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production was £1,549,000 less than in 1891 ; but to a great extent this was due to diminished production caused by a succession of dry seasons—the cast of both sheep and cattle being much reduced as compared with 1891. On the other hand, the production of butter was larger, and also the export of meat, as will be seen below :

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The movement in prices will be seen from the following tabulation, which is based chiefly on an analysis of the New South Wales trade. The prices of 1901 are represented by 1,000 :

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The price of wool which advanced suddenly in 1899, declined again during the last two years, while tallow also declined in price during 1901. The other products quoted above show increases in value; but in considering the high prices of cattle it must be remembered that they have been brought about by the large decrease in the numbers of stock, and the increased prices do not by any means compensate for the losses occasioned by the drought.

658

THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.

The progress of the manufacturing industry in Australasia has been very irregular, even in the most advanced states; and although the tabular statement given below shows an increase of 87,772 hands in the Commonwealth and 26,623 in New Zealand since 1885, about one-tenth of the former number has been added by a change in the tabulation of the statistics in Victoria and New South Wales. The population of the continent was not sufficient to maintain industries on an extensive scale, and even this field was still further limited by intercolonial tariffs. Now that these barriers have been swept away, and the Australian field secured to a certain extent against outside competition, more rapid progress may reasonably be expected in regard to the manufacturing industry.

The greater portion of the manufactories of Australasia may be classified as domestic industries—that is to say, industries naturally arising from the circumstances of the population, or connected with the treatment of perishable products; but there are nevertheless a fair uuniber of firmly established industries of a more complex character. A statement of the number of establishments, and of the hands employed, in Australasia is given below for the years 1885, 1890, 1895, and 1901. The figures for the year last-mentioned were obtained from census returns in the cases of New South Wales, and New Zealand, while for Victoria, Queensland, and Western Australia they represent the usual annual returns. As the returns of South Australia and Tasmania for the year 1901 are not yet available, the information for those states refers to the year 1900 :

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MANUFACTORIES OF VICTORIA.

Victoria was the state which first displayed activity in the manu facturing industries. In 1885 there were employed in factories, properly so called, 49,297 hands, and in 1889 there were 57,432 hands; but the number fell away to 41,729 in 1893. Since that year there has been an increase to the extent of 24,800 hands. Of the 66,529 workers employed in 1901, 3,827 may be said to have found occupation in connection with domestic industries for the treatment of perishable produce for immediate use ; 25,567 in other industries dependent upon the natural resources of the country, and 37,135 in industries the production from which comes into competition with imported goods :

Year.

Establish-
ments.

Males.

Females.

Total Hands
employed.

1885.
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894

2,813 2,770 2,854 2,975 3,137 3,104 3,123 2,934 2,659 2,614 2,724 2,809 2,759 2,869 3,027 3,097 3,249

41,542 39,453 42,019 47,335 49, 105 47,596 43,627 35,726 32,209 32,638 35,406 37,728 38,620 40,631 44,041 45,794 47,059

7,755 6,320 7,065 7,153 8,327 8,773 10,786 9,689 9,520 10,681 12,240 12,669 14,030 14,147 16,029 18,413 19,470

49,297 45,773 49,084 54,488 57,432 56,369 54,413 45,415 41,729 43,319 47,646 50,397 52,650 54,778 60,070 64,207 66,529

1895

1896

1897 1898 1899 1900 1901

Comparing the number of women employed in the factories of the various States, it will be found that the proportion is largest in Victoria ; thus, out of 54,413 hands in 1891, there were 10,786, or 19.82 per cent., females; while in 1901, of 66,529 hands, 19,470, or 29-27 per cent., were females.

The number of factories and industrial establishments of various sizes, with the number of hands employed in each class, during 1901, was as follows:

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Interesting statistics were obtained in 1891, and again in 1901, of the value of materials used, and of the output by the manufactories of Victoria. The following are the official figures for the two periods :

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This shows that there has been an apparent decline in the value of production of not less than £3,481,000. There are, however, omissions to be allowed for. Taking these into consideration, there is still a difference in favour of 1891 to the extent of about £3,000,000. In the ten years the number of persons employed showed an increase of 7,838–

that is, an increase of 9,640 in the female workers and a decrease of 1,802 in the males. The horse-power employed in the factories of the State increased from 29,174 to 33,410 during the same period. These increases, taken in conjunction with the fact that there has not been any great decline in the value of materials used or operated on, would seem to point to the necessity of considerable caution in dealing with the Victorian official figures. In regard to 1891, it is impossible to review the figures except in regard to a few omissions from the value of materials operated on. Amongst these the more important are the omission of the value of materials used in sawmills, and of the clay and other materials used up by potteries and brickyards. These omissions can be supplied with a fair approximation to the truth. Another important omission is that of the value of fuel. Fuel is of course an important item in the value of materials consumed in production, and in the following figures an estimate of the value of fuel used has been made. The figures for 1900 also require attention. On analysing them, and comparing the results with the extremely comprehensive statistics of New Zealand and New South Wales, it was found that the output of certain large classes of industries was greatly understated; indeed, in some instances the value of the output has been set down at less than the value of materials, wages, and fuel, and in others the margin between the value of materials, labour, &c., and of output, is not sufficient to meet known charges—such as rent or interest, value of workshops and machinery--without taking into account the probable earnings of fixed capital and the profits of the manufacturers. It has been considered necessary to raise the gross output shown in the official figures from £16,948,951 to £18,512,680, and the net outputthat is to say, the excess of gross output over the value of materials, fuel, and labour-from £6,844,820 to £7,472,389, or by £627,569. The figures for the two years will then be as follows :

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£

£ Value of materials treated, including fuel 13,077,089 11,040,291 Amount of wages paid

4,589,412 Total value of output

22, 227,909 18,512,680 Value added to materials during process of manufacture

9,150,820 7,472,359

* Not ascertained.

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