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appealed against the rating of their products. The annual and capital values of the dwellings and shops for 1900 would be about £158,000 and £872,000 respectively :

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The revenues of municipalities are derived chiefly from rates, but under the Act of 1867 the Government allows an endowment for the tirst fifteen years following incorporation, the scale being £ for £ of general rates received during the first five years, 10s. per £ during the next five years, and 5s. per £ for the remaining period. The Government also contributes grants in aid of roads and other works, and occasionally a special endowment is given. Rates are levied on nine-tenths of the annual value of improved property, and on 5 per cent. of the capital value of unimproved land, except in the City of Sydney, where the maximum percentage on unimproved is 6 per cent. The following table shows the receipts during 1900, the Government endowments and grants being specified :Total receipts-

£ Government.....

44,882 Rates

471,415 Other Revenue

262,974 Total....

779,271

Receipts per inhabitant in incorporated area

£ s. d. Government..........

0 1 0 Rates

011 0 Other Revenue

0 6 1 Total

0 18 1 The burthen of rates is, therefore, Is. 2 d. per £ of annual improved value, and about 2d. per £ of estimated unimproved capital value.

The total expenditure for the same period amounted to £836,601, distributed as follows :

£ Public works, services, and improvements..

472,538 Interest on loans and overdrafts

138,789 Repayments of loans

96,634 Salaries and office expenses

73,728 Payments to sinking funds...

13,558 Other expenditure

41,354 £836,601

....

The proportion of the expenditure incurred for salaries and office expenses was 8.81 per cent., and for interest on loans and overdrafts it was about 16 per cent., while the average rate of interest payable on the liabilities was 4.69 per cent.

The amount of loans and secured overdrafts outstanding on the 5th February, 1900, was £2,730,934, of which £1,314,004 was due to investors in London, principally by the city of Sydney, while of the balance, £18,849 was floated in Victoria, and £1,368,081 in New South Wales. The unsecured overdrafts amounted to £229,843, so that the total liability on which interest was payable was £2,960,777. The interest charged ranged from 3} to 8 per cent. for the secured loans, and from 4 to 8 per cent. on the unsecured overdrafts. Against the total liability, sinking funds have been established, the total amount at the credit of such funds being £322,059.

VICTORIA. In Victoria a comprehensive system of local government has been in force for many years. In 1842 the Act of the Legislative Council of New South Wales, which incorporated Sydney, also constituted Melbourne a municipality, and in 1874 the general system was inaugurated. Under this system the State is divided into cities, towns, boroughs, and shires, and the total area under local control is 87,322 square miles, only 562 square miles remaining unincorporated.

The councillors are elected by the ratepayers, and the mayors of cities, towns, and boroughs, or presidents of shire councils, are elected by the councillors. A general rate of not more than 2s. 6d. or less than 6d. in the £ of the annual value may be imposed, but special rates may be leried, provided that general and special rates together do not exceed 28. 6d. in the £. A further special rate, limited to 6d., may also be charged for works in particular parts of any district.

The number of municipalities with the annual and capital values of property assessed for local purposes for the ten years ending with 1900, were as follows:

Year.

No. of
Municipalities.

Annual Value.

Capital Value.

1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900

197 198 201 203 207 208 208 208 208 208

£ 13,265,543 13,733,770 13,605,990 12,779,600 11,676,079 10,641,200 10,393,000 10,345,535 10,152,500 10,283,500

£ 194,313,646 203,351,360 197,366,940 189,461,350 174,984,851 167,197,780 168,427,700 171,253,984 168,611,906 169,911,900

484 1901. The total capital value of property assessed for municipal purposes : figure£) was £169,911,900, while the annual value was £10,283,500, the respective for Melbourne and suburbs being £60,255,735 and £4,042,447 given belovely. The values for the metropolitan district since 1891 am during the pa, and it will be noticed how great has been the decrease shows a small iñoriod under review, though the annual value for 19 value for the last y crease over that of the previous year, while the capit.

rear is the lowest for the decade :

Melbourne ark.

d Suburbs.

Melbourne and Suburbs.

Year.

Year.

Annual Value.

Cal

Annual Value.

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Verl.

st. 1900

1891.

1900.

90

4.ital Value.

