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work he did for others. His own life came to a beautiful full development, so that he passed away as a sheaf of corn ripe to be gathered in the harvest."

The biographer, Dr. Crooks, has done his work well. There is one other biography with which we may compare it, the "Memoir of Norman Macleod, D.D., by the Rev. Donald Macleod." Dr. Macleod was, of course, a greater scholar than Bishop Simpson, and the Scotch humor and wit that appear in the Memoir are wanting in this life, but we have felt much the same interest in reading the one as in reading the other. It is no easy thing to write an interesting biography. What aided Dr. Crooks much in his work was the portions of autobiography left behind by Bishop Simpson. And this reference to the Memoir of Dr. Macleod calls to mind also another biography recently published in our own church, viz.: "The Life and Work of John Williamson Nevin, D.D., LL.D.," by Dr. Theodore Appel, Dr. Nevin differed much from both of the great men just mentioned. He was a man of ideas rather than of practical affairs, and yet the reading of his life makes the same impression, that one is communing with a great and good man. Such a life inspires others to seek after the same pure and unselfish principles in guiding and directing our own lives.

History consists in part of biography. Society is made up of individuals, and the general life is largely formed and governed by leading personalities. In the life of Macleod one learns much of the life of the church in Scotland, in the life of Bishop Simpson there is much of the history of Methodism in this country, and in the life of Dr. Nevin one finds much of the inner history of the Reformed Church.

We commend this life of Bishop Simpson as an interesting and profitable volume for any library, and to be placed in any family. Of course the life of Dr. Nevin comes nearest home to our Reformed people and our Reformed families, but there is abundant room for both in every family in our church. Perhaps if we had more of such literature it would take the place of much of a lighter kiud, whose influence is questionable, especially where it is read to excess by the young. This biography keeps up the reader's interest from beginning to end, and that is one of the tests of its worth. It teaches us great lessons by example, the most forcible way of teaching moral truth.

MODERN CRITICISM CONSIDERED IN ITS RELATION TO THE FOURTH GOSPEL: Being the Bampton Lectures for 1890. By Henry William Watkins, M. A., D.D., sometimes scholar of Balliol College; Fellow of King's College, London; Archdeacon and Canon of Durham, and Professor of Hebrew in the University of Durham. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 31 West Twenty-third Street. 1890. Price, $5.00.

The preparation of this volume, we are told in a "prefatory note," had its origin in the author's asking the late Bishop Light

foot "how he accounted for the fact of the frequent assertion that the genuineness of the Fourth Gospel was disproved by modern criticism, in the presence of the strong and accumulating evidence in its favor," and in the latter's suggesting to him that "the subject might be profitably treated in a course of Bampton Lectures." We are also further imformed, that shortly afterwards a rough outline of the arguments which presented themselves was drawn out by the author and forwarded to the Bishop, who entirely approved of the proposed treatment, and was instrumental in having him appointed to deliver the lectures of 1890.

The subject of the volume, it may not be amiss here to state, is not the Fourth Gospel, nor yet the evidence external or internal in favor of its authenticity and genuineness, but, as implied in the title of the book, the bearing of modern criticism on the Fourth Gospel. Its especial purpose is to estimate this criticism, and to show that there is no foundation for the frequent assertions that modern criticism is fatal to the claims of this Gospel.

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The lectures of which the volume consists are eight in number. None of these is complete in itself, but each is an important step in the stairs by which the conclusion is finally reached that "there has been an accumulating mass of evidence in favor of the genuineness of the writing which we are justified in calling, without trace of uncertainty in our voice, The Gospel according to St. John.'" In the first three lectures of the series the evidence of the first eighteen Christian centuries is very carefully and elaborately presented. In the four following lectures, the results of the various schools of criticism of the present century are very ably and thoroughly considered. The closing lecture presents the conclusions reached in the preceding lectures and treats in a general way, of the scope and character of the Gospel and its significance for our own age. All the lectures give evidence of thorough scholarship and superior intellectual attainments on the part of their author. In spirit they are fair and honorable; in style, clear and forcible; and in contents, rich in the material necessary for forming a correct judgment concerning the important questions that have been raised with regard to the Gospel under consideration in The work is a truly valuable contribution to our Theological

Literature.

