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other forms that shall be otherwise than dry, unsatisfactory and ephemeral. "Reading out of a newspaper" was suggested to the genial "Country Parson" who listened once upon a time to Greyfriars' prayers; and he is himself of the liturgical wing. In reading of Dr. Lee and his work we cannot escape the rising suspicion that he had reached liturgical views by processes of study and then set himself to putting them in practice by processes not less purely intellectual; that moreover, being opposed, he performed his liturgy not only to worship Almighty God, but to shock and to defy his opponents. We say, we have a feeling that way. Probably the good Doctor was not himself conscious of such an animus. But he was unmistakably a polemic, fitted for controversy, delighting to bring his adversaries to confusion of face.

But let that pass. The movement itself, ably served by Dr. Lee, was passing beyond him, as needs it must. It took organized form when on January 31, 1865, the "Church Service Society" was formed. Dr. Lee joined it; but, probably expecting that his own prayer-book would be adopted by the Society to be propagated throughout the Kirk, and certainly disappointed in that expectation if he had entertained it, he seems to have rather lost interest in it.

The Society set itself a task more needful there and anywhere when improvement of worship is contemplated. It set itself, not to making new orders of service, but rather to the study of the services of the past, and especially of the primitive liturgies. Out of such study came in 1867 the first Book of Common Order, a sort of manual for the help of ministers, affording them materials for selection and combination, but prescribing no entire service. The second edition followed in 1869, still only a treasury of liturgical forms, with no complete order. The third book took a step in advance, in providing a complete service, together with liturgical selections. The fourth, fifth and sixth have come; the fifth and sixth lie before us at this writing, substantial 12mo. volumes of some four hundred pages each, containing lectionaries for regular Sundays, daily and fes

tival Scripture lessons through the year, providing complete services for every Sunday morning and evening of the possible five Sundays in a month, complete orders for the Holy Communion, for Baptism, for the Burial of the Dead, etc.; and to us more valuable still, a very rich collection of Sentences, Versicles, Collects, Prayers for various occasions.

Let us now look at the new Book of Common Order a little more in detail. The ordinary morning service runs as follows:

1. A Psalm or Hymn.
2. Sentences.

3. Invocation; Confession; Prayer
for Pardon and Peace; Sup-
plications; the Lord's Prayer,
the Congregation joining.
4. The Psalter, said or sung, pre-
faced with Responsive Versi-
cles, and closed with Gloria

5. The First Scripture Lesson,
from the Old Testament; after
each Lesson & Sentence of

6. The Te Deum or other Hymn or Psalm.

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As we compare this Order with that of the fifth edition, we note slight but significant changes. The parts of this service, and their arrangement, show an ever closer approximation to the Common Prayer Book type. The fifth edition showed similarity; the sixth, almost identity, certainly structural identity.

Whether this gradual approximation is due to the excellence of the Prayer Book structure, which grows more and more on those who study it; or whether it evidences a willingness to adopt whatever may without sacrifice of principle be adopted over from Anglicanism, for the sake of greater harmony and agreement in non-essentials; we are unable to pronounce. Something might be said for either view. Certainly it is a significant fact, interpret it as we may.

The Communion Service shows the results of wide liturgical study. We find here what one naturally looks for in a complete form for the Eucharist. The Nicene Creed (or Apostles', in the fifth edition as alternative), Prayer of Access, Sursum Corda, Ter Sanctus, Agnus Dei, Church Militant Prayer. One might have preferences for a different arrangement of parts; but in this service there is certainly nothing mean, trivial, or bald. It is solemn, catholic, sacramental, evangelical.

The Book of Common Order is not laid out for the Church Year, but it makes room for the keeping of sacred seasons and festival days, by providing, in the general collections of forms, collects and other forms suitable for the chief of them, Nor is the book one for the congregation, properly speaking; it is a minister's book still, as were the first editions, and by the minister to be used as in his judgment he sees fit.

Much more should we be glad to say of this important publication, and still more important movement of which it is an exponent. We cannot do less than commend it most warmly to the attention of our readers as a volume which will repay study, and which one should have always near at hand. The Common Prayer itself is, in our estimation, inferior to it in one respect the Treasury of Collects and Prayers seems to us far to surpass the Anglican. We cannot close without referring the reader also to a most attractive and valuable article on the subject in the November, 1890, number of Blackwood's Magazine, written by A. K. H. B, the famous "Country Parson," who has been many years a member of the Church Service Society, and hence knows its history from the inside.





Ir is here assumed that God can reveal Himself to His intelligent creatures, and that man can know Him only as He reveals Himself. This two-fold assumption is based on the thought, (1) that the Creator of intelligent beings must Himself be intelligent, and that He who can create beings with reasoning powers, can also communicate with and make Himself known to them; (2) that universal experience has taught men that, with all their unaided efforts, they cannot "by searching find out the Almighty to perfection." We can only know Him, therefore, as He reveals Himself to us.

Divine Revelation is two-fold:

1. It is objective in the form of creation, including the whole material universe, with man at its head. In this form of revelation God makes known His attributes of power, wisdom and goodness.

2. It is subjective in the mind and conscience of men. In this form of revelation God declares Himself by the moral law, written on the hearts of men, whereby He shows them their freedom and responsibility. This law enforces its authority through the medium of the conscience, which, for this reason, may be called the voice of God in men.

If sin had not entered into the world and destroyed man's power of obeying this law, it is probable that no further revelation would have been necessary. But sin is in the world,

and in consequence revelation has taken a third form, which may be defined as both objective and subjective. In its written form it is objective, addressing men from without. But it was first communicated to men, inspired for the purpose, by whom it was then made known to others in a written record. In this last form it became special, having in view Christ and His redemption objectively, and the salvation of men subjectively.

The contents of the Bible were written at different times, by different persons, during a period of about fifteen hundred years. The writers represent many different ranks and conditions of life, as lawgivers, judges, prophets, kings, herdsmen, farmers and religious teachers. They all claim to have written what was made known to them by divine inspiration; so that with all, or most of them, the formula, "Thus saith the Lord," or its equivalent, is a common expression.

Their writings pertain to all the interests of men, temporal and spiritual; and their ostensible purpose is to show men their relations to God and His relations to them, together with His purposes with reference to their present welfare and future destiny. The writers of the Old Testament, while recording the revelations made to them, are constantly directing the attention of their readers to a revelation at some future time, which is to transcend and supersede theirs, because it is to be embodied in a person. So at least it appears when we read from the standpoint of our New Testament knowledge, although Old Testament prophets and saints may have been but dimly conscious of the sublime truth contained in their sacred Scrip


At the beginning we have a succinct and clear account of the history of creation, including a two-fold account of the origin of man. Then follows an account of the unhappy fall and expulsion from the garden of Eden, the terrors of which are, however, softened by the hope of future victory over sin, inspired in the hearts of our first parents, by the proto-evangel. Afterwards appears the evil fruit of the apostasy in the murder of Abel, and the almost universal prevalence of rebel

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