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compared with 1,580,950 oz., valued at £6,007,610 in 1900. The output was the largest yet recorded, exceeding that for 1899, which had hitherto been the highest by 235,514 oz. Steady progress has been made on all the fields, but the most substantial increases were obtained from the Murchison, East Murchison, Mount Margaret, North Coolgardie, and East Coolgardie fields, the yields ranging from 39 to 18 per cent. higher than those of the preceding year. As there were no discoveries of note made in 1901, and the Phillips River field which was proclaimed during the year has developed but slowly owing to the absence of crushing facilities, the increased output may be ascribed to the more scientific methods employed and the improved class of machinery in use. The number of men engaged in gold-mining at the end of 1901 was 19,771, of whom 16,755 were quartz miners and 3,016 alluvial miners.

New Zealand was for many years a large producer of gold, and from 1865 to 1871 the value won amounted to over £2,000,000 each year. Since then the production has declined until in 1894 it was only £887,839, but this amount has been considerably increased of late years, and in 1901 the production was 455,561 oz., valued at £1,753,783, the highest yield since 1873. The increase of late years is due to the introduction of English capital into the mines which has enabled the claims to be opened up to greater depths, and to the establishment of the gold dredging industry, which is being carried on successfully in many parts of the colony. A great deal of attention is being paid to the auriferous deposits in river beds and in deep wet ground on the southern gold-fields, and in 1901 there were 145 dredges, valued at £528,600, working in the Otago, Nelson, and West Coast districts. As showing the profitable nature of dredging, the value of the gold obtained in this manner during the year ended 31st March, 1901, was £287,061, while the industry gave employment to 965 men. The number of men engaged in gold-mining in 1901 was 12,533.

Although payable gold was found in Tasmania in 1852, yet it was not until the seventies that the metal was mined for on an extensive scale, the total production to the end of 1870 being less than 4,000 07. In 1878 the value of gold produced suddenly rose to £100,000, and this total has been gradually increased, until in 1899 it was valued at £327,545, being the highest yet recorded. The production in 1901 amounted to 75,831 oz., valued at £295,176, and showed a slight decrease on the values in the two preceding years. Beaconsfield is the principal gold-field in the State. It is situated on the west side of the river Tamar, 26 miles north-west cf Launceston, and formerly produced a large quantity of alluvial gold, while there is also a deep lead carrying good gold. The Tasmania mine, on this field, is the largest gold-producer in the State, and up to 30th June, 1901, yielded 520,614 oz., valued at £1,907,279, out of which £745,072 has been paid in dividends. The Lefroy field has been another important centre of gold-production, and, aided by Government assistance to the amount of £2,000, an effort is being made to cut the reef by driving at the 1,200-foot level. At Mathinna a large quantity of gold has also been obtained. The principal mine on this field is the New Golden Gate, the deepest in the State, its main shaft being 1,330 feet. This mine has yielded 174,097 oz. of gold, valued at about £643,654, and up to 30th June, 1901, had paid £300,000 in dividends. At Mangana, active prospecting has been going on for some time, and rich stone has been obtained from the Golden Entrance and Fingal Reefs mines. In the Western District a little alluvial gold is obtained, while north of the Pieman River there is a large extent of auriferous country, but owing to the dense vegetation prospecting is difficult.

Attempts are being made to recover gold by the process of dredging, and three dredges were at work on 30th June, 1901, but the results were disappointing. The men engaged in goldmining during 1901 numbered 1,112.

Of all the Australian States, South Australia has produced the smallest quantity of gold, the total output from the commencement of mining operations being valued at less than £2,400,000. The highest production was in 1893, when it reached £153,132; but it has gradually declined, and the value has not amounted to £100,000 in any of tbe last four years. In the state proper the yield is very small

, amounting to but 4,918 oz. in 1901, the balance of 22,572 oz. being obtained from the Northern Territory, the total value amounting to £93,222. The mines in the Northern Territory are largely in the hands of Chinese, but a number of properties have been acquired by an English company, which has erected the works necessary for their (levelopment. The total number of men engaged in gold-mining in South Australia was 2,000, of whom 1,000 were in the Northern Territory, the majority of the latter being Chinese. About a fourth of these Chinese are physically incapable of doing a fair day's work, and are dangerous from a sanitary point of view. Possessed of no means whatever, and with no proper tools for the search for the precious metal, they eke out a miserable existence by mining a little alluvial gold.

