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nature and essence, and three in Persons. “ God" and "LORD,”* though interchangeable terms, are not the same. “God” refers to the nature, “ Lord” to the essence or substance. As God, He is one in nature-uncreated and eternal spirit.As LORD, He is also one in essence or substance, though this (one essence or substance) is constituted by three different Persons or “subsistences” 7-“ Father," “Son" and "Holy Ghost." This form of essence, Triune, makes Him

Man," the same that He called Adam when He created His life triune in order to receive the life of his Maker. But this form, being in God uncreated, makes Him, what His created image is not, living" or self-subsisting Man. The double term, "LORD God," or "Jehovah God," comprises and expresses both essence and nature (Man eternal), and also oneness, in number, and unity in the sense of wholeness or entirety.

It was more than merely respect for its signification, that led the scribe to avoid the use of the word “LORD”(Jehovah). Knowing that Jesus was accused of claiming this Name “I AM," I he feared by using it to compromise himself. He was afraid to admit that the "One LORD" of Moses might be a trinity in unity, and so missed the opportunity of becoming memorable, as a doctor of the law, by finding and confessing what Moses in his holy zeal and care had hidden; but which the greater Prophet, by reasoning and preaching, was contin

* That there was some distinction in these different appellations was early perceived, and various explanations were employed to account for it. Tertullian observed that God was not called Lord (kúpios) till after the creation, and in consequence of it; while Augustine found in it an indication of the absolute dependence. of man upon God. Chrysostom considered the two names, Lord and God, as equivalent, and the alternate use of them arbitrary.” Smith's “ Dictionary of the Bible." Article, JEHOVAH.

7“What I denominate a Person, is a subsistence in the Divine essence, which is related to the others, and yet distinguished from them by an incommunicable property. By the word subsistence we mean something different from the word essence, Calvin's Institutes, Vol. I, Book I, Chap. xiii, p. 121.

I“ If ye believe not that I am He," &c. “It should be noticed that the word " He" is here (and in verse 28) printed in Italics, and is therefore not expressed in the Greek (See on 6); so that the literal translation is, 'If ye believe not that I AM.'" New Test. Com., St. John viii. 24.

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ually endeavoring to make the Jews discover, without committing Himself by plainly saying that in their “One

One" is included the Messianic and Christian “Three.” But far more than this befell him. By rejecting the Master's quotation for another of his own choosing, he came short of "the Kingdom of God," and showed himself lacking in the perfect faith of “Israel."

Though to Moses alone had been revealed the form, a trinity in unity, in which Jehovah subsists as Father, Son or "Word,” and Spirit, yet the Jews of old knew Him by these names, for they were not strange to their degenerate sons when the Messiah used them. Had, then, these boasted "disciples of Moses" held fast to them, or only to his formula of “Hear, O Israel; the Lord our God is one Lord,” they might have apprehended the possibility of their Messiah's eternal Sonship. Then, in further learning the “mystery”* of the Name Jehovah (triune and life-giving, as Christ revealed it), they might also have come to acknowledge the fact of this Sonship. But having believed not the writings of Moses, how could they believe the words of Christ? With the watchword of the Jewish church, the head of the Christian accepted the challenge of the lawyer, who, by the question, “Master, which is the first commandment of all ? " stood up to try the marvelous teacher that also tested him. He, more wary than just, proved unequal to the occasion which would have made him great, and the immortality and triple blessing were limited to him who should yet declare publicly, in the belief and love of it, the eternal Sonship of the Messiah, and consequently the incarnation, and that which inevitably followsthe similarity of God's and man's essential being.

How the Messiah must have prized the impulsive, uncalculating, and unreasoning spirit of Simon Bar-Jona, which, ignorant of its far-reaching sequences, should prompt him to speak his conviction without fear or reservation! What an advance is his confession on the feeble and hesitating admission of many of the people, “When the Christ cometh, will he do more miracles than these which this man hath done?” And what a contrast to the protest of the Jews, “Thou blasphemest!" and, “Thou hast a devil!” Is it any wonder that, foreseeing this confession, Jesus promised he should be called the "Stone;" or, on hearing it, should pronounce him, “the Rock?” The Divine Sonship of the 'Christ, in its fullest extent, it was absolutely necessary should be declared before His death, in order that He might be clear of the blood of His “betrayers and murderers," and of all men.

*" It seems that the new revelation was not of the Name Jehovah,'but of the mystery contained in the Name of four letters: this mystery was partially unfolded to Moses, but was to be more fully declared by Christ in His gospel (see Ps. Ixxxiii. 18)." Old Test. Com., Exodus vi. 3.

