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remain a dead letter, and is only to their spiritual care, and who are so dragged from its hiding-place, when fatally obedient to their dictates? A the Viceregal power has been in- dignitary of the church, Archdeacon trusted to a man of more political Laffan, contrasts the pusillanimous honesty than his predecessors. conduct of the cowardly Saxon, who
But though Lord Clarendon may bears his sufferings with patience enforce the law against the peasant, because “he can do nothing like a dare he put that which would punish man,” with the gallantry of his truethe priests into operation ? — Their hearted Tipperary boys, who remove influence in the House forbids the those who inconvenience them by the supposition.
bullet! Can we then be surprised at Mr O'Connell managed the power the criminal conduct of the unfortuwhich he had created with his well- nate persons consigned to such teachknown skill and discretion ; but since ing? When such men are placed in the sceptre has fallen into the hands authority over those who proclaim of his feeble successor, the real props God's word, can we be astonished to of agitation have openly assumed the read the account given by the priests' position which they have long, though own organ, The Tipperary Vindicator, secretly filled. To them every "ruined of the posthumous honours paid by the rascal” who betakes himself to the well-instructed and Christian people “ last resource” of patriotism must of Tipperary to the memory of denow address himself. Formerly, the parted worth? What a testimony do candidate was expected to pay (say the facts recorded bear, to the zeal and £2000) for his seat; now, it may be efficacy with which his doctrines have secured by the utter abandonment of been promulgated and enforced by the principle, and unbounded submission meek and christian Laffan! to the will of the Donors; then, A few months ago, we read the folaspirants with some appearance of lowing description of the proceedings propriety and decency of conduct which took place at the funerals of were required; now, both qualifications Fogarty, Rice, and Hayes, the exemay be dispensed with. The more cuted murderers of the late Mr Clarke. degraded the man, the more fit he There was no doubt of their guilt, no will be considered to do those acts declaration of their innocence, and no which the less vile refuse to execute;" grounds whatever to question the jushe may be a blackleg, a swindler, or tice of the verdict which condemned an open adulterer, and it will be no them to die. They were not men roused bar to his advancement in the eyes of by oppression to execute “the wild justhe Roman Catholic bishops, who, tice of revenge.” No; they were regular while they profess to admire virtue, matter-of-fact men of business ; hired have no objection, if it secure their bravos, ready to perpetrate any murpurposes, to patronise vice; and who, der they were paid for committing, while they preach peace and good- and who had never been injured by will, tolerate, if they do not approve, the person they deprived of life. In the encourager to murder. In what other countries, the carcasses of such other country in the world could wretches would have been shunned ; men have acted as it is admitted contact with them would have been those priests have acted, without being considered a pollution ; and assisting reached by the strong arm of the at their obsequies as little better than law? of what other Christian church participation in their crimes : but than that which is ruled over by the not so in “ virtuous and moral Tip" bigoted M'Hale," and the “vulgar perary," the vineyard consigned to the and vindictive Higgins," would they spiritual labours of the venerable and have been allowed to continue mem- apostolic Laffan. “The bodies of the bers ?
unfortunate men," says The Vindicator, The Irish Roman Catholic priests were conveyed in funeral procession are said to have unbounded influence to the homes of their respective relaover their flocks, and we believe it: yet tives. They were laid out and can a more conclusive evidence of their waked as if they