The following table gives the value of gold raised in each State up to the end of 1901, and its proportion to the total amount :

Production of Gold.

State.

Value.

Proportion raised in

each State.

New South Wales
Victoria
Queensland
South Australia
Western Australia
Tasmania

Commonwealth
New Zealand

Australasia

£ 49,661,815 260,489,201 52,751,675

2,388, 197 30,149,712

4,893,588 400,331,183

59,159,883 459, 194,071

per cent.

10:8 56-7 11:5 0:5 6.5

1:1 871

12.9 100.0

It will be readily understood from this and the following table how Victoria, although in area the smallest of the group with the exception of Tasmania, achieved the foremost position amongst the Australasian States, and retained that place so long as the powerful attraction of gold continued, while the source of Western Australia’s progress is also fully disclosed. The following table shows the value of the gold raised in the various States during each year for which records are available, but, for reasons which are explained in the next paragraph, discrepancies exist in the total values shown for several of the States :

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1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1802 1863 1864 1865 1806 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1892 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901

£
£

£
468,336 580,548
2,660,946 10,953,936
1,781,172 12,600,084

773,209 9,568,260
654,594 11,172,260
689,174 11,942,940

674,477 11,046,268
1,104,175 10,112,908
1,259,127 9,122,868
1,465,373 9,626,800
1,806,171 7,869,812
2,467,780 6,633,124
1,796,170 6,508,420 30,000
1,304,926 6,181,748
1,231,243 6,172,752
1,116,404 5,913,120 79,143
1,053,578 5,732,984 170,090
994,665 6,536,800 429,907
974,149 5,349,184 451,352

931,016 4,891,192 351,412
1,250,485 5,421,908 504,876
1,644,177 5,130,084 592,993
1,396,375 4,964,820 555,310
1,041,614 4,623,888 561,255

877,694 4,383,148 590,242
613,190 3,855,040 660,136
471,448 3,238,612 838,544
430,200 3,101,088 1,035,864
407,219 3,035,788 1,009,946
444,253 3,316,484 934,976
573,582 3,435,400 948,318
526,522 3,594,144 787,125
458,530 3,210,138 744,731
396,059 3,114,472 1,077,314
378,665 2,940,872 1,088,294
366,294 2.660,784 1,193,493
394,579 2,471,004 1,190,730
317,241 2,500,104 1,685,750
434,784 2,459,356 2,586,860
460,285 2,354,244 2,137,054
559,231 2,305,600 2,017,536
675,299 2,617,824 2,154,453

2,936 15,593 24,217 6,000 6,363

293 4,175 7,034 9,888

£

£ 1,048,884 13,614,882 14.381,256 10,341,469 11,826,854 12,632,114 11,720,745 40, 422 11,217,083 52,464 10,382,725 28,427 10,092,173 17,585 9,675,983 751,873 9,113,346 1,591,384 8,335,470 2,431,723 7,486,874 1,856,837 7,403,995 2,226,474 7,113,049 2,841,517 6,959,188 2,698,862 7,964,822 2,504,326 6,797,753 2,362,995 0,212,055 2,157,585 7,199,324 2,787,520 7,388,926 1,731,267 6,935,188 1,987,425 6,249,423 1,505,331 5,876,100 1,407,770 5,183,177 1,284,328 4,571,893 1,496,081) 4,718,377 1,240,079 4,083,938 1,148,108 4,897,010 1,227,25? 5,287,026 1,080,790 5,175,848 1,002,790 4,707,620 993,33% 4,841,653 921,797 4,651,849 948,615 4,434,643 903,669 4,671,665 $11,100 4,729,682 801,006 5,736,355 808,549 6,231,466 1 773,438 5,272,894 1,007,488 5,887,300 954,744 6,215,472 913,138 7,394,402 887,839 7,708,029 1,162, 164 7,954,196 1,041,428 9,906,631 980),204 11,711,033 1,050,691 14,661,253 1,513,173 13,701,876 1,439,602 14,189,978 1,753,783

