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The average value of plant per horse-power of machinery employed ranges from £99 in the case of New Zealand to £153 for Queensland, the

average for Australasia being £133. A mere statement of values, however, has no special meaning since the difference in the figures is compatible with two opposite conditions-either the same plant is put to greatest use in the case of New Zealand, or it is of superior character in the case of Queensland.

VALUE OF PRODUCTION OF MANUFACTORIES. The gross value of articles produced in manufacturing establishments during 1900, and the value added to materials in the process of treatment can be readily obtained. For New South Wales, Victoria, and New Zealand the information collected at the census is available, and in the other states, where no direct information has been published, there is ample material for the preparation of satisfactory estimates. The production from butter, cheese, and bacon factories and creameries has been excluded from consideration, as it has already been included under the pastoral and dairying industries. The total value of the output from the factories in each state, the value of materials treated and fuel used, the amount of wages paid, and the value added to materials, fuel, and wages in the process of treatment during 1900, were as follows:

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A striking feature of the information given in this table is the large amount expended on fuel in New South Wales and South Australia, caused by the great consumption of fuel in the smelting works of those states.

The value added in the process of manufacture has been divided so as to show the amount shared amongst the workers and the value which accrued to the proprietors, out of which rent, insurance, depreciation, &c., had to be paid, the balance representing profits on the business. The proportion received by the proprietors varied considerably in the several states, and this will best be seen by considering the percentage added to the value of materials and fuel, and the wages paid.

State.

Percentage added to
Cost of Materials,
Fuel, and Wages.

New South Wales
Victoria
Queensland
South Australia ..
Western Australia.
Tasmania .....
New Zealand

26.7
18.4
24:3
287
26.1
29:3
26.5

It would appear from the above that in Victoria the amount which accrued to the proprietors represented ouly 18.4 per cent. on the cost of materials, fuel, and labour as against 29:3 per cent. in Tasmania. As the latter state is not of great importance in regard to its manufactories, it is hardly necessary to challenge its position ; but the Victorian figures demand consideration in spite of the fact that a liberal allowance has been made for values not included in the census returns. They differ widely from those of New Zealand and New South Wales. It is hardly to be imagined that the manufacturers in Victoria are satisfied with smaller earnings on their investments than those of other states, and the figures relating to that State are therefore presented with considerable diffidence.

The total value of the output from the manufactories of Australasia during 1900 was £80,596,000, of which £46,475,000 represents the value of materials and fuel used, and the balance, £34,121,000, the value added in the process of treatment. This sum is the real value of production from the manufacturing industries, and the following table shows the distribution of the amount in the various industries :--

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The value of production from establishments connected with the preparation of food and drink was the largest, and amounted to £9,031,566. The following table shows the distribution of the total value of £27,191,312 amongst the various states of the Commonwealth :

Value of Production,

Class of Industry,

New
South
Wales.

Victoria.

Queens
land.

South
Aus-
tralia.

Western

A:s. tralia.

Tasmania.

£ 435,794

£ 252,691

86,221

£ 118,000

£ 26,000

40,000

Treating raw material, the pro

duct of pastoral pursuits Connected with food and drink,'

or the preparation thereof
Clothing and textile fabrics..
Building materials
Metal works, machinery, &c.
Shipbuilding, repairing, &c.
Furniture, bedding, &c.
Books, paper, printing, &c.
Vehicles, saddlery, and harness
Light, fuel, and heat
Miscellaneous

187,000

47.00) 170,000) 53,000

2,335,076 1,575,285 1,863,156 668,000
1,042, 113 1,332,313 320,036 301,000

952,137 805, 174 445,826 200,000
2,479,458 1,101,405 524,771 | 1,102,000

107,300 28,359 24,550 12,000
220, 434 200,339 63,596 9,000
930,771 883,933 321, 191 218,000
266,016 321,192 109,748 89,00
577,353 239,442 101,139 30,000
654,994 681,711 124,963 235,000

306.000
130,000
589,000
487,000 1

3,600) 29,000 192,000

61,000 143,000 54,000

16,000 92,000 29.000 16,000 13,000

Total

10,081,756 7,472,359 3,985,197 | 2,982,000 2,022,060

618,000

The value of production from manufactories was largest in New South Wales, where it amounted to £10,081,756, being more than £2,600,000 in excess of the figures shown for Victoria, which, however, are open to grave question. In New Zealand the value was £6,929,663, and in Queensland, £3,985,197 ; but as a mere statement of the total affords but little idea of the relative production in the various states, the following table has been prepared showing the value of production from the manufacturing industries per head of the population in each stite :

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The above table shows that, in proportion to population, Western Australia holds the premier position ; but this is due to the higher prices obtained for the products rather than from any great development of the manufacturing industries. New Zealand stands second, and this position is ample evidence of the great expansion which has occurred in the manufacturing industries of that colony during the last few years. Attention has already been directed to the position of Victoria, and it is difficult to believe that the average production per head of population in that state can be £2 16s. 3d. less than in New Zealand, as the published figures seem to indicate.

691

SOCIAL CONDITION.

'HE

asia and the cheapness of food have permitted the enjoyment of a great degree of comfort, if not of luxury, by a class which elsewhere knows little of the one and nothing of the other; and even in times of trade depression and reduced wages it may safely be said that the position of the wage-earner in Australia is equal to that occupied by his compeers in any other part of the world. Although a high standard of living is not conducive to thrift, saving has gone on with marked rapidity, notwithstanding the industrial disturbances resulting from the great strikes and the bank crisis of 1893. Some idea of the rate and extent of this accumulation of wealth may be obtained from the tables showing the growth of deposits with banks. The banking returns, however, afford in themselves but an incomplete view of the picture ; it should also be regarded from the standpoint of the expenditure of the people. Both of these subjects are dealt with in their proper places in this volume, and these evidences of the social condition of the people need not, therefore, be further considered here.

NEWSPAPERS AND LETTERS.

Few things show more plainly the social superiority of a civilized people than a heavy correspondence and a large distribution of newspapers. In these respects all the provinces of Australasia have for many years been remarkable. In proportion to population it is doubtful whether any country in the world can boast of a larger number or il better class of newspapers than they publish. Great advances were made in this respect between 1871 and 1891, but the rate of progress, both in number and in excellence of production, has been even more rapid since the year last named. There are no means of correctly estimating the number of newspapers actually printed and distributed in the States, because the Post-office carries but a small proportion of the circulation. For purposes of comparison with other countries, however, it may be stated that during the year 1901 no less than 121,000,000 newspapers passed through the Post-offices of the various States, giving the large proportion of 26 per head of population. In the same year the number of letters and post-cards carried was

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