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ayoha ob!

! dereega alas دريغا or دريغ

! ah ah آه

Thus in the tale of the merchant and the parrot by Gelaleddin Rúmi,

اي دريغا واي دريغا واي دريغ

کانچنان ماهی نهان شد زیر میغ

Alas! alas! that fo bright a moon should be hidden by the clouds!

efsis are likewife interjections انسوس fugan and فغان

that express grief: thus in a tetrastich by the fultan Togrul Ben Erflan,

دیروز چنان وصال جان فروزي و امروز چنین فراق عالم سوزي افسوس که بر دفتر عمرم ایام آنرا روزي نویسد اینرا روزي

Yesterday the presence of


beloved delighted my


and to-day her abfence fills me with bitterness: alas! that the hand of fortune fhould write joy and grief alternately in the book of my life!

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This great hero and poet was the laft king of the Seljukian race : he was extremely fond of Ferdufi's poetry, and in the battle in which he lost his life, he was heard to repeat aloud the following verfes from the Shahnáma.

چو برخاست از لشکرکش کرد


نامداران ما کشت زرد من این کرز یک زخم برداشتم

سپه را هم انجاي بگذاشتم خروشی برآورد اسبم چو پیل

زمین شد پریشان چو درياي نيل

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When the duft arofe from the approaching army, the cheeks of our heroes turned pale; but I raised my battle-ax, and with a fingle ftroke opened a paffage for my troops: my fteed raged like a furious elephant, and the plain was agitated like the waves of the Nile.

* These lines are quoted by d'Herbelot, p. 1029, but they are written differently in my manuscript of Ferdufi, which I have here followed.



HE conftruction of the Perfian tongue is very easy,


and may be reduced to a few rules, moft of which it has in common with other languages. The nominative is ufually placed before the verb, with which it agrees in number and perfon, as in this pious fentence of a Perfian philofopher,

از بهر چه آمده اگر آمده که علم اولین و آخرین بياموزي این راه روا نیست این همه خالق داند جويي آنجا که اوّل قیام بر

آمده که او را واكر كرفتي او خود آنجا بود

Wherefore art thou come? if thou art come to learn the science of ancient and modern times, thou hast not taken the right path: doth not the Creator of all things know all things? and if thou art come to feek him, know that where thou firft waft fixed, there he was prefent.

* See the Bibliotheque Orientale, p. 950.


yet it is remarkable that many Arabick plurals are considered in Perfian as nouns of the fingular number, and agree as fuch with verbs and adjectives, as

از آمدن بهار از رفتن دي

اوراق حيات ما ميكردد طي

By the approach of fpring, and the return of December, the leaves of our life are continually folded.

میکردن a leaf governs ورق the plural of اوراق where

in the fingular.

There is another strange irregularity in the Perfian fyntax; the cardinal numbers are usually joined to nouns and a thousand and

one days.

هزار یک روز ,verbs in the fingular

نسیم زلغت اگر بگذرد بتربت حافظ زخاك كالبدش صد هزار لاله برآید

If the gale fhall waft the fragrance of thy locks over the tomb of Hafiz, a hundred thousand flowers will Spring from the earth that hides his corfe.

These idioms, however, are by no means natural to the Perfian, but feem borrowed from the Arabs, who fay,

a tbonfand and one nights. In Arabick الف ليلة وليلة

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too a noun of the plural number, if it fignify a thing without life, requires a verb in the fingular, and that of the feminine gender, for the Arabick verbs have distinct genders like nouns, as

خرت الانهار والاغصان مالت للسجود

The rivers murmured, and the branches were bent to adore their maker.

فاضت اقداحهم كاحداتي

Their cups overflowed with wine, and my eyes with tears.

Most active verbs require the oblique cafe in after them, as

اگر آن ترک شيرازي بدست آرد دل مارا

بخال هندویش بخشم سمرقند و بخارا را

If that fair damfel of Shiraz would accept my heart, I would give for the black mole on her cheek the cities of Samarcand and Bokhára.

It has been before obferved (fee page 17) that the is omitted if the noun be indefinite or general, as

جام پرکن

fill a cup; but that it is inferted, if the thing be particular

and limited, as he filled the cup; examples I


of this occur in almost every page.

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