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help others. Teaching and Preaching by inspiration from above, is the salvation of the world.
We know that it is a hard lesson to teach, to young men and women, not to speak of boys and girls, to love the truth for its own sake. Yet it is a lesson that must be taught and learned. The Christian Church has been trying to instil this lesson for many centuries. And wherever its work has been and is now genuinely done, it always teaches but one principle; you must accept the Truth in and for its own sake.
It is also the inspiration-side of Culture that makes a man say what he ought to say, but which he would not say perhaps after long consideration. If Burns had perhaps taken into consideration his attainments, his culture, he would not have favored us with his intense songs. Indeed, we are told on good authority, that after he had "read more widely in English Literature, he acknowledged that, had he known more, he would have dared less, nor have ventured on such unfrequented by-paths." A man has a right to say, not what he likes to say, but what he loves to say. Where his treasure is there will his heart be also. And the world will soon find out whether his treasure be worth preserving or not. Speak what you have to say with all your heart, though it has been said many times before. The world does not need or want New Truths, but rather Old Truths stated freshly and earnestly as if they had just dropped down from the place above with all their original meaning.
It might seem as if I had laid too much stress upon the Religious side of Culture as the inspiration of the student. But what we want now is more inspiration and less machinery. All great work must be done as Plato's man must write Poetry. According to Jowett's translation, Socrates says to Ion: "All good poets, epic as well as lyric, compose their beautiful poems, not as works of art, but because they are inspired and possessed. * * * For the poet is a light and winged and holy thing, and there is no invention in him until he has been inspired. When he has not attained to this state
he is powerless, and unable to utter his oracles.
Many are the
noble words in which poets speak of the actions which they record, but they do not speak of them by any rules of art; they are inspired to utter that to which the Muse impels them, and that only."
So far, then, I have only spoken of one side of Culture, Religion. The other side, Knowledge, yet remains to be noticed. It is a hard matter to speak of them separately. Religion is knowledge, and knowledge is religion. In the rightly cultured man you cannot tell where his religion begins. and knowledge ends or where his knowledge begins and religion ends. A cultured man must be a Christian scholar and a scholarly Christian. Religion is to knowledge what fire is to fuel. Some men have seemingly enough fire, but very little fuel. Others have a great deal of dead fuel with a slight fire under it. Others again have once had a fire well started, perhaps in their school and college days, but have neglected to put on fuel, so that to-day they give forth very little warmth. The normal student is he who in his preparatory stage becomes thoroughly fired up and who then keeps on feeding this fire all through life. The world is an iceberg and can only be melted by the warmth which comes from its enthusiastic students.
Knowledge has for its domain, man, nature, God. This would be a good thing for men to remember, who have looked at one subject for so long a time that they cannot imagine how there can be any truths worth knowing outside of their specialty. For instance, a chemist or biologist, from the exclusive study of those branches, may conclude that that is the only knowledge reliable, based upon investigations of natural laws and forces. What a happy thing for such, if they could be freed from the bondage of their conceits, and be brought out into the open fields of truth, "to view the landscape o'er." A specialty is in the intellectual world what a large city is in the geographical. You will jump to a wrong conclusion, when, through ignorance
of Europe, Asia and Africa, and a knowledge of America, you speak of your own country simply as worth traveling in. You must be a cosmopolitan besides being an American. If not in reality then in spirit. We believe that, while men cannot know everything, yet that every man should not simply know one thing, but a great many things. You cannot understand your own specialty rightly unless you see it in its relations to other kindred branches of knowledge. You cannot study theology rightly by simply studying theology. You must also be a student of poetry, of history, of philosophy. You cannot understand natural law without the help of spiritual law. James Russell Lowell, in his Harvard address seems to me to clear up this whole matter. He says: "Manysidedness of culture makes our vision clearer and keener in particular."
Religion and knowledge, then, these are the two things that constitute culture. Or I might use a word which is both more common and more significant-Christianity. Christianity is
culture and culture is Christianity.
Two or three things remain yet to be said. 1st) That a man cannot possess culture, but that culture posesses, that is, takes possession of a man. He is not simply to refer to religion and knowledge, to the incarnation, to redemption, to Plato and Shakespeare as great things and names, which he had often heard and read about. But the truths of the incarnation and redemption, of Plato and Shakespeare, must take hold of the real life of the student and enter into his being. It is the difference between the superficial and deep
If you would take the length and the breadth of some men, and multiply them together, their superficial contents would be more than the product of their length, breadth and depth, their solid contents. The one man puts on culture as a sort of a varnish, a gloss; the other man absorbs it. You need not tell men how many books you have read, for it will soon be found out how many you have digested. The more and more you associate with some men the shallower they
seem to get. The more and more you associate with others the more inexhaustible their rich natures become.
And the second point is, that when Culture takes possession of a man, it will beget in him an indefinable something which becomes the source and fountain of all his power and influence among men. It was said of Lord Chatham that those who heard him "felt that there was somthing finer in the man than anything which he said." As Emerson sings:
"Not from a vain or shallow thought
The thrilliing Delphic oracle;
Out from the heart of Nature rolled
The burdens of the Bible old;
The litanies of nations came,
Like the volcano's tongue of flame,
The canticles of love and woe:
The hand that rounded Peter's dome
And groined the aisles of Christian Rome
Wrought in a sad sincerity;
Himself from God he could not free;
He builded better than he knew ;-
And, thirdly, the fruits of Culture are such as St. Paul mentions as the fruit of the Spirit: love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance. They are not ab extra qualities, but ab intra. No truly cultured man possesses these, but they possess him. If I understand St. Paul rightly, self is to be annihilated and absorbed by these high qualities, love, joy, peace. One feels a difference in passing from the society of small men to the society of great men. the one case, you will hear Theology, Philosophy, History, Science; but you hear, after all, principally the man who talks through these. In the other case, it is not the great man who talks to you, but Theology, Philosophy, History, Science, that talk through him. And now I will notice but one thing more,
and that is Simplicity. What does that word not comprehend? If anything bears witness to a deep and varied Culture, that thing is simplicity, and we know and recognize it when we see it. Archbishop Trench has a discussion of what it means to be simple. "Why," asks he, " should simple be used slightingly still? . . . The simple is one properly of a single fold; . . . and indeed, what honor can be higher than to have nothing double about us-to be without duplicates or folds? Even the world which despises simplicity does not profess to admire duplicity or double-foldness." That is the idea; Culture is to make us single-folded, so that from whatever side we may be approached our identity will be recognized and our simplicity verified.