1,225

90

4,382
2,536

514
7,475
14,218
16,055
15,309
18,390
18,491
11,982
44,923
23,289
100,000
230,895
201.297
216,901
187,337
176,442
160,404
155,309
117,250
159,533
147,154
119,703

651,286 2,684,504 2,159, 290 1,156,717 2,694,720 2,378,289 1,315,929 2,960,44 2,210,887 1,073,360 3,220,348 2,241,347 1,128,164 3.251,064 2,553,141 1,244,330 3,349,028 2,750,349 1,751,815 3,418,000 2,838,119 1,194,521 3,229,628 2,871,709

921,282 3,102,753 2,541,892

S7,114 149,816 174,070 145,875 225,455 212,329 237,574 289,241 281,485 327,545 316,220 295, 176

112,825
80,720
87,729
93,404
89,709
95,674 1,148
138,302 18,517
66,160 13,273
70,780 58,872
106,105 86,664
125,529 115.182
139,370 226,284
153,132 421,385
152,032 787,099
128,792 879,748
112,759 1,068,808
120,044 2,564,977
95,143 3,990.698
79,041 6,246,733
82.188 6,007,610
93,222 7,235,653

These figures do not in all cases add up to the total value of the production given elsewhere, as the information regarding earlier years is imperfect. The total for Victoria is £297,952 less than the actual value of production, while for Queensland the amount is deficient to the extent of £3,442,948, accounted for by the fact that prior to 1878 the figures only represent the gold sent by escort. There is a deficiency of £68,611 in South Australia which cannot be traced owing to the imperfect nature of the returns available in earlier years. The figures shown for Western Australia are £427,061 less than the total value of gold produced, as prior to 1899 they only show the value of gold exported. There is also a slight. deficiency of £2,869 in the total shown for Tasmania. The gross pro-duction of gold in each State during 1901 and the contents in fine gold, are given below :

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The number of men engaged in mining for gold is shown in the following table, and it would appear that the average value of gold won by each miner is £188 5s. Od. per annum. It is probable that the number of goldminers in several of the States is largely overstated, otherwise the industry must be carried on at a great loss; and this will be the more apparent when it is remembered that a fairly large quantity of gold is obtained with other metals, the men employed at the working of which are not classified as gold-miners. Most likely many of the men employ themselves in mining for only a portion of their time, and devote the rest to more remunerative pursuits. But when full allowance is made on this score, it will be evident that, in some of the States at least, the search for gold is not a profitable occupation. The small return for South Australia is due to the large number of Chinese engaged in the industry, many of them not possessing proper appliances for working the claims.

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The greatest development of quartz-reefing is found in Victoria, some of the mines being of a great depth. At the end of 1901 there were eight mines in the Bendigo district over 3,000 feet deep, and fourteen over 2,500 feet deep. In the Victoria mine a depth of 3,750 feet had been reached, and in the Lazarus Mine, 3,424 feet. On other fields there were six mines over 1,500 feet deep, the deepest of which were the South Star mine in the Ballarat district, where the shaft is down 2,520 feet, and the North Long Tunnel mine in the Walhalla district where a depth of 2,516 feet has been reached.

A notice of gold-mining would be incomplete without some reference to the remarkably large finds made at various times. Information on this point is meagre and not altogether reliable, as doubtless many nuggets were unearthed of which particulars were never published. Victoria's record is the best, and includes the following nuggets :

lb. oz. dwt. “ The Welcome Stranger,” found 9th February, 1869.......... 190 00 The Welcome,” found 9th June, 1858

184 9 16 Nugget found at Canadian Gully, 31st January, 1853

134 11 0 And others of the following weights :-98 lb. 1 oz. 17 dwt., 93 lb. 1 oz. 11 dwt., 84 lb. 3 oz. 15 dwt., 69 lb. 6 oz., 52 lb. 1 oz., 30 lb. 11 oz. 8 wt., and 30 lb. 11 oz. 2 dwt.

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