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As regards the aggregate duration of disputes (i. e., number of workpeople multiplied by the number of working days), it will be seen that 9 disputes (involving about 167,000 workpeople) accounted for nearly 1,650,000 working days, or over one-half of the total time lost through disputes beginning in 1937.

CAUSES

The numbers and proportions of disputes in 1937, and of workpeople directly involved therein, arising from the principal classes of causes, are given below. In some cases disputes originate from more than one cause, e. g., a claim for an advance in wages may be accompanied by a claim for a reduction in working hours. For the purpose of the statistics such disputes are classified according to what appears to be the principal cause of the stoppage.

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Wage questions as a whole accounted for over one-half of the disputes beginning in 1937 and for nearly one-half of the workpeople directly involved in such disputes.

Nearly one-quarter of the disputes arose out of the employment of particular classes or persons. One-sixth of the workpeople directly involved ceased work in sympathy with work people at other establishments, i. e., not as a result of a direct grievance of their own.3

RESULTS The number and proportion of disputes beginning in 1937, and of workpeople directly involved therein, the results of which were (a) in favor of the work people, (b) in favor of the employers, and (c) of the nature of a compromise, were as under. Disputes classified as in favor of workpeople or in favor of employers, for the purpose of this and the following table, are those in which the workpeople or employers, respectively, were completely successful, or practically so, in attaining or resisting the objects to which the stoppage of work was due. Disputes in which the workpeople, or employers, were partly, but not wholly, successful are included under "compromise.'

The 1-day stoppages of coal miners in Lanarkshire and of Clydeside engineers and shipbuilders mainly account for the number involved in sympathetic action.

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Disputes which ended in favor of the employers accounted for nearly one-half of the number of disputes and for nearly two-thirds of the number of workpeople directly involved. These proportions were somewhat higher than in most previous years. As usual, a substantial proportion of the disputes (about 30 percent) ended in a compromise.

Combined statistics of the causes and results of disputes beginning in 1937 are given below:

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The principal methods by which disputes beginning in 1937 were settled are shown in the table below:

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By direct negotiation between the parties or their rep

resentatives
By conciliation
By arbitration
By return to work on employers' terms, without nego-

tiation...
By replacement of workpeople.
By closing of works.
Otherwise.

346
36
8
8

30.6
3. 2
.7
7

170, 700
1,300

400
200

44. O
.3
1
1

Total.

1, 129

100.0

388, 200

100.0

The most frequent method of settlement of disputes in 1937, as in previous years, was direct negotiation between the parties or their representatives, nearly three-fifths of all the disputes being thus settled. Disputes in which work was resumed on the employers' terms, without negotiation, accounted for 30 percent of the number of disputes, but they involved almost as many workpeople as were involved in disputes that were settled by direct negotiation.

APPENDIX F

MEMORANDUM PREPARED FOR THE COMMISSION BY

THE MINISTRY OF LABOR

1

The returns of the latest population census, that of 1931, show that the total number of persons aged 14 years and upwards who were gainfully occupied in Great Britain, excluding employers and managers and persons working on their own account, was 18,601,686.

Of this total, the following numbers were in “industries” which do not contain appreciable trade-union membership: 250,064 in defence (Navy, Army, Air Force); 403,143 in professions other than education; 1,623,918 in private domestic service. The total also included 829,020 in agriculture, horticulture, etc. (including farmers' relatives working on farms), of whom a small proportion are members of trade-unions.

The remainder, 15,495,541, constitute the field from which the very great majority of trade-union members in Great Britain are drawn.

The total membership of trade-unions and other organizations of employees covered by the Ministry of Labor statistics, at the latest available date, the end of 1936, was approximately 5,308,000. Details of this membership are given on page 404 of the Ministry of Labor Gazette for October 1937. The figures given relate to all trade-unions, etc., with their headquarters in Great Britain and Northern Ireland and include memberships in Ireland and overseas. There is a small amount of duplication in membership. The net total number of members in Great Britain would probably be approximately 5,135,000.

The total membership of trade-unions affiliated to the Trades Union Congress in 1937 was 4,009,000. Details are given on page 339 of the Ministry of Labor Gazette for September 1937. Affiliations to the Congress comprise nearly all the larger unions included in the membership of 5,308,000 covered by the Ministry's statistics. The only numerically important trade-unions which are not affiliated to the Trades Union Congress are those representing civil servants (which are prohibited from affiliation, by law), and certain others representing school teachers, clerks employed in the local government service, and bank clerks. There is, however, a large number of small trade-unions which are not so affiliated.

1 The figures relate to the membership of all organizations of employees—including those of salaried and professional workers, as well as those of manual wage earners, which are known to include among their functions that of negotiating with employers with the object of regulating the conditions of employment of their members.

145

APPENDIX G G

[The following table is taken from the Twenty-Second Abstract of Labor Statistics of the United Kingdom, p. 136.]

NUMBER OF EMPLOYERS' ASSOCIATIONS CONCERNED WITH LABOR MATTERS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND AT DECEMBER 1936 1

(Compiled from the Ministry of Labor Directory of Employers' Associations, Trade-Unions, Joint Organi

zations, etc., 1932, corrected in accordance with later information)

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1 The figures include, as far as possible, only organizations which are concerned with matters relating to the employment of labor., Chambers of commerce, of agriculture, and of shipping, trade protection and insurance societies, and all associations with purely commercial or technical objects are excluded.

3 The organizations included in this column are mainly organizations designed to cover the whole of an industry or service. In some industries, however, employers in England and Scotland (and/or Northern Ireland) have separate national organizations, or provincial enıployers have a separate organization from those in London; in such cases each general organization has been counted separately in compiling

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