Slike strani
PDF
ePub

The following table affords a comparison of the number of each class in every 10,000 of the population for the same periods :-

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

Total

10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000

It will be seen, therefore, that while in 1861 there were only 7,001 persons who could read and write out of every 10,000 people over 5. years of age, the number in 1901 had increased to 8,710, while those. who were totally illiterate had in the same period decreased from 1,619, to 1,065. The figures show that while there has been an increase in degree of education since 1891 for the whole population, the rate for persons over 5

years

of

age has slightly declined. Looking at the matter still more closely with reference to age, it will be seen that the improvement in education is most marked in the case of the rising generation. The following table shows the degree of education of all children between the ages of 5 and 15 years in 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891, and 1901, numerically and per 10,000:

[blocks in formation]

Read and write 114,353 288,154 | 482,719 674,012 882,708 4,637 5,911 7,058 7,565 8,137 Read only 68,038 102,316 86,574 69,640 54,275 2,759 2,099 1,206 782 490 Cannot read 64,237 96,986 114,654 147,280 147,836

2,604

1,990 1,676 1,653 1,364 Total .. 246,628 487,456 683,947 890,932 1,084,819 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000

The proportion of those able to read and write has, therefore, grown from 4,637 to 8,137 in every 10,000 children during the forty years which the table covers, while the number of those able to read only in 1901 was less than one-sixth of what it was in 1861, and the wholly illiterate had decreased by nearly one-half during the period.

The Marriage Register affords further proof of the advance of education, and it has the further advantage of giving annual data, while the census figures are only available for decennial periods,

The numbers of those who signed the Marriage Register by marks were as appended. Where a blank is shown the information is not available.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

New South Wales. 3,222' 596 989 3,953 573 768 6,284 347 525 8,457 273 248 10,538 142 141 Victoria ..

4,434

4,613 342 650 5,896 171 245 8,780 110 133 8,406 47 42 Queensland

320
970

1,703 84 169 2,905 88 109 3,341 72 9) South Australia

1,158
1,250

2,308 100 159 2,315 40 49 2,309 31 12 Western Australia. 149

159
197
413

1,821 18 18 Tasmania

717
598
856
988

1,338 65

45

[blocks in formation]

The percentages for those States for which the necessary information is available are worked out in the following table : Year.

Males. Females. Total. 1861

18:50 30.69 24.60 1871

10:58 16:40 13:49 1881

4:14 6.61 5:38 1891

2:12 2.27 2.20 1901

1:19 1:17 1:18 The percentage in 1901 was, therefore, less than one-twentieth that in 1861, and there is every reason to expect that in the course of another few years it will be still further diminished.

PUBLIC LIBRARIES.

In all the States public libraries have been established. The Public Libraries in Melbourne and Sydney are splendid institutions, the former comparing favourably with many of the libraries in European capitals. The following table shows the number of libraries which furnished returns, and the number of books belonging to them, for the latest year for which information is available :

No. of

No. of
Libraries.

Books,
New South Wales

340

520,000 Victoria

342

752,191 Queensland

140

166,589 South Australia..

156

303,265 Western Australia

53

82,164 Tasmania ......

86,226 New Zealand

304

409,604

43

Australasia ......

1,378

2,320,039

579

AGRICULTURE.

TAKE
AKEN as a whole, Australasia may be said to be in the first phase

of agricultural settlement; indeed, several States have not yet emerged from the pastoral stage. Nevertheless the value of agricultural produce, estimated at farm prices, is considerable, and amounts to over 50 per cent. of the value of the pastoral and dairy produce. The return from agriculture in each State for the season 1901-2 was approximately as shown below :

[blocks in formation]

From this estimate it would seem that the value of crops per acre cultivated is much larger in Queensland and Tasmania than in the other States, a fact which is due to the proportionately large area under sugarcane in the former State, while in Tasmania the area devoted to fruit and hops, and the larger returns of cereals, account for the high average per acre which that province shows; in Western Australia, where the greater part of the produce consumed is imported, prices are higher than in the eastern States, and the small area devoted to the plough returns on an average a better price per acre than in the States where agriculture has received greater attention. In point of gross value, Victoria occupies the first position among the members of the group, the produce of that province having a value considerably in excess of one-fourth of that of all Australasia. The bigh position occupied by Victoria is in great measure due to the large return from gardens and orchards, the value of production from this source alone being upwards of £1,470,000, or more than double the return in New Zealand, and over three times higher than that of New South Wales. New Zealand also produces nearly one-fourth of the total, and New South Wales over one-fifth. The value of the principal crops, and the percentage of each to the total production, are given in the following statement :

[blocks in formation]

23.8

4.4

1:3 10.8 25.0

0.6

Wheat
Maize
Barley
Oats
Hay
Grass seed
Potatoes
Grapes
Hops ...
Tobacco...
Sugar-cane
Orchards and Gardens
Green furage........
Minor crops (other grain, root, &c.)...

7,472,000
1,364,000

414,000
3,383,000
7,837,000

176,000 2,534,000 1,071,000

54,000 10,000 585,000 2,554,00C 1,121,000 2,775,000

8.1
3.4
02

1.9

8:1 3.6

8.8

[blocks in formation]

The principal crop is hay, which returned 25 per cent. of the total value, wheat coming next with 23.8 per cent. Minor crops returned large sum of £2,775,000–8:8 per cent.--to which, New Zealand alone contributed £2,219,000, the high value of the production in that province being due to the fact that there is an area of considerably over half a million acres devoted to the cultivation of turnips and other root crops, which are grown mostly as food for sheep.

The average value of agricultural produce per head of population in each of the Australasian provinces during the season 1901–2 is represented by the figures given below. It will be seen that South Australia shows the highest value, followed in order by New Zealand, Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales. Queensland occupies the lowest position with a value of less than half that of South Australia. Comparisons of this kind are however somewhat misleading, as the main

State.

consideration is the extent of employment afforded by the industry and the return to the persons engaged therein.

Average value per head.

£ 8. d. New South Wales

4 17 6 Victoria.....

7 3 5 Queensland

4 13 6 South Australia

10 4 6 Western Australia

4 11 10 Tasmania

8 12 0

[blocks in formation]

Below will be found the value of the agricultural production of the Commonwealth and New Zealand in the years 1871, 1881, and 1891. Comparing these figures with those for 1901 given above, it will be seen that while the total production of Australasia is now over £11,000,000 more than in 1881, the average value per head has declined nearly 6 per cent., and that, as compared with 1891, the value per head shows an increase of £1 2s. 4d. As subsequent tables will show, a decrease in prices, and not want of productiveness, was responsible for the decline in value since 1881. The fall in prices, especially the prices of wheat, was very rapid down to 1895; for the next three years there was a very material increase, in 1899 they fell again to the 1895 level, but in 1901 there was a more or less general increase.

[blocks in formation]

Compared with the principal countries of the world, Australasia does not take a high position in regard to the gross value of the produce of its tillage, but in value per inhabitant it compares fairly well; indeed,

« PrejšnjaNaprej »