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THE GENERAL EPISTLES OF ST. JAMES AND ST. JUDE. By the Rev. Alfred Plummer, M.A., D.D., Master of University College, Durham; formerly Fellow ! and Senior Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford. New York: A. C. Armstrong & Son. Price, $1.50.

This volume belongs to the series known as "The Expositor's Bible," and is a work of decided merit. It it divided into thirty-eight chapters. Of these the first is introductory, and treats of the Catholic Epistles. Of the remaining thirty-seven chapters, twenty-eight are devoted to the Epistle of St. James, and nine to that of St. Jude. Besides the contents of the Epistles, their authenticity, authorship and relations to other Scriptures and Apocryphal writings are ably discussed. Dr. Plummer is disposed to believe that St. James and St. Jude were real brothers of our blessed Lord. The exposition of both Epistles is scholarly and instructive. The volume will be found a truly valuable addition to the series of which it forms a part.

THE BOOK OF PROVERBS. By R. F. Horton, M.A., Hampstead; late Fellow of New College, Oxford. New York: A. C. Armstrong & Son, 51 East 10th Street, near Broadway. 1891. Price, $1.50.

This volume belongs to the same series as the one just noticed. In it the teachings of the Book of Proverbs are considered. First in a brief introductory section the general character of this portion of God's Word is described. Then in thirty-one expository lectures, or practical sermons, the author treats the book as a uniform composition, following chapter by chapter the order which its compiler adopted, and bringing the scattered sentences together under subjects which are suggested by certain more striking points in the successive chapters. In this way he has succeeded in reviewing the greater part of the contents of the book. The subjects accordingly discussed, it is scarcely necessary to say, are all of the highest importance. Their treatment throughout, we would yet add, is highly judicious and edifying.

THE BOOK OF LEVITICUS. By the Rev. S H. Kellogg, D.D., Author of "The Jews; or Prediction and Fulfilment,' The Light of Asia and the Light of the World," etc. New York: A. C. Armstrong & Son, 51 East Tenth Street, near Broadway. 1891. Price, $1.50.

This is still another volume of the " Expositor's Bible." Leviticus, the contents of which it aims to expound, is not a very attractive book to the ordinary reader of the Sacred Scriptures. It is a book, however, which is nevertheless worthy of careful study. To the ancient. people of Israel it had a special importance, as setting forth the law that was to govern them, and we therefore need to acquaint ourselves with it, if we would at all understand the significance of the history of this wonderful people. Besides this, it has a value for us as presenting, in a singularly vivid manner, the fundamental con

ditions of true religion, and as suggesting the principles which should guide human legislators who would rule according to the mind of God. Moreover, it is of use to us also as embodying in type and figure, prophecies of things yet to come, pertaining to Messiah's kingdom.

In the introductory chapter of his exposition of the book under consideration, Dr. Kellogg presents strong reasons for the Mosaic origin and the inspired authority of its legislation. This he shows was the view of Christ, and for himself he says "We then stand without fear with Jesus Christ, in our view of the origin and authority of the book of Leviticus." His exposition of the book is thoroughly evangelical in tone, and, at the same time, highly interesting and instructive. We heartily commend the volume as a work that is worth possessing, and that will amply repay careful reading.

MY JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM. Including Travels in England, Scotland, Ireland, France, Belgium, Germany, Holland, Switzerland, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Palestine and Egypt. By Rev. Nathan Hubbell. With 64 Illustrations. New York: Printed by Hunt & Eaton, 150 Fifth Avenue. 1890. Price, $1.00. Rev. Mr. Hubbell made a trip to Jerusalem in 1889, with the Fall Palestine Party, which was organized by him. In the volume now before us he gives an account of his journey, its sights and significations, with personal impressions and adventures. A large portion of the book was written while travelling and appeared in the form of foreign letters in the Daily Journal and Courier of New Haven, Conn. Though there is nothing specially new in the book, it is nevertheless quite readable and admirably suited for a place in the family and Sunday-school library. It has all the interest of the ordinary Sunday school story book, and will prove far more instructive and profitable.

SKETCHES OF JEwish Life in the FIRST CENTURY. Nicodemus; or Scenes in the Days of Our Lord. Gamaliel; or Scenes in the Times of Saint Paul. By James Strong, S.T.D., LL.D., Professor of Exegetical Theology in Drew Theological Seminary. New York: Hunt & Eaton. Cincinnati: Cranston & Stowe. 1891. Price, 60 cents.

In the sketches contained in this little volume, Dr. Strong assumes the task of setting in a fresh, but not altogether novel aspect, two well-known characters of sacred story, and to weave around them the principal features of the first era of Christianity. The first relates more especially to our blessed Lord, and the second to St. Paul, as indicated in their titles. Though we cannot praise very highly the artistic qualities of these sketches, we can yet commend them as presenting important facts and truths in an attractive form. The book is admirably adapted to supply a want of proper reading for the young, and ought to find a place in every Sunday-school library.

