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REFORMED QUARTERLY REVIEW
NO. 2.-APRIL, 1891.
HEINRICH BULLINGER, THE SUCCESSOR OF ZWINGLI AND SECOND ANTISTES
BY PROF. PHILIP SCHAFF, D.D., LL.D.
SOURCES AND LITERATURE.
1. Sources. Bullinger's printed works (stated to he 150 by Scheuchzer in
“ Bibliotheca Helvetica,” Zürich, 1733). His manuscript letters (mostly Latin) in the " Thesaurus Hottingerianus " and the “Simler Collection” of the City Library at Zürich.— The second volume of the Acta Ecclesiastica, of Zürich.— The Zürich Letters or the Correspondence of several English Bishops and others with some of the Helvetian Reformers, chiefly from the Archives of Zürich, translated and edited for the “ Parker Society” by Dr. H.
Robinson, Cambridge (University Press), 2d ed. 1846 (pp. 576). II. Salomon Hess : Leben Bullinger's. Zürich, 1828–29, 2 vols.
accurate. — * CARL Pestalozzi: Heinrich Bullinger. ---Leben und ausgewählte Schriften. Nach Handshcristlichen und gleichzeitigen Quellen. Elberfeld, 1858. Extracts from his writings, pp. 505-622. Pestalozzi has faithfully used the written and printed sources in the Stadtbibliothek and Archives of Zürich. -R. CHRISTOFFEL: H. Bullinger und seine Guttin. 1875.-Justus HEER : Bullinger, in Herzog?, II. 779-794. A good summary.
* An advance chapter from the seventh volume of the Author's Church History.
Older biographical sketches by LUDWIG LAVATER (1576). Josias SIMLER
(1575), W. STUCKI (1575), etc. Incidental information about Bullinger in Hagenbach and other works on the Swiss Reformation, and in MEYER's Die Gemeinde von Locarno, 1836, especially I. 198–216.
AFTER the productive period of the Zwinglian Reformation, which embraced twelve years, from 1519 to 1531, followed the period of preservation and consolidation under difficult circumstances. It required a man of firm faith, courage, moderation, patience, and endurance. Such a man was providentially equipped in the person of HEINRICH BULLINGER, the pupil, friend, and successor of Zwingli, and second Antistes of Zürich. He proved that the Reformation was a work of God, and, therefore, survived the apparent defeat at Cappel.
He was born July 18, 1504, at Bremgarten in Aargau, the youngest of five sons of Dean Bullinger, who lived, like many priests of those days, in illegitimate, yet tolerated, wedlock.* The father resisted the sale of indulgences by Samson in 1518, and confessed, in his advanced age, from the pulpit, the doctrines of the Reformation (1529). In consequence of this act he lost his placc. Young Henry was educated in the school of the Brethren of the Common Life at Emmerich, and in the University of Cologne. He studied scholastic and patristic theology. Luther's writings and Melanchthon's Loci led him to the study of the Bible and prepared him for a change.
He returned to Switzerland as Master of Arts, taught a school in the Cistercian Convent at Cappel from 1523 to 1529, and reformed the convent in agreement with the abbot, Wolfgang Joner. During that time he became acquainted with Zwingli, attended the Conference with the Anabaptists at Zürich, 1525, and the disputation at Bern, 1528. He married Anna Adlischweiler, formerly a nun, in 1529, who proved to be an excellent wife and helpmate. He accepted a call to Bremgarten as successor of his father.
* The bishop of Constance allowed priests to keep concubines for an annual tribute of four Rhenish guilders, called the Hurensold. See Christoffel, Zwingli, II. 337, and Pestalozzi, p. 5.
After the disaster at Cappel, he removed to Zürich, and was unanimously elected by the Council and the citizens preacher of the Great Minster, Dec. 9, 1531. It was rumored that Zwingli himself, in the presentiment of his death, had designated him as his successor, No better man could have been selected. It was of vital importance for the Swiss churches that the place of the Reformer should be filled by a man of the same spirit, but of greater moderation and self-restraint.*
Bullinger now assumed the task of saving, purifying, and consolidating the life-work of Zwingli; and faithfully and successfully did he carry out his task. When he ascended the pulpit of the Great Minster on Dec. 23, 1531, many hearers thought that Zwingli had risen from the grave.† He took a firm stand for the Reformation, which was in danger of being abandoned by timid men in the Council. He kept free from interference with politics, which had proved ruinous to Zwingli. He established a more independent, though friendly relation between Church and State. He confined himself to his proper vocation as preacher and teacher.
In the first years he preached six or seven times a week; after 1542 only twice, on Sundays and Fridays. He followed the plan of Zwingli in explaining whole books of the Scriptures from the pulpit.
were simple, clear, and practical, and served as models for young preachers.
