Slike strani

My ear is continually intent upon the melody of the

is con

pipe, and the foft notes of the lute: my eye tinually fixed upon thy rubied lip, and the circling


This kind of measure is not unlike that which Sappho uses in those elegant lines quoted by Hephestion,

Γλυκεῖα μᾶτερ, ἔτοι δύναμαι κρέκειν τ ἰσὸν Πόθω δαμεῖσα παιδὸς βραδινὰν δι ̓ Αφροδίταν. which he scans thus,

Γλυκεῖα μᾶ | τερ, ἔτοι δύ | ναμαι κρέκειν ] * ἰσὸν
Πόσω δαμεν | τα παιδὸς βρα | δινὰν δι' Α | φροδίταν.

Other lyrick verses contain thirteen fyllables in this form,


صبا به تهنیت پیر میفروش آمد


موسم طرب و عیش و ناز و نوش آمد

Sēbā bĕ tēh | neītī peēr | ĭ meiforōsh | āmēd
Kē mūsĭmī tārbū eīsh | ŭ nāzŭ nōsh | āmēd

The zephyr comes to congratulate the old keeper of the banquet-house, that the season of mirth, joy, wantonnefs, and wine is coming.


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صبا بلطف بگو آن غزال رعنارا بکوه و بیابان تو داده مارا


Seba belutf | bögou an | gazali ra | nara

Ke ser becouh | va byaban | to dadei | mara.

This couplet has been tranflated in another part of the grammar.

The Perfians fometimes ufe a measure confifting of trochees and fpondees alternately, like these verses of Catullus and Aristophanes,

Cras amet qui nunquam amavit, quique amavit cras amet. Ὅτις ἡμῶν τὰς Αθήνας ἐκκεκώφηκας βοῶν.

thus Hafiz,

ابر اذاري بر آمد باد نوروزي وزيد

Aber âzari ber âmed badi neurúzi vazeed.

The vernal clouds appear, the gales of the pleasant feafon breathe.

But the most common Persian verse contains eleven fyllables, as


چونکه گل رفت و گلستان در گذشت نشنوی زان پس زبلبل سرگذشت

Chúnkeh gul reft vagulistán derguzesht

Neshenvi zán pes zebulbul ferguzefht

When the roses wither, and the bower lofes its sweetness, you hear no longer the tale of the nightingale.

In this last measure are written all the great Perfian whether upon heroick or moral fubjects, as the poems, works of Ferdúfi, and of Jámi, the Boftan of Sadi, and the Mefnavi of the excellent Gelaleddîn. This fort of verse answers to our common heroick rhyme which was brought to fo high a degree of perfection by Pope, and which the English poets will do well to retain, instead of adopting the lefs harmonious measures of other nations.

I have dwelt the longer upon the different forts of verses ufed in Perfia, because there are few books or even common letters written in the Perfian language, which are not interfperfed with fragments of poetry; and because all the Perfian verses must be read according to the pauses of scansion thus the following elegant couplet quoted by Meniníki,


تبادر چین هر تاري بود زلف ترا صد چین ثل سوري زسنبل پوده چین برج

که سازد

must be pronounced,

Tebader ché | ne her tareé | buved zulfeé | tera fad cheén Ke fazed bér | gulee fureé | zefumbul pú | de cheen ber cheén

with a ftrong accent upon every fourth fyllable; and it may here be obferved, that the Perfians, like the French, ufually accent the laft fyllables of their words.




As to their profody, nothing can be more easy and fimple; the vowels I elif, vau, and S ya are long by nature; the points, which they commonly fupprefs, are naturally short; and every fhort fyllable that ends with a confonant is long by pofition;


,hiraz شیراز -semen : but the Per سمن dhan, دهان,sumbal سنبل

fians, like other poets, have many licences; they often add a short vowel which does not properly belong to the word, as in the firft ode of Hafiz,

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beērūn, which is a spondee, becomes an iambick foot when it is written berūn: in the fame manner


is دكر

used for, and for. The omiffion of | elif is more common; fo is


for نشان and ,راه for



,as in this beautiful couplet افشان

از دهر چه ميجويي خواه و کلغشان کن از دهر این گفت سحرکه گل بلبل تو چه ميکويي

،، Call for wine, and fcatter flowers around; what fa

"vour canft thou expect from fortune?" fo fpake the
rofe this morning; O nightingale ! what fayft thou
to her maxim?

pedding گل افشان is fed for گلفشان In which lines سحركه سحرگاه

flowers, and as

for a

the morning.

I fhall close this section with fome examples of Perfian



verses from the ε or hemiftich, to the s which differs from the

or odes or elegy in nothing but the

number of the diftichs, of which the ode feldom contains fewer than five, and the elegy feldom fewer than twenty.

I fhall


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