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ed in it are highly instructive and very suggestive. No minister can carefully study them without benefit. The references to sermons and theological treatises are also very valuable. With each successive volume of the work we are more and more impressed with its merits and convinced that it is a truly useful and helpful publication.

SCRIPTURE SELECTIONS FOR DAILY READING. A Portion of the Bible for every day in the year. Compiled by Rev. Jesse L. Hurlbut, D.D., Author of "Outline Normal Lessons," "Studies in the Four Gospels,' 64 Studies in Old Testment History," "A Manual of Biblical Geography," etc. New York: Hunt & Eaton. Cincinnatti: Cranston & Stowe. 1891. Price, $1.50. This work has been prepared for devotional purposes and espe cially for use at family worship. It is made up of different portions of Scripture of nearly uniform length, fitted for reading in the family, and so chosen as to furnish a reading for every day in the year and to complete the Bible in the same time. The selections throughout give evidence of good judgment, and are admirably adapted to answer the purpose for which they are intended. They are printed, moreover, on good paper, and in large clear type, so that they can be read with ease and pleasure. The proper pronunciation of the names of persons and places occurring in the selections is also indicated. The book is deserving a place in every family and cannot fail to commend itself to all who will give it a trial, as a valuable help in conducting family devotions.

ELIJAH, THE MAN OF GOD. By Mark Guy Pearse. New York: Hunt & Eaton, Cincinnati: Cranston & Stowe. 1891. Price, 50 cents.

This is a highly attractive and interesting volume. In a very graphic and instructive manner it portrays in its one hundred and twenty pages the character of Elijah, the Man of God, whose appearance must have been as the lightning-flash, and whose words must have fallen like a thunder-clap upon the astonished Ahab, King of Israel, and his Court. The lessons which his life and labors were intended to teach men are strikingly set forth, and can scarcely fail to impress themselves on the mind and heart of the reader. The book is, in every respect, a most admirable one, and ought to find a place in every Sunday-school library. It is a book that all can read with profit.

STUDIES IN OLD TESTAMENT HISTORY. By Rev. Jesse L. Hurlbut, D.D, Author of A Manual of Bible Geography," "Outline Normal Lessons," "Supplemental Lessons for the Sunday-school," and "Studies in the Four Gospels." New York: Hunt & Eaton, Cincinnati: Cranston & Stowe. 1890. Price, paper, 25 cents; cloth, 40 cents.

The aim of this little book is to present an outline history of God's chosen people, Israel, and to show what was their mission, how they were trained for it, and how the world was prepared to

receive it. The book itself consists of ten studies, to each of which are attached a blackboard outline, questions for review, and subjects for special papers. It is designed for private study, and also for use in the class-room, and is admirably adapted to the purpose for which it is intended. Any person who will thoroughly acquaint himself with its contents will be well informed in Old Testament history. It is a book that should be studied.

THE PEOPLE'S BIBLE: Discourses upon Holy Scripture. By Joseph Parker, D.D., Minister of the City Temple, Holborn Viaduct, London. Vol. XIII. The Proverbs. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, Publishers, 18 and 20 Astor Place. 1891. Price, $1.50.

This latest volume of The People's Bible deals with "The Pro verbs." The discourses of which it is principally made up are all possessed of the striking homiletical characteristics which distinguish the author and have made him so well known as a pulpit orator and theological writer. They sparkle as usual with brilliant gems of thought and impressive utterances of Divine truth. Among the subjects treated, especially noteworthy are the following: "Soul Winning," "The Discipline of Knowledge," "Women, Wise and Foolish, ," "The Scriptural Doctrine of Conscience," "Self-Restraint," "Mischievous Lips," "Strength of Character," and "Opportunity and Obligation." At the close of the volume sixteen pages are given to the consideration of Pagan Proverbs. The comments on these are especially bright and sparkling. Ministers will find the book suggestive and full of homiletical material, which, if properly used, will be found very serviceable.

THE

REFORMED QUARTERLY REVIEW

NO. 3.-JULY, 1891.

I.