He was a most devoted pastor, dispensing counsel and comfort in every direction, and exposing even his life during the pestilence which several times visited Zürich. His house was open froua morning till night to all who desired his help. He freely dispensed food, clothing and money from his scanty in
* Pestalozzi, p. 25: “ Zwingli und Bullinger—welche Verschiedenheit! Zwingl's rasches, feuriges Temperament, Bullinger's Ruhe und Gelassenheit ; Zwingli's schneidender, stechender Witz, Bullinger's einlässliche Gründlichkeit; daher auch Zwingli's Kürze, Bullinger's Ausführlichkeit in den meisten seiner Arbeiten, Wie geeignet zur gegenseitigen Ergänzung ! ”
†“ Talem concionem detonavit,” wrote Myconius to Schenck, “ut multi putarent Zwinglium non defunclum, sed ad Phænicis modum renatum esse.” Hottinger, Helv. K. Gesch, III. 28.
come and contributions of friends, to widows and orphans, to strangers and exiles, not excluding persons of other creeds. He secured a decent pension for the widow of Zwingli, and educated two of his children with his own. He entertained persecuted brethren for weeks and months in his own bouse, or procured them places and means of travel.*
He paid great attention to education, as superintendent of the schools in Zürich. He filled the professorships in the Carolinum with able theologians, as Pellican, Bibliander, Peter Martyr. He secured a well-educated ministry. He prepared, in connection with Leo Judæ, a book of church order, which was adopted by the Synod, Oct. 22, 1532, issued by authority of the burgomaster, the Small and the Great Council, and continued in force for nearly three hundred years. It provides the necessary rules for the examination, election, and duties of ministers (Predicanten) and deans (Decani), for semi-annual meetings of synods with clerical and lay representatives, and the power of discipline. The charges were divided into eight districts or chapters. †
Bullinger's activity extended far beyond the limits of Zürich. He had a truly Catholic spirit, and stood in correspondence with all the Reformed Churches. Beza calls him “the common shepherd of all Christian Churches ;” Pellican, “a man of God, endowed with the richest gifts of heaven for God's honor and the salvation of souls.” He received fugitive Protestants from Italy, France, England, and Germany with open arms, and made Zürich an asylum of religious liberty. He thus protected Celio Secondo Curioni, Bernardino Ochino, and Peter Martyr, and the immigrants from Locarno, and aided in the organization of an Italian congregation in Zürich. Following the example of Zwingli and Calvin, he appealed twice to the king of France for toleration in behalf of the Huguenots.
* See the beautiful description of Pestalozzi, pp. 153 sqq.
† There are copies of several editions of this book in the City Library at Zürich, of 1532, 1535, 1563, etc. It is also printed in Simler's Sammlung alter und neuer Urkunden, I. 25–73.
Ile dedicated to Henry II. his book on Christian Perfection (1551), and to Francis II. his Instruction in the Christian Religion (1559). He sent deputations to the French court for the protection of the Waldenses, and the Reformed congregation in Paris.
The extent of Bullinger's correspondence is astonishing. It embraces letters to and from all the distinguished Protestant divines of his age, as Calviu, Melanchthon, Bucer, Beza, Laski, Cranmer, Hooper, Jewel, and crowned heads who consulted him, as Henry VIII., Edward VI., of England, Queen Elizabeth, Henry II. of France, King Christian of Denmark, Philip of Hesse, and the Elector Frederick of the Palatinate.
Bullinger came into contact with the English Reformation from the time of Henry VIII, to the reign of Elizabeth, especially during the bloody reign of Mary, when many prominent exiles fled to Zurich, and found a fraternal reception under his hospitable roof. The correspondence of Hooper, Jewel, Sandys, Grindal, Parkhurst, Foxe, Cox, and other church dignitaries with Bullinger, Gwalter, Gessner, Simler, and Peter Martyr, is a noble monument of the spiritual harmony between the Reformed Churches of Switzerland and Egland in the Edwardian and Elizabethan era. Archbishop Cranmer invited Bollinger, together with Melanchthon, Calvin, and Bucer, to a conference in London, for the purpose of framing an evangelical union creed; and Calvin answered that for such a cause he would be willing to cross ten seas. Lady Jane Grey, who was beheaded in 1554, read Bullinger's works, translated his book on marriage into Greek, consulted him about Hebrew, and addressed him with filial affection and gratitude. Her three letters to him are still preserved in Zürich. Bishop Hooper of Gloucester, who had enjoyed his hospitality in 1547, addressed him shortly before his martyrdom in 1554, as his “revered father and guide," and the best friend he ever had, and recommended his wife and two children to his care. Bishop Jewel, in a letter of May 22, 1559, calls him his “father and much esteemed master in Christ,” thanks him for his “courtesy and