If young persons generally read more books of this character and less sentimental love stories and foolish adventures it would be a great gain to them.

THE DISEASES OF PERSONALITY. By Th. Ribot, Professor of Comparative and Experimental Psychology at the College of France, and Editor of the "Revue Philosophique." Authorized translation. Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Company. 1891. Price, 75 cents.

In this treatise the diseases of personality are considered with a view of throwing some light on its nature. The book, which is a small volume of 157 pages, is made up principally of four chapters which treat respectively of organic disorders, emotional disorders, the disorders of the intellect, and the dissolution of personality. In an introductory section the object of the treatise is set forth, and in a concluding section, the results attained are presented. "By person," Professor Ribot states, "we generally understand the individual as clearly conscious of itself and acting accordingly." In this he is no doubt correct. But we cannot consent to the conclusion which he reaches, that "consciousness is not an entity, but a sum of states, of which each is a phenomenon of a particular kind, bound up with certain conditions of the activity of the brain, which exists when they exist, is lacking when they are absent, disappears when. they disappear;" and that accordingly" the organism and the brain, as its highest representation, constitute the real personality, containing in itself all that we have been, and the possibilities of all that we shall be," so that "the unity of the ego is not that of the one-entity of spiritualists, which is dispersed into multiple phenomena, but the co-ordination of a certain number of incessantly renascent states, having for their support the vague sense of our bodies." Many interesting facts, however, are brought forward in support of this conclusion.

THE SOUL OF MAN. An Investigation of the Facts of Psychological and Experimental Psychology. By Dr. Paul Carus. With 152 Illustrations and Diagrams. Chicago, Ill.: The Open Court Publishing Company. 1891. Price, $3.00.

What is the nature of the human soul? This is a problem upon the proper solution of which a great deal depends. It lies at the very centre of philosophy and of ethics. With this problem the volume before us has to do. The principal things of which it treats are, the philosophical problem of mind, the rise of organized life, the physiological facts of brain-activity, the immortality of the race and the data of propagation, the investigations of experimental psychology, and the ethical and religious aspects of soul-life. All these subjects Dr. Carus discusses in a very interesting and thorough manner, from the standpoint of positive monism which at present prevails to so great an extent in philosophy and science.

As regards the work we cannot accept as correct, either the philosophical view that underlies it, or the psychological conclusions arrived at in it. Yet we have found the work, nevertheless, both attractive and instructive on account of the large amount of important facts bearing on the points under discussion, which the author has collected in his book and which can no where else be found so conveniently compiled and presented. The illustrations which are numerous and very fine, add also greatly to the value of this volume.

Concerning the study of psychology to which his book is a contribution, Dr. Carus very truly says:

"It is indispensable for every one who has to deal with people; and who has not? the physician, the clergyman, the employer of labor, the officer in the army, the professor, the merchant, the banker almost every one has to deal with people, and, above all the lawyer. Self-knowledge is not sufficient to make us free; it must be self-knowledge and the knowledge of other people; it must be selfknowledge in the broadest sense, knowledge of the soul, of the motives that work upon, and can be employed to affect man's sentiments. It is only knowledge that can make us free; and knowledge will make us free. And because it makes us free, knowledge, and chiefly so psychological knowledge, is power."

CONCISE DICTIONARY OF CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE. Edited by Rev. Samuel Macauley Jackson. M. A. Associate Editors: Rev. Talbot Wilson Chambers, D.D., LL.D., of the Collegiate Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, New York city, and Rev. Frank Hugh Foster, Ph.D., Professor of Church History, Theological Seminary, Oberlin, Ohio. New York: The Christian Literature Company, 1891.

We have space only for a brief notice of this valuable and important work at this time. Its object is "to furnish in a concise form, information upon biblical, archaeological, ecclesiastical and historical topics. Hence the vocabulary has been purposely made very large, and most of the articles very condensed."

An error occurs under the title "Reformed Church," in stating that "in 1836 Marshall College was founded at Lancaster, Pa." It should be " at Mercersburg, Pa."

The work is prepared in the best style, and is worthy a place in every good library.

THE

REFORMED QUARTERLY REVIEW

NO. 4.-OCTOBER, 1891.

I.

THE RELATION OF HUMANITY TO DIVINITY.

BY PRESIDENT J. S. STAHR, PH.D. D.D.

MAN occupies a unique position in the order of created things. He is a citizen of two worlds, and, as such, the connecting link between two economies, the natural and the spiritual. Linked by his physical organization to the material world, and partaking of the order of development which prevails in the whole natural system, he also transcends this order, and, in virtue of his spiritual endowments, his intellectual and moral life, he belongs to a higher realm in which he unfolds the real significance of his existence under conditions which. the physical order cannot control. He belongs to the world of spirit, and his life is moulded by spiritual influences.

The mere statement of this fact, however, does not go far towards determining man's real position. The admission that there are two orders of existence, the natural and the spiritual (or supernatural), only makes room for the contemplation of a higher relation in which both stand as a connected system of things, to God who is the ground or source, the author and

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