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Expenditure on education in a large State like Western Australia, with a sparse but rapidly-expanding population, must of necessity be proportionately higher than in the older settled Eastern States. The figures for administration are also swollen by reason of the fact that private schools are inspected by the Departmental officers, and also receive various registers free of cost. With the exception of Western Australia, where there was a decrease amounting to 10s. Id.

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scholar, all the States show an increase in expenditure on administration and maintenance per child in average attendance as compared with the figures for 1897–98. For New South Wales the increase amounted to Gs. 10d. per scholar; for Victoria, to 6s. lld.; for Queensland, to 4s. 10d.; for South Australia, to 5s. 2d.; for Tasmania, to 12s. 8d. ; and for New Zealand, to ls. 10d.

EscocRAGEMENT OF SECONDARY EDUCATION.

Before passing to the consideration of private schools, reference may be made to the encouragement of secondary education by the State, apart from grants to the Universities. In New South Wales there are numerous private colleges of a high class, and there are four State High Schools-two for boys and two for girls—where higher education may be obtained at a moderate cost; as well as 113 Superior Schools, in the higher classes of which pupils are prepared for the public examinations. In 1901 the expenditure on the High Schools amounted to £6,596. A scheme of scholarships for the Sydney Grammar School, for High and Superior Schools, and for the University, is in existence. In 1901, 105 candidates were successful at these examinations. Fifty-one secured scholarships and 40 bursaries for High and Superior Schools ; 5, bursaries at the Sydney Grammar School; and 9, University bursaries.

In Victoria, as previously pointed out, extra subjects are taught for a small fee at 118 of the public schools. For the encouragement of secondary education, 200 scholarships were granted from 1886 to 1890, but in 1891 the number was reduced to 100, and in 1892 to 75. Consequent on the retrenchment policy already alluded to, these scholarships were abolished in 1893, but the principals of private colleges offered a large number of exhibitions to children attending State schools. The Department, however, decided to introduce paid scholarships similar to those withdrawn in 1893 ; and under the new scheme, 60 exhibitions of the annual value of £10 are awarded, the first examination for which was held in December, 1900. There were 72 scholarships awarded in 1901 to State school pupils by principals of the various secondary schools. The Department annually bestows a number of exhibitions to the University on pupils who have gained scholarships at

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secondary schools. At the examinations for these exhibitions, held in January, 1901, 19 candidates were successful. There are at present 70 exhibitions.

Steps have recently been taken in Queensland to add to the curriculum of the State schools, in order that they may be brought more into line with the superior public schools of New South Wales. Secondary education, however, has long been provided for by the liberal endowment of the private grammar schools, and by a system of scholarships for these schools, which at present number ten. Each school is subsidised to the extent of £1,000 annually; and the total amount of endowments and grants by the State to these institutions to the end of 1901 was £276,535. At the annual examinations for scholarships, 198 boys and 81 girls competed, while three exhibitions to universities were gained by grammar school pupils. In the last quarter of 1901 there were altogether 108 State scholars in attendance at the various grammar schools. Of the 72 exhibitions granted since the year 1878, when they were first instituted, 54 have been gained by students who had previously won scholarships from State schools.

In South Australia the Advanced School for Girls was attended by 133 pupils in 1901. The fees amounted to £1,218, and the expenditure to £1,338, so that there was a loss on the year's transactions of £120, against which must be set the fact that 35 bursary-holders were taught free. There are twelve bursaries for this school annually awarded to State school pupils. Six University scholarships of the value of £35 each are annually awarded to day students on the recommendation of the University Council, and 18 other scholarships of £10 each are awarded to evening students. There are also available 24 exhibitions and 24 bursaries for boys and girls, and 20 junior scholarships are also offered annually to pupils attending schools under the Minister. In Western Australia there is a high school for boys at Perth, which in 1901 received Government aid to the extent of £1,083. In 1901 the number of pupils on the roll, including boarders, was 96, and the average daily attendance was 93. Two State scholarships for this school, valued at £75 each and tenable for three years, are awarded annually. The Government also offers annually ten bursaries of the value of £10 to children attending the elementary schools of the State—five to boys, and five to girls. In Tasmania a system of exhibitions was at one time in force, but none have been granted since 1893. New Zealand has 25 incorporated or endowed secondary schools, with a regular teaching staff of 157, and a visiting staff of 54. At the end of 1901 there were 2,899 pupils on the rolls, and the average attendance for the year was 2,744. The receipts for 1901 announted to £53,330, including £23,300 derived from interest on investments and rents of reserves, and £26,280 from fees. These schools, it should be noted, are not supported directly by the State. Some have endowments of land, and others receive aid from the rents derived from the Education Reserves administered by the School Commissioners.

PRIVATE SCHOOLS.

