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As the table shows, the total number of vesseis engaged in the shipping trade of the Commonwealth of Australia during 1901 was 1,651 more than the figure for 1891, and the returns of tonnage show an increase of nearly ten millions. The average tonnage of shipping is 1,406, as compared with 956 in 1891, and 563 in 1881. The explanation of this increase of course lies in the fact that a superior type of vessel is now engaged in the shipping trade, and the enterprise of the great European and American trading companies will doubtless have the effect of raising still higher the average for succeeding years. It is somewhat reinarkable to find that the vessels engaged in the inter-state trade have more than kept pace in increase of tonnage with those trading between the Commonwealth and other countries. Of course, the increase in the average tonnage of inter-state vessels is represented as greater than it actually has been, because the mailsteamers on their way to Sydney are cleared at Fremantle, Adelaide, and Melbourne for the states further east; but when allowance has been made on this score, the improvement in the class of vessel trading in local waters will be found most noteworthy. It is well known, however, that the steamers running on the Australian coast favourably compare with those engaged in the coasting trade of the United Kingdom.

The trade of the Commonwealth with New Zealand appears as external shipping in all returns given in this chapter, and has, therefore, not been distinguished separately, but in the following table will be found figures showing the total shipping of that Colony with all countries :

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The above figures show that, although the number of vessels has alecreased by 102 since 1891, the total tonnage has increased by about 895,000 tons, while the average per vessel is nearly double that of 1891.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF Ports. The relative importance of the various ports of the Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand may be ascertained by an inspection of the table given hereunder. Melbourne takes first place in the amount of tonnage; but the figures are inflated by the counting of the great ocean steamers as twice entering and twice clearing at Port Phillip.

This remark applies equally to Port Adelaide and Albany, and in the last year to Fremantle. If allowance be made on this score, it will be found that Sydney has a larger quantity of shipping than any other Australasian port, and that it is followed by Melbourne, Newcastle, and Port Adelaide. The figures for the years 1881 and 1891 given for Queensland ports, other than Brisbane, include coastal trade, and the quantity of tonnage shown for these years is, therefore, somewhat in excess of the truth. As this table is only intended to show the relative importance of ports, the inter-state shipping of the Commonwealth has not been excluded, but no account has been taken of the purely coastal trade within each state :

Total Tonnage entered and cleared.

Port.

1881.

1891.

1901.

5,413,677 2,609,861

300,699

6,366, 103

259,573

Commonwealth of Australia.
New South Wales-
Sydney

1,610,692 3,469,862 Newcastle

1,127,238 1,844,842 Wollongong

14,612

101,888 VictoriaMelbourne..

2,144,949 4,362,138 Geelong

93,347 190,932 QueenslandBrisbane

406,032 855,993 Townsville

205,886 544,470 Rockhampton

207,706 471,837 Cooktown

217,144 469,577 Cairns

56,447 326,898 Mackay

104,174 330,119 South Australia Port Adelaide

1,078,920

1,990,938 Port Pirie

33,325 321,781 Port Darwin.

90, 100 170,642 Western AustraliaFremantle

42,618 63,068 Albany

219,902 931,502 Tasmania Hobart

204,007 646,683 Launceston

138,657 293,537 Devonport.....

8,121

1,207,295

95, 101 36,653 31,670 4,081 4,473

3,296, 108

376,856 163,705

1,864,195 1,667,707

870,733 199,444 124,961

New Zealand.

Wellington
Auckland
Bluff Harbour
Lyttelton
Dunedin

119,243
238,886

91,592
167,151
114,637

293,451
345,183
196,540
161,387
97,409

591,154
736,005
303,496
208,476
112,718

A better idea of the relative importance of the principal ports of the states is obtainable from the trade figures, which are given below for the year 1901 :

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The comparative importance of the ports of the Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand may be seen by viewing them in connection with the shipping and trade of the chief ports of the United Kingdom, the 1901 figures for which are appended. It will be seen that in aggregate tonnage Melbourne is exceeded only by London, Liverpool, Cardiff, and Newcastle. Sydney comes next on the list, exceeding all other British ports. In value of trade Sydney is exceeded only by London, Liverpool, and Hull. If the Commonwealth of Australia be regarded as one country, however, the comparison is somewhat misleading, as the inter-state trade is included in the returns:

Port.