The fulness of His claim, therefore, was very well understood by the Jews when they said to Pilate, “We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God." Nothing short of this unmistakable acknowl. edgment, would have induced their Messiah to give His precious life into their hands. There was to be no doubt about the cause of His martyrdom. While He was submitting, and they were crucifying, the church and the world were to know that it was solely because He had declared and maintained that He was both the created, and the begotten Son of the living God. Then the church and the world (in a better spirit than the Jews and Gentiles who stood around and mocked), He predicted would sit at the foot of His cross, and in solving the necessity of His death, reach the complementing facts of sin and sinners. The prophecy, “And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me,” is in course of constant fulfilment, and shall culminate in the redemption of a “a great multitude, which no man can number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues.”

Indeed, the claim of Jesus of Nazareth to be their Messiah and King, was, to the Jews, so incontestable, that had He been willing to exert His wonderful and miraculous powers for the benefit of His countrymen alone, and solely for their temporal advantage, the cry of the multitudes, “ Hosanna to the Son of David!” would speedily have resulted in His actual coronation. But when He hinted of still higher claims, and a subordination of these most notable gifts to a will superior to His own and theirs, for a spiritual purpose, world-wide and universal, the cry at once arose, “We will have no king but Cæsar!” Or, had He been willing to forego, in its highest sense, the title of "the Son of God," the shout of "Crucify him! crucify him!” had never arisen. Of sin, the Jews could not and would not believe themselves guilty. “Children of Abraham” they protested they were, and shut their eyes to the fact that before Abraham, Adam was their father, and that through the malice of Satan, Adam had fallen away from God.

An apprehension of the trinity of Jehovah and that which follows, the power to communicate His life, and which it was the mission of Jesus to teach and confirm, being wholly wanting in the Jews, they could no more bear the arguments that fell from His lips, than endure the light that beamed from His person and shone in His works. The merciful veil (His mortal humanity) that covered the truth for the disciples, and through which it came to them tempered by their own faith and love, the Jews rejected. They held that “Christ abideth forever,” and that of His earthly kingdom "there shall be no end." Putting Him to the proof, by death, that He was really mortal, they mockingly said: “Let Christ the King of Israel descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe," and found to their dismay, when He was slain, that God without Him is a blinding light and a consuming fire. Having no faith, they had no patience, and would not wait to hear that if God had sent them a prophet whose mission forced them to the brink of despair, it was because He had also sent Him to throw Himself between them and that gulf as deliverer.

And so they condemned Him to death.

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IX.

NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS.

SYSTEM OF CHRISTIAN THEology. By Henry B. Smith, D.D., LL.D. Edited by

William S. Kerr, D.D., Professor of Theology in Hartford Theological Seminary. Fourth Edition, Revised. With an Introduction by Thomas S. Hastings, D.D., LL.D. New York: A. C. Armstrong & Son. 1890. Price, $2.00.

The first edition of this work was published in 1884, and we called attention to it in the December number of this REVIEW for that

We then pronounced it a valuable and interesting volume that deserved a place in the library of every minister and student of theology. This judgment has been confirmed by the years that have since passed by. It is now recognized as a standard work on Christian Doctrine, not only among Presbyterians, in one of whose Seminaries the author was a professor, but in the Church at large.

This new edition is prefaced with a brief introduction by Rev. Dr. Thomas S. Hastings, President of Union Theological Seminary, and has added to it a Scriptural Index not in former editions. The foot-notes have also been revised and typographical errors have been corrected. In its present form the volume is accordingly more desirable than ever before. Though offered at a very low price, the printing, paper and binding are all good. Our readers who have not already secured a copy of it, will do well to buy it and carefully study it. Its views throughout are sound and scriptural, which is more than can be said of some other systems of Christian Theology THE MIRACLES OF OUR SAVIOUR. Expounded and Illustrated. By William M.

Taylor, D.D., LL.D., Pastor of the Broadway Tabernacle. New York: A. C. * Armstrong & Son. 1890. Price, $1.75.

This volume is a worthy companion to the author's book on the Parables of Our Saviour, and is possessed of the same admirable qualities. The first chapter, which is introductory, defines the nature of the Scripture miracles, and considers and ably answers the objections which have been urged against them. The thirty-two chapters which follow are devoted to the consideration of the different miracles which according to the Gospels our Lord wrought during His public ministry on earth. The aim of the author in their treatment has been throughout expository and practical, rather

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