THE INTERPRETATION OF SCRIPTURE PROGRES

SIVE.*

BY PROF. J. C. BOWMAN, A.M.

THE regnant principle of modern thought is that which finds expression in the one word, Evolution.

It is claimed for it that, more than all other words, it has served as a revolutionary call to modern thought, and that no system of thought can long sustain itself without adjusting itself to the new doctrine. The rapid progress made by this new mode of thinking within recent years is viewed with grave apprehension by many conservatives who believe that any favorable recognition of the principle of evolution carries with it a tendency to undermine the orthodox faith. But those of us who have been schooled in a system of thought whose distinctive feature is that of the Organic Idea and Organic Unity, have experienced no alarm at the progress of evolution, nor do we

* An address delivered May 12th, 1891, in the Theological Seminary at Lancaster, Pa., by Prof. Bowman upon the occasion of his inauguration as Professor of New Testament Exegesis.

entertain such misgivings with regard to the issue as to inquire: "Can the Old Faith live with the New?" For fully half a century has this, the central institution of the Reformed Church in the United States, been familiar with the idea of an evolutionary process as essential not only to the proper understanding of nature and natural science, but as no less essential to a correct conception of history and theology.

The dominant principle of our theological system, viz., the Christological, has afforded us special advantage in guarding us against the errors of the purely scientific theory of evolution, and in providing against the "missing links" which baffle the investigations of science, and thereby has prevented the despair of thought to which all monistic and agnostic theories tend. The main fault to be found with the modern doctrine of evolution, as advocated by its professed champions, is not its advanced and liberal tendency, but rather its narrowness and false limitations.

Tracing the evolutionary process backward, we cannot stop with the Bathybius of Huxley or the Monera of Haeckel, but, with the author of the Book of Genesis, we go back infinitely further, to that from which all protoplasm proceeds: "In the beginning, GOD." Following the process of evolution from the most incomplete form of life to its supposed highest development in the cerebrum of man, we take an infinite step in advance, and find the culmination of the process in the God-Man, "crowned with glory and honor" in the heaven of heavens.

In the light of the Christological Principle evolution finds its true interpretation. It is not a movement from the highest to the lowest plane on earth simply, but a movement from eternity to eternity, as comprehended in Him who is the Alpha and the Omega, the ideal origin of all things and their teleology. All earthly evolution is but a half truth which finds its other half in the continuous evolution in the supernatural, heavenly world; so that the highest development which may be attained on earth is but a preparation for that which is perfect and which is to come.

The scope of the Christological Principle is not, therefore, limited to the science of theology as such. It is the regulative principle of all science; for only in its light can we study aright both the hidden things of nature and the deep things of God. The facts of natural science find their final interpretation in the science of the supernatural, and the philosophy of history can be rightly learned only in the light of the more comprehensive science of the Christology of history. The philosophy taught by St. Paul, viz., that the whole creation is summed up and perfected in the second Adam, the Lord from heaven, contains a germinal truth which is beginning to find its proper place in cosmological and theological science. Jesus Christ is the archetype, the organ and the end of the whole process of creation. All things were formed and all things continue in Him, by Him and for Him. (Col. 1: 16, 17.) As the final cause of the universe, He works in all its kingdoms, in all its genera and species, shaping their development from within

toward consummation.*

Accordingly the whole purpose of the natural universe, organic and inorganic, reaches its completion in Jesus the Son of Man. In Himself He fulfills the teleology of nature, and thus is the only key that can unlock its hidden meaning. As the final outcome of the whole process of creation, and the fulfillment of the original intention and all the laws of normal humanity, He is the Light of the world, the One who illumines all realms of existence.

If, then, it is only by the application of the Christological Principle that we can interpret the things of nature, it is evident that only in the light of the same principle can we interpret the facts of revelation as these appear in the history of God's dealings with man, as presented in Sacred Scripture.

The feature of the modern doctrine of evolution which especially commends itself to Christian thought is that of progressive development, with which the Christological Principle is in full harmony. Only as the Christological Principle embodies

*Institutes of the Christian Religion, Gerhart, p. 193.

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