Total
Shipping.

Total Trade.

Port.

Total
Shipping.

Total Trade.

England

tons.
£ Scotland-

tons.

£ London..... 17,275,645 262, 164,200 Glasgow 3,825, 890 30,906,501 Liverpool.. 12,636,225 237,390,518 Leith

1,945,754 16,795,209 Cardiff 12,737,057 15,616,806 Kirkcaldy 1,900,876 1,579,153 Newcastle and

Grangemouth. 1,537,485 5,311,311 N.&S.Shields 8,671,810 20,505,656 IrelandHull 4,425,356 52,800,743 Belfast

674,023 8,069,258 Southampton 3,062,721 | 28,057,904 Dublin

365,881 2,721,207 Sunderland 2,147,155 2,710,464 | AustraliaGrimsby 1,775,647 | 18,026,984 Sydney. 5,413,677 41,393,250 Dover

1,905,919 13,815,576 Melbourne 6,366,103 30,649,087 Newport 2,343,721 3,548,930 Brisbane 1,207,295 6,305,906 Harwich 1,395,137 22.704,705 Adelaide 3,296,108 9,212,509 Bristol

1,274,092 13,748,110 Fremantle 1,864,195 12,169,806 Newhaven.... 703,632 12,788,725 Hobart..

870,733 1,566,232
New Zealand-
Wellington 591, 154 4,990,670
Auckland...... 736,005 4,946,358

The yearly movement of tonnage at Melbourne and Sydney far exceeds that of the ports of any other British possession, Hong Kong and Singapore excepted. Two other exceptions might be mentionedGibraltar and Malta; but as these are chiefly ports of call, and the trade is very limited compared with the tonnage, they can scarcely be placed in the same category.

REGISTRATION OF VESSELS. The number and tonnage of steam and sailing vessels on the registers of each of the six states of the Commonwealth and the colony of New Zealand at the end of 1901 are given below :

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736

DEFENCE.

THE

“HE colonists of Australasia have always manifested an objection

to the maintenance of a large standing army, and shown a disposition to rely mainly upon the patriotism and valour of the citizens for their own defence; but each state possesses a more or less complete system of fortifications, arined with expensive ordnance which requires à more regular and constant attendance than could well be bestowed by those who devote only a portion of their time to military affairs ; hence it has been found advisable to institute in each state small permanent military forces, consisting for the most part of artillery and submarine miners, whose chief duty it is to man the fortifications and keep the valuable armaments therein in a state of efficiency, so as to be ready for any emergency. At the same time, it is expected that they will prove the nucleus for an effective defence force if ever bostilities should unfortunately occur. Under the terms of the Commonwealth Constitution Act, the control of the naval and military defence forces of the states was assumed by the Federal Government in March, 1901.

The greater portion of the Australian forces consists of volunteers enrolled under a system of partial payment, which affords a defence force without the disadvantages and expense of a standing army. The men receive payment according to the number of parades and night drills they attend, as compensation for wages lost while absent from their employment for the purpose of receiving military instruction. The remuneration varies in the different states, the New South Wales scale being about £7 8s. per annum for the ordinary land forces, and £8 10s. for the naval forces. There has been a marked tendency in most of the provinces to discourage the services of those who are purely volunteers, as the system was found to work unsatisfactorily, especially in the country districts. In New Zealand alone is the volunteer system the mainstay of defence.

The following table shows the strength of the inilitary forces maintained by each state as at 30th June, 1902. The total number of men of military ages (from 20 to 40 years) in Australasia was ascertained at

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