THE LIVING CHRIST AND THE FOUR GOSPELS. By R. W. Dale, D.D., Birmingham. New York: A. C. Armstrong & Son. Price, $1.50.

Why is it that those who believe in Christ continue to believe, notwithstanding the formidable assaults which in our own time have been made upon the Jewish and the Christian Scriptures? and, Do the Four Gospels contain that representation of our Lord, that account of His miracles and teaching, which was given by the men who knew Him, and who, after His death, preached the

Christian Faith? These are the questions which are considered in this volume. That they are discussed in a scholarly manner, and with marked ability, the name of the author is a sufficient guarantee. Of modern writers on theological subjects, there is none, indeed, that we read with more pleasure and satisfaction.

The volume itself consists of fourteen lectures which Dr. Dale delivered to the Carrs Lane (Congregational) Church, Birmingham, of which he is the honored pastor. It is accordingly of a popular character and admirably suited to meet the wants of intelligent readers generally.

The first four lectures are devoted to the question, Why do those who believe, continue to believe? The answer given to this question is," that they do so because whatever may have been the original grounds of their faith; their faith has been verified in their own personal experience;" and, furthermore, because "the representation of the Lord Jesus Christ in the Four Gospels appeals, and appeals immediately to all those elements and powers of life that give answer to manifestations of the presence of God." In other words "they believe in Christ because they see God in Him." The proofs of this answer are ably presented, and the objections to it fully met. In the nine following lectures the evidence in favor of the historical trustworthiness of the story contained in the Four Gospels is clearly set forth. The concluding lecture is a review of the argument contained in the preceding lectures.

The work is, in every respect, a masterly one, and well calculated to deepen faith in the living Christ, and to increase confidence in the trustworthiness of the Gospel history. Dr. Dale's argument for the verity of our Christian faith we, indeed, believe to be irrefutable. It fully meets the doubts occasioned by destructive criticism.

A. M. MACKAY, Pioneer Missionary of the Church Missionary Society to Uganda. By his Sister. With portrait and map. Author's Edition, New York: A. C. Armstrong & Son. 1890. Price, $1.50. This book is a sister's memorial to a heroic brother. Mackay, of Uganda, who is the subject of it, was the son of Alexander Mackay, L.L.D., a minister of the Free Church of Scotland, and was boen in the little village of Rhynie, County of Aberdeen, Oct. 13, 1849. When he was eighteen years of age his father moved to Edinburg, and here he entered the Free Church Training College for Teachers, and later the University of Edinburg. At the age of twenty-four he left Scotland for Germany, where in Berlin he pursued his studies for several years more. He then offered his services to the Church Missionary Society, and in the Spring of 1876 he was sent as a pioneer missionary to Uganda, in Africa, where he labored successfully until his death, which occurred Feb. 8, 1890. Though his life was a comparatively brief one, yet he

lived long enough to prove himself one of Christ's true noblemen and heroes. In the preparation of this memorial his sister has made extensive and very skillful use of his letters and journals. The volume before us accordingly gives a great deal of interesting information concerning the scene of his labors, as well as a living portraiture of his self-denying character. It is therefore a doubly interesting and inspiring book-one of the very best of missionary biographies. On this account it ought to find a place in every church and Sunday-school library.

THE SERMON BIBLE. Matthew i-xxi. New York: A. C. Armstrong & Son, 714 Broadway. 1890. Price, $1.50.

The general features of this volume are the same as those of the preceding volumes on the Old Testament which have already been noticed in this REVIEW. Under every text is given an outline of an important sermon by some eminent preacher, and in many cases several such outlines are presented. There are also full references to theological treatises, commentaries, etc., where any help is given to the elucidation of the text. If properly used the work cannot fail to be of great service in the way of stimulating thought and thus aiding in the preparation of sermons. We know of no other

work of the kind that possesses so many excellent qualities.

