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to the Messiahship, by minutely and literally fulfilling the prophecies relating to that long promised and anxiously sought for deliverer. But want of time and space admonish us to hasten to a conclusion. We will therefore only call attention to two or three passages, concerning the sufferings and death of Christ. The fifty-third chapter of Isaiah describes the Messiah as a suffering Saviour, a lamb led to the slaughter, without murmuring or complaint; as making His grave with the wicked, and with the rich in His death; as numbered with the transgressors; as bearing the sins of many, and making intercession for the transgressors. In the second Psalm He cries: "My God! My God! why hast thou forsaken me" (v. 1). they that see me laugh me to scorn: they shoot out the lip, they shake the head, saying, He trusted on the Lord that he would deliver him" (vs. 7, 8). Again (Ps. 16), "My flesh also shall rest in hope. For thou wilt not leave my soul in sheol; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption" (vs. 9, 10).


If now we compare with these predictions the accounts of the death and resurrection of Jesus, recorded in the Gospel histories, how can we conscientiously assert that the coincidences, concurrences and correspondences, discovered between the prophetic utterances of the Old Testament, and the historic statements of the New Testament, are only the happenings of chance, or the manufactured weapons of designing priestcraft? Let it not be forgotten, that the Messianic prophecies were delivered in a fragmentary way, by many different persons, during the long period of fifteen hundred years. And while there is a general and palpable harmony manifested in their utterances, yet some of the descriptions of His person are apparently contradictory; so that some have gone so far as to conjecture that two different persons are described by the prophets. But in the life and sufferings and death of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, the contradictory prophecies are all met and fulfilled. Hence we are shut up to the conclusion that, in the unique and wonderful person of Jesus, we have the Messiah, of whom Moses and the prophets

did write, even in Jesus of Nazareth, the Son of God. No other name can be found in universal history whose person and work, in every way, correspond to these prophecies. Nothing less than divine prevision could have foreseen or revealed the historical process which prepared the way for the coming of Christ, and the historical consummation which was reached in Him. And nothing less than divine wisdom and power could have directed and controlled the movements of history, through all vicissitudes and turmoils, so as to subserve His holy purposes. All prophecy centered in Christ and reached its end in Him. Accordingly the prophets must have been impelled by divine inspiration when they wrote, and their writings constitute a series of divine revelations,





"The last Adam became a life-giving spirit."


THE doctrine of the Atonement, as might be reasonably expected, was contained already in the Protevangel. shalt bruise his heel," expressed the measure of the suffering, which the serpent would have power to cause the Deliverer, but the figurative declaration left the passion, as yet, an unknown quantity. The character and remedial efficiency of the infliction, thus early intimated, was, however, made plainer in both the typology of the Hebrew temple ritual and Hebrew prophecy. In these, respectively, the bruising of the heel was foreshadowed and foreshown to mean the actual death of the serpent's Antagonist. Thus, the ceremonial law required the lamb of atonement to be slain as His type, whilst the Prophet saw Him, in prospect, as a lamb brought to the slaughter. That the seed of the woman was meant to sustain a mortal hurt from the serpent is placed beyond doubt and cavil by much of the New Testament Scriptures. "Without shedding of blood is no remission," implies the judicial demand of death for expiation, and the quotation unites the Old Testament and the New. "This is my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sin," explains the memorial significance of the Eucharistic wine, with the assumption of the Lord's prospective death. "The blood of Jesus Christ, his son, cleanseth us from all sin," affirms the sanctifying efficacy of the great death, now compassed.

This, however, is only the negative phase of the doctrine in question. Atonement in this view is passion, and he who renders it is passive, whilst divine justice cannot be satisfied by the simple endurance of penalty; it demands restitution. This principle was, indeed, incorporated in the law of the Hebrew theocracy Ex. 22), and is at present recognized in criminal jurisprudence, the world over." He shall bruise thy heel," are the terms in which the Protevangel set forth the positive side of the doctrine of the Atonement, and foretol 1, thus, the overthrow of the serpent by the Offspring of the woman, whom he had betrayed. Moreover, deliverance from the serpent was, in the nature of the case, the restoration of man to the lordly headship, which he lost in the fall.

The question arises here as to the precise identity of the serpent's successful Assailant. He is prospectively spoken of, and is simply called the seed of the woman. The designation is figurative and is taken from the vegetable kingdom, the reference being to natural generation for the propagation of the race. Does the seed of the woman, in the ultimate sense of a single person, mean an ordinary member of the family of man, a faithful copy of his ancestry, nothing more, nothing less, so as to be truly represented by the well-known fact throughout the vegetable kingdom, that the plant, in the process of generation through its seed, is restricted to the reproduction of its species? Or, more simply, was the Vanquisher of the destroyer meant to be the merely natural offspring of the woman?

The question, as to whether the seed of the woman meant her ordinary child or children, must be answered in the negative from the considerations both of man's sinfulness and of his race constitution. That man is such a criminal as could not hope for mercy, even at a human tribunal, is easily inferred from his responsible position in the earthly system, and from the consequences of his faithlessness to the trust involved. He was created viceroyal, with jurisdiction over organic, if not also over elemental, nature. He lost his princely crown in the garden, and the world failed, in consequence, to become properly a

realm of the great Kingdom of Heaven, for God could reign over the earthly sphere only in the person of man, His true and only representative in nature. The cosmical orders, as is well known, are a unit, their genesis having run along every rising stage from "The Beginning" to "The Garden," to become complete in their head, the brain and mouth of man. Therefore, is the mental and spiritual nature of man the only real point of earthly contact for God, and when this avenue was closed against Him, He could not enter at all to govern and glorify the world. Or, in other words, when the fall deprived man of his viceroyal function, his Liege-Lord could no longer extend His sceptre truly into nature, for His reign on earth must be mediated by a viceroy, and that viceroy must be man. Then also, man was placed on sentry duty to guard the world against intrusion-the encroachment, really, of the realm of evil spirits, organized against the Kingdom of Heaven by the mighty prince, whom men call Satan. He was forbidden to seek nourishment on the tree that represented the knowledge of good and evil, with the admonitory disclosure of the deadly consequences of such act. He, nevertheless, plucked and ate of the fatal fruit and betrayed the world he was posted to guard, and which the enemy promptly made the fortified and garrisoned out-post of his empire of evil and darkness and death. And, finally, man was created in the image of God, and was made to bear the divine likeness in his person. Wherefore, he unavoidably involved his Maker in the deepest dishonor when he lost his moral integrity, for it was the divine semblance that the tempter debased into the unspeakable ignominy and unholiness of the fall, and which he, moreover, actually arrayed in arms against its Original.

From all this it appears that man made himself a measureless sinner, and his guilt must also be great beyond the power of mental conception, if it is to be measured by the magnitude of the fatal and endless results of this betrayal of the mightiest trust ever reposed in any one. There can be no doubt that man's great dignity, and the awful disaster that befell the world

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