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who enjoy the benefits of police protection being obliged to bear the cost of administration. The control of the police is, however, under officers appointed by the central government.

In New Zealand there are, in addition to the ordinary forms of municipal government, River and Harbour Boards, which are established throughout the colony. The number of these at the end of 1900 was respectively thirty and twenty-six. There is a Drainage Board at Christchurch, while there are fifteen Land Drainage Eoards, and a Water Supply Board at Waimakariri-Ashley.

Complete returns of the Boards and Trusts in each state are not readily obtainable; the following table, however, gives important details in connection with some of these bodies :

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New South Wales

£ £ £ £

£ Metropolitan Board of Water Supply and Sewerage

314,278 314,278 333,353 6,967,923 *Hunter District Water Supply and Sewerage

26,356 26,356 30,723 480,689 VictoriaMelbourne Harbour Trust .......

143,362 143,362 148,612 2,000,000 Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works

269,213 269,213 337,079 7,062,737 Melbourne Tramways Trust.

483,452 483,452 385,650 1,650,000 Fire Brigade Boards

15,629 33,812 49,441 51,049 130,000 Water Works Trusts

730,422 Irrigation and Water Supply Trusts

384,090 Ballarat Water Commission

328,127 QueenslandWater Works, Brisbane...

6,532 58, 152 64,684 54,519 476,581 Country Towns..... 2,717 53,014 55,731 52,999 317,737 Western Australia Road Boards......

48,749 / 14,349 | 63,098 55,581 Boards of Health in Municipalities.. 2,502 27,722 30,224 29,378

outside Municipalities

1,723 3,955 5,678 5,263 Metropolitan Water Works Board. 8,144 24,081 | 32,228 32,032 372,832 TasmaniaMarine Boards

34,700 30,568 65,268 | 63,927 80,339 Light-houses.

585 +7,584

8,169 8,410 Water Trusts

1,500 7,390 8,890 6,990 33,200 Road Trusts

5,097 | 20,317 25,414 24,663 1,200 Town Boards..

10,535 17,772 28,307 28,328 43,175 New ZealandRiver Boards

208 26,202 26,410 | 17,791 43,670 Harbour Boards

6,389 693,568 699,957 571,777 4,035,331 Drainage Boards

...

2,476 21,832 27,308 27,059 200,000 Water Supply Boards.

1,000 3,163 4,163 3,116

21,200

† Including £1,239 from other Governments.

* Water supply only.

The Melbourne Tramways Trust shows an expenditure on working and interest of £385,650, to this should be added £37,733 placed to reserve, £48,000 paid in dividends, and £12,069 carried forward in excess of the amount brought over from the previous year.

The amounts shown in the foregoing table under Road Trusts and Town Boards in Tasmania are included in the figures given on page 491. The outstanding loans for Tasmania are gross, sinking funds amounting to £16,142, £1,270, £415, and £2,929 respectively being established in connection with the debts of Marine Boards, Water Trusts, Road Trusts, and Town Boards. In New Zealand, also, sinking funds amounting to £9,871, £370,951, £34,184 and £791 respectively, exist in connection with the liabilities of River, Harbour, Drainage, and Water Supply Boards.

The outstanding loans of the Boards and Trusts of New South Wales constitute part of the public debt. This is true also with regard to the amounts for Victoria, except the loans of the Tramway Trust and the Melbourne Harbour Trust, the Fire Brigades Boards, and part of the loans of the Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works, which are not guaranteed. The liabilities shown for Queensland and Western Australia, and a small portion of the Tasmanian indebtedness, also form part of the public debt of those states; but the amounts given for New Zealand are not included in the debt of the Central Government. In the foregoing table the advances made by the Governments to the borrowing bodies are included.

TOTAL REVENUE OF LOCAL BODIES. The total revenue of all local bodies was as follows, the receipts from the various Governments being distinguished from the ordinary receipts :

State.

Receipts from
Government.

Other Receipts.

Total.

New South Wales
Victoria
Queensland.
South Australia
Western Australia
Tasmania.....

£
44,882
181,466
230,174
115,073
91,566
75,954

£
1,075,023
2,000,126

530,863
233,695
266,912
217,664

£ 1,119,905 2,181,592

761,037 348,768 358,478 293,618

Commonwealth
New Zealand

739,115
336,559

4,324,283
2,142,334

5,063,398
2,478,893

Australasia.

1,075,674

6,466,617

7,542, 291

INDEBTEDNESS OF LOCAL BODise. The following table shows the total indebtedness of local bodies in each of the states for which returns are available.

The figures include the liabilities to the Government. It must also be explained that the liabilities of Road Trusts and Town Boards in Tasmania have heen included with municipalities :

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For the amounts that have just been given the local bodies are responsible directly to their creditors in part, and the general governments hold themselves directly liable for the balance. In the following table is given a division of the indebtedness of local bodies into the sum due to the State and that due to the public. It may be mentioned that the amount owing to the State is included with the general debt of the state ; and in order to estimate the total State and municipal indebtedness the figures in the second column only have to be added to the figures given later on under State Finance.

State.

Amount of Corpora-
tion Indebtedness
included in the
Public Debt.

Loans of Local
Bodies floated in

open market.

Total
Indebtedness.

New South Wales
Victoria
Queensland
South Australia
Western Australia..

£
7,448,612
4,121,672
1,366,724

£ 2,730,931 12,046,953

410,000

78.400 275,100 514,252

£ 10,179,546 16,168,625 1,776,724

78,400 647,952 674,866

Tasmania ........

372,852
160,614

Commonwealth
New Zealand

13,470,474

902,769

16,055,639
7,563,069

29,526,113
8,465,838

.......

Australasia

14,373,243

23,618,708

37,991,951

STATE AND MUNICIPAL RATES AND LAND VALUES. The extent of the charges on land levied by the various corporations and other local bodies as rates will have been gathered from the foregoing pages; in addition thereto a land tax is levied by the General Government in all the States except Queensland and Western Australia, and the income tax imposed by Victoria, South Australia, and Tasmania, includes income derived from land and its use ; in New South Wales, however, incomes derived from the use and occupancy of land are untaxed. In Tasmania, a police rate is also imposed, based on land values, the rates being 9d. in the £ on freehold, and 4.d. in the £ on Crown Lands. The following table shows the collections for rates and the other taxes mentioned, and also the capital values of property and of land and improvements, with the amount per £ on the value of unimproved land which the rates would equal :

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£

£ 1,107,650 142,617,000 263,052,000. 1,165,860 112,396,000 204,294,000

d. 1.86 2:49 2:51 2:44 3:40 2.53

d. 1:01 1:37 141 1:48 2-09 1:59

New South Wales
Victoria
Queensland
South Australia
Western Australia
Tasmania.......

374,887 35,887,000 63,796,000
340,640 34,080,000 56,060,000
124,847 8,813,000 14,360,000
173,942 16,4$8,000 26,243,000

Commonwealth
New Zealand.......

3,287,826 350,281,000 627,805,000
1,028,607 61,466,000 111,105,000

2.25
402

1.26 2-22

Australasia ...

4,316,433 411,747,000 738,910,000

2.51

1:40

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HE total number of births in each state, and the rate per thousand

of the population during the year 1901 are shown in the following table :

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The variation in the birth-rates disclosed in these figures is not very considerable, and may be set down as due for the most part to the larger proportion of married women found in some states than in others. Taking the general average for the last five years (27:31) the birth-rate of Australia will be found lower than that of most European countries, and very much below the former experience of these states, as the following statement shows.

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