At the end of 1901 there were 2,763 private schools in Australasia, with a total teaching staff estimated at 9,159. The total number of pupils on the rolls was 165,499, and the average attendance, 131,679. Below will be found the figures for the individual States and for New Zealand. At the end of 1895, the Government subsidy was withdrawn from the assisted schools in Western Australia, and, thenceforward, information respecting these institutions is incorporated in the returns for private schools :

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In New South Wales there has been a large increase in private schools during the past ten years. Since 1891 the number of schools has increased from 704 to 889, and the enrolment from 45,018 to 60,282. Of the private schools in the State, 341 are Roman Catholic, as compared with 61 connected with the other Churches, while 487 are undenominational; but of the scholars enrolled, more than three-fifths, 41,486—are in attendance at Roman Catholic schools, while 3,966 attend Church of England schools ; 1,284, schools belonging to other denominations; and 13,546, the undenominational schools. Since 1891 the pupils of the Roman Catholic schools have increased by 35 per cent., which is about 1 per cent. higher than the general rate of increase. Many of these private schools are institutions of a high class. Only one—the Sydney Grammar School--is assisted by the State, which provides a statutory endowment of £1,500 per annum. In 1901 the staff of this school consisted of 25 teachers; the total enrolment was 683; the average enrolment, 565; and the average daily attendance, 537. The receipts for the year totalled £11,246, of which £9,61! represented fees; while the expenditure was £10,630.

From returns furnished by the principa's of private schools in Victoria, it appears that the total number of institutions bas increased from 872 in 1894 to 884 at the end of 1900, while the gross enrolment increased from 44,038 to 51,834 during the same period. In this State the principals of a number of the private colleges have granted scholarships at their institutions to State school pupils since the Government retrenched in this respect. These colleges are not subsidised by the State.

Of the 159 private schools in Queensland, the principal are the ten grammar schools, which are situated at Brisbane, Ipswich, Mary borough, Rockhampton, Townsville, and Toowoomba. In each of the first four towns there are two schools –one for girls and one for boys. In 1901 the teaching staff of the grammar schools consisted of 55 permanent and 20 visiting teachers; the aggregate number of pupils on the rolls was 929; and the average daily attendance, 788. As previously mentioned, each of the ten schools receives an annual grant of £1,000 from the State. During 1901 the total receipts amounted to £29,279, and the expenditure, including salaries, to £28,821.

There is no special information available with respect to the private schools in South Australia. In Western Australia the principal private institution is the Perth High School for Boys, which, in 1901, received Government aid to the extent of £1,083. The school is under the supervision of a Board of Governors. In 1901 the teaching staff numbered 5; the total number of pupils enrolled was 96, of whom 26 were boarders ; and the average daily attendance was 93.

Included with the 215 private schools in Tasmania are 19 grammar schools and colleges, 6 of which are undenominational in character, 7 are connected with the Church of England, 3 with the Roman Catholic Church, 1 with the Wesleyan Church, 1 with the Presbyterian Church, and 1 with the Society of Friends. There were 119 permanent teachers at these institutions in 1900, and accommodation was provided for 2,819 students. The average attendance during the year was 2,191, of whom 467 were of the age of 15 years and upwards. As in New South Wales, the majority of the pupils at private institutions in New Zealand are enrolled at the Roman Catholic Schools. At the beginning of 1901 the number of schools belonging to this denomination was 132, at which 10,687 scholars were enrolled, with an average daily attendance of 9,228.

DIFFUSION OF EDUCATION. It will be seen that the Governments of the various States have done much for the instruction of the children, and throughout Australia and New Zealand attendance at school of children of certain ages is co pulsory. Unfortunately, in spite of the law and in spite of the educational facilities afforded by the states, large numbers of children are growing up in total ignorance, and a large number with very little

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instruction. It must not be supposed that the officials of the public departments controlling instruction are to blame for this lamentable state of affairs ; on the contrary, they have made, and continue to make, protests against the continuance of the evil, but the rescuing of children from the neglect of parents, and the effects of their own depraved inclinations, does not seem to appeal very strongly to the legislatures of these States.

As regards New South Wales the census returns for 1901 showed that there were 17,464 children of school age, that is 6 and under 14 vears, who were not receiving instruction either at school or at home. If allowance be made for those who possessed certificates showing that they had been educated up to the requirements of the Education Act, and who numbered approximately 5 percent. of the number quoted, there still remain about 16,600 children presumably growing up in blank ignorance. In addition to these a large proportion of the scholars enrolled at State schools fail to attend the requisite 70 days in each half-year. With respect to private schools the State has no means of ascertaining whether the teachers are competent to impart instruction, while nothing can be said regarding regularity of attendance at these institutions as the principals are not compelled to produce returns. Legislation to cope with the truancy evil is in contemplation by the State. At present the parents of children attending public schools are liable to prosecution if their children do not attend the number of days prescribed by the Act. Private schools are not interfered with, while there is no adequate provision made for tracing and dealing with children who are not enrolled at

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school. In Victoria, the school ages are from 6 to 12 years, both inclusive, and a careful estimate shows that the number of children of school

age in 1900 was 201,000. The average number of children of school ages who completed the statutory attendance was 117,251, and 2,400 others did not attend the requisite number of days, but held certificates of exemption, while 1,000 scholars who entered or left during the currency of a quarter were considered to have complied with the requirements of the Act. In addition, there were 21,610 children who were exempt from regular attendance under Section 13 of Act 1086. The total under instruction was, therefore, 142,291. Assuming that the attendance at private schools was in the same ratio as that for State schools the number regularly instructed in these institutions was 27,950, There were in addition about 8,000 children regularly instructed at home, so that the total number of school age who were receiving regular instruction was about 178,000. Of the remaining 23,000 some were receiving tuition for a small portion of the year, but the great majority were apparently growing up in ignorance.

With regard to the other States, no definite information is available but doubtless it would be found that there is great room for improvement with respect to the attendance at school of children of the compulsory ages.

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