes administration of the Govern

ment.

1855

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1857 1838

1859 1969

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1862 1863

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1864

Severe earthquakes on both sides of Cook Strait. ---Arrival of Governor

T. Gore Browne.
Formation of a Maori league against land-selling.–Te Whero Whero

proposed as king.
First payable gold-field opened at Collingwood, Province of Nelson.
New Provinces Act passed.— Te Whero Whero (Potatau I.) proclaimel

King of the Maoris.
Te Teira offers land at Waitara for sale to the Government.
Hostilities begun against Wiremu Kingi te Rangitake.--Capture

Waitara Pa.-Engagements at Waireka and Puketa kauere. -Defeat
of Kingi's Waikato allies at Mahoetahi.-Capture of Matarikoriko
Pa.- Death of the Maori King and succession of his son Vatutaera

(Tawhaiao). Repulse of Maoris by Imperial troops at Huirangi redoubt.— Truce

agreed upon.-Gold discoveries at Tuapeka River, Clutha, &c. Recall of Governor Browne. -Sir George Grey enters upon his second

term of office as Governor. First Native Lands Act passed. Wreck of H.M.S. “Orpheus Manukau Bar (181 lives lost). --The

Imperial Government explicitly relinquishes control over the adminis-
tration of native affairs.--Assault on a military escort at Tata-
raimaka, --Defeat of Maoris at Katikara.--Commencement of
Waikato war; action at Koheroa (Auckland district). -Capture of
Rangiriri Pa. - Railway opened from Christchurch to Ferrymead
Junction.--Xew Zealand Settlements Act passed. ---Occupation of

Ngaruawahia.
Engagement with the Maoris at Mangapiko River.-- Defeat of Maoris

at Rangiaohia. -Capture of the Orakau Pa.-Engagement near
Maketu (Bay of Plenty).-Defeat of the Rawhiti tribes by the
Arawa friendlies. --Cameron's repulse at the Gate Pa.-Repulse of
the Hauhaus at Sentry Hill (Taranaki). --Battle of Moutoa (Wan-
ganui) and defeat of Hauhaus by friendlies.-Defeat of Maoris at Te
Ranga.- Discovery of gold on the west coast of Middle Island.-
Escape of Maori prisoners from Kawau.-Wellington chosen as the

seat of Government. -- Grey confiscates native lands in Waikato. Submission of Maori Chief Wiremu Tamihana te Waharoa. --Removal of

the seat of Government to Wellington.-Murder of Volkner by
Hauhaus under Kereopa.-Murder of Fulloon and others hy
Hauhaus at Whakatane.-Capture by Grey of Wereroa Pa, near
Wanganui. -. Fraser and Te Mokena capture Kairomiromi Pa
(Waiapu). — Proclamation of Peace.- Murder of a friendly messenger
by Hauhaus at Kakaramea.--Defeat of rebel natives at Wairoa.
Gold discoveries at Hokitika.- Auckland asks for separation.--Native

Rights Act and Native Lands Act passed.
Defeat of Maoris at Okotuku Pa, west coast of North Island. -Chute

captures Putahi Pa and Ota pawa Pa.-Escape of prisoners from the
hulk at Wellington.-Submission of Te Heu Heu and Herekiekie,
of Taupo.-- Laying of the Cook Strait submarine cable.- Engage.
ment of Pungarehu.-Natives defeated at Omaranui and Petane

(Hawke's Bay).
Admission of Maori members (4) to House of Representatives.
Arrival of Governor Sir George F. Bowen. --- Escape of Te Kooti from the

Chatham Islands. - Maoris attack the redoubt at Turuturu Vokai.
Engagements at Ngatu-o-te-manu. --Departure from New Zealand cf
Bishop Selwyn.-Colonial forces repulsed with heavy loss at Moturoa.
Massacre of 32 Europeans at Poverty Bay.- Engagements between
Te Kooti and the friendlies at Patutahi (Poverty Bay district).

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1867 1868

1869

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1873 1874

1875 1876 1877

1878 1879

Defeat and dispersal of Te Kooti's force at Ngatapa Pa (Poverty Bay).

Murder of Rev. John Whitely and others at White Cliffs. -A foraging
party attacked at Karaka Fiat.-- Defeat of Titokowaru at Otauto.
Dutrages by Te Kooti, who captures Mohaka Pa.–First visit to
Wellington of the Duke of Edinburgh. ---Defeat of Te Kooti at
Ahikereru Pa and Oamaru Teangi Pa.-Surrender of Tairua with 1
men, women, and children of the Pakakohe tribe, near Wanganui.--
Sentences for treason passed against Maori prisoners.--Storming of

Pourere Pa by Lieut. -Colonel McDoppell.
Friendlies under Topia and Keepa pursue Te Kooti (Wanganui River). -