Capital Patz 83 £ 1891 6,533,717 87,939,

£

£ 1892 6,815,315 92,358,6tie287

1896 4,299,515 60,962,705 1893 6,639,014 88,510,32629

1897

4,168,182 60.352,441 1894 5,847,079 78,916,730

1898 3,968,888 60,104,87 1895 4,984,596 66,824,384

1899 3,973,357 60,626,915

4,042,497 60,235,7233 The annual and capital values for the fi!, for 1891 and 1900 will be found in the folld 'ye principal provincial centrs return from property having been estimated rewing statement, the annua!

pat 7 per cent.

ex City, Town, or Borough.

pro Annual Value. Capital Value. Annco,

tal Value, Capital Valy. £ £

t Ballarat 171,484 2,449,771 156,7

£ Ballarat, East 78,264 1,118,057 78,5

2.239.857 Bendigo 167,305 2,390,071 188,

340 1,119,113 Geelong 92,697 1,324,243 87,

350 2,697,87 Geeloug, West 28,317 404,529 26. S70 1,953,:56

,140 373,423 The revenue of the local governing bodies is chi.... taxation, under the headings of general and special

efly derired from levied on the net annual value), licenses, dog fet***

rates (which are weighbridge dues, &c. The total amount collected to es, market and during the year was £1,236,124, of which £165,837 ianurom all sour by the Government, either as endowment or special grtal as contribute amount of rates received was £709,122, and £144,572 **

int, while the from licenses, fees, &c., the total local taxation thus being

cas received The balance, £216,593, includes sanitary fees amounting to as

€853.691. and also £51,962 received as rents of municipal property. The receipt per inhabitant in incorporated areas amounted to £l Os. lld. The amount received as rates shown above represents a tax of ls. 2 !d. in the £ of annual value, and 1 d. per £ of the estimated unimproved capital value.

* The total expenditure for the year was £1,200,805, of which 1731,471 were spent on public works, &c., while the amount paid for iterest was £181,496. The payments to sinking funds were £16,495, nd the repayments of loans from revenue, £12,872, the principal items

the balance being-salaries, £134,178, representing 11:17 per cent. f the total, and printing, &c., £21,125. The proportion paid as Le terest on loans and overdrafts was about 15 per cent. of the total,

bile the average interest payable on loans and overdrafts amounted about £4 13s. 2d. per cent.

The municipal loans outstanding were £3,827,437, and the bank verdrafts amounted to £70,656, giving a total interest-bearing iability of £3,898,093. The total liabilities were £4,135 719, other tems being-arrears due to sinking funds, £20,403 ; overdue interest in loans, £18,583 ; and amounts due on contracts, £72,932. The ssets totalled £3,444,925, the chief items being-municipal property, 2,191,257 ; sinking funds, £646,092; outstanding rates, £205,698; nd bank balances and cash in hand, £57,144.

QUEENSLAND. The beginning of local government in Queensland was the proclama tion constituting Brisbane a municipality, the date of which was the 3th September, 1859, or about three months prior to the separation of the colony from New South Wales. A general system of government by local authorities was inaugurated in 1878, when the colony was divided into boroughs, shires, and divisions.

The aldermen, councillors, and members are elected by ratepayers in boroughs, shires, and divisions respectively, while mayors of boroughs and chairmen of shires and divisions are chosen by the representatives.

Under the provisions of the original Act, the rates were levied on the annual value, and the maximum general rate was ls. in the £ for boroughs, shires, and divisions, but the minimum was 6d. per £ for boroughs and shires, and 4d. per £ in divisions. Special rates could also be iinposed for sewerage, drainage, lighting, street-watering, or particular works. By an amending Act passed in December, 1890, the rates thenceforward were to be charged on the unimproved capital value of the land, the maximum being 2d. in the £ for boroughs and shires, and 14d. in the £ for divisions, while the minimum is d. in both cases. The separate rates may still be charged, and if waterworks have been established a further rate may be imposed for that service.

The total area controlled by local bodies is 668,252 square miles, eaving only 245 square miles unincorporated. The total capital value was estimated at the beginning of 1901 to be £42,722,000. This represents the value of land without improvements; if improvements had been considered, the capital value would have been approximately £70,631,000, and the annual value £4,485,000.

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The unimproved capital value is now slightly less than it was ten years ago, as will be seen by the following statement, which shows the assessed value during each year since 1891 :

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The capital values of Brisbane and some of the other large boroughs are given below for 1891 and 1900:

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North Rockhampton has been included, as it is a suburb of Rockhampton.

The receipts for the year 1900 amounted to £640,622, the chief sources being-Government endowments, grants, and loans, £220,925, and rates, £268,478 (levied, as already stated, on the unimproved capital value), leaving £151,219 derived from other sources. The amount collected for rates represents ls. 10.1d. per £l of the annual value and 1.£d. per £ of capital value. The expenditure for the same period was £653,187, the amount spent on public works being £401,708, while repayments of loans and interest amounted to £103,432, salaries and office expenses to £54,960, or 841 per cent of total, and all other disbursements £93,087.

The outstanding loans, including overdue instalments payable to the Government, amounted to £982,406, the whole of which, with the exception of the loans of the city of Brisbane (£305,000), and part of the indebtedness of South Brisbane (£105,000), is due to the

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