A GOOD START. A Book for Young Men. By J. Thain Davidson, D.D., Author of "Talks with Young Men," etc., etc. New York: A, C. Armstrong & Son. 1890. Price, $1.25.

A good start in life is not only desirable but highly important. A right start, however, alone is a really good start. The aim of the present volume is to instruct young men how to make such a start. The truths presented in it are truths which all young men should seriously consider. They are, inoreover, presented in a most interesting and impressive manner. Among the subjects considered are, "Something Better than Riches," "The Lover of Pleasure," "Is the Young Man Safe?" "The City's Wilderness," "Men of Pluck," "Betting and Gambling," "The True Test of Religion," "Strong in the Grace of Christ," and, "A Perfect Man.' l'arents will do well to place the book into the hands of their sons. They will also find it a delightful and instructive book to read themselves.

LIFE IN CHRIST AND FOR CHRIST. By the Rev. Handley C. G. Moule, M.A., Principal of Ridley Hall, and formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; Author of "Thoughts on Christian Sanctity," "Outlines of Christian Doctrine,' ""Veni Creator," etc. New York: A. C. Armstrong & Son. 1890. Price, 40 cents.

The vital relations subsisting between our Lord Jesus Christ and His believing people are the theme of the six chapters which make up this little volume of one hundred and thirty-two pages, In the

first four chapters the subject is considered in its two-fold aspect of Life in Christ and Christ in Life. The two remaining chapters treat of Christ, respectively, as, "The Bright and Morning Star," and "The Lord both of the Dead and Living." The book throughout is devotional and edifying. It will be found an admirable help to holy living.

THE CREDENTIALS OF THE GOSPEL; A Statement of the Reason of the Christian Hope: Being the Nineteenth Fernly Lecture. Delivered in Carver Street Chapel, Sheffield, on Monday Evening, August 5, 1889. By Joseph Agar Beet. New York: Hunt & Eaton. Cincinnati: Cranston & Stowe. 1890. Price, $1.00.

In this volume Prof. Beet aims to prove the truth of the Gospel. The arguments which he adduces in its favor are not specially new, but they are admirably marshaled to do effective work. The Lecture which makes up the body of the work is divided into eight sections. Of these, section first is introductory. Sections second and third treat, respectively, of the evidence within, and of the evidence in the material world. In section fourth Christianity is compared with other religious, and its superiority is clearly demonstrated. Section fifth is devoted to a consideration of Christ and the Christian document, and section sixth to a forcible presentation of the historical argument in their favor. In section seventh objections are answered, and in the concluding section the results of the discussion are summed up and their practical bearing pointed out. A number of valuable notes of considerable length are appended to the Lecture. These notes relate to the following subjects: The Origin of the Moral Sense, Freedom or Necessity, Scientific Agnosticism, The Bible and Science, and Biblical Rationalism. The work is one of decided merit and cannot be read without profit. Its scholarship is marked; its style, clear, forcible and eloquent. In the "Expositor" for August, 1890, Prof. Marcus Dods says of this work: "There is much that is freshly thought and admirably put throughout the book; and however well read in apologetic literature any one is, he will find much to interest and much to convince in the chapters which deal with the resurrection and the miraculous. At this point Prof. Beet makes a distinct advance in the argument, and deserves the thanks of all who are interested in the defence of Christianity."

PHILOSOPHY OF CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE. Eight Lectures Delivered before the Ohio Wesleyan University on the Merrick Foundation. By Randolph S. Foster. Third Series. New York: Hunt & Eaton. Cincinnati: Cranston & Stowe. 1890. Price, $1.00.

The purpose of these lectures is to consider and explain the principal facts of Christian experience. First the limitations of the subject are stated and the terms carefully defined which are used

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