Capture of Te Kooti's Pa at Tapapa - Departure of the last detach-
ment of Imperial troops. --Crushing defeat of Te Kooti at Mataetahi.
-Second visit of the Duke of Edinburgh to Wellington.--Act passed
to establish the University of New Zealand. - Land Transfer Act

passed. Death of Tamati Waka Nene.-Capture of Kere pa at Napier. - First

appointment of Rangatiras (2) to the Legislative Council --- Public Trust Office Act passed.—Te Kooti' takes sanctuary in the King

country. Governor Sir George Bowen succeeded by Sir James Fergusson. Abolition of incarceration for debt. - Departure of Sir James Fergusson ;

the Governorship assumed by the Marquis of Normanby.-Sir George

Grey elected to the Assembly as member for Auckland.
Abolition of Provinces Act passed.
Submarine cable completed between New Zealand and New South Wales.
Education Act passed providing for the free and compulsory education of

children.
Sir George Grey's first land tax passed.
Departure of the Marquis of Normanby.---Land dispute with Te Wbiti. -

Sir Hercules Robinson assumes office as Governor. --Arrest and imprisonment of 150 natives, who had been, by Te Whiti's orders, ploughing lands occupied by Europeans. - Triennial Parliaments Act passed.-Act passed to confer the suffrage on every resident adult

male.
Governor Sir Hercules Robinson succeeded by Sir A. H. Gordon.
S.S. “Tararua” wrecked (130 lives lost). --Severe earthquakes in

Wellington.-Arrest of Te Whiti and Tohu.
Departure of Sir A. H. Gordun.-Assumption of the Government by Sir

J. Prendergast.
Arrival of Governor Sir W. F. D. Jervois.- Proclamation of amnesty to

Maori political offenders. --- Liberation of Te Whiti and Tohu.
Opening of New Zealand Industrial Exhibition at Wellington.
Volcanic eruptions at Tarawera (101 lives lost).-Destruction of famous

Pink and White Terraces.
Kermadec Islands andexed to New Zea'and. - Australasian Naval Defence

Act passed.
The Earl of Onslow succeeds Sir W. F. D. Jervois, in the Government.-

Opening of South Seas exhibition, Dunedin.
First election of the House of Representatives under manhood suffrage

and on the one man one vote principle.
Labour laws : Employers Liability Act, 1882 Amendment Act; Truck

Act.
The Earl of Onslow succeeded in the Government by the Earl of Glasgow.

--Labour laws: Contractors and Workmen's Lien Act.-Passing of
the first Land and Income Tax Act. -- Land Act, 1892 (lease in per-
petuity without revaluation system introduced ; occupation with
right of purchase ; optional method of selection ; small farms associ.
ations).

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1893 Bank Note Issue Act passed. —The Electoral Act, 1893, passed conferring

the franchise on women.-Success of the prohibitionist party. Labour laws : Workmen's Wages Act.-Native Land Purchase and

Acquisition Act. 1894 Labour laws : Conspiracy Law Amendment; an Act to encourage the 346

formation of industrial union and associations, etc.-Advances to Settlers Act.-Land for Settlement Act (1894) and Lands Improvement and Native Lands Acquisition Act.—Labour laws: Factories Act. ---Act for limiting hours of business in shops.- Wreck of the s.s.

“Wairarapa" at Great Barrier Island (135 lives lost). 1895 Labour laws : Act to regulate the attachment of wages.-Servants

Registry Office Act.-- Family Homes Protection Act. 1896 Brunner Mine explosion (67 deaths).-Land for Settlements Act amended.

-Alteration of franchise by abolition of non-residential or property

qualification. 1897 The Earl of Glasgow succeeded in the Government by the Earl of

Ranfurly.—The Hop. R. J. Seddon called to the Privy Council. 1898 Death of Sir George Grey.-Act to provide old-age pensions passed. 1899

Military assistance rendered to the Empire in the Bcer war. 1900 Further military assistance to the Empire. 1901 Visit of the Duke of Cornwall and York.-Annexation of Cook Islands.

Departure of the sixth and seventh contingents.–Visit of the Feder

ation Commission to Australia.- Death of Sir John Mackenzie. 1902 Eighth, ninth, and tenth contingents despatched to South Africa.-Mr.

Seddon proceeds to South Africa and thence to London.- Wreck of the “ Ventnor near Hokianga.-Wreck of the “Elingamite " at the Three Kings.

AREAS AND BOUNDARIES.

THE
HE Australasian colonies comprise the continent of Australia,

the adjacent island of Tasmania, and the islands of New Zealand. The group was formerly subdivided politically into seven colonies ; but on the 1st January, 1901, the five mainland states and Tasmania became the Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand retaining its position as a separate colony. The respective areas of the six states and New Zealand are as follow :

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Area
in square miles,

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The British Empire, exclusive of territories under protectorates and spheres of influence, extends over an area of 9,093,865 square miles, so that more than one-third of its area lies within the limits of Australia and New Zealand. Australasia is more than twenty-six times as large as the United Kingdoin; more than fifteen times as large as France; more than half as large again as Russia in Europe; and almost equal in extent to the continent of Europe or to the United States of America.

The mainland of Australia lies between 10° 39' and 39° 11' south latitude, and the meridians of 113° 5' and 153° 16' east longitude. Its greatest length is 2,400 miles from east to west, and its greatest breadth, 1,971 miles from north to south. Its area may be approx. imately stated at 2,946,691 square miles, and its coast-line at 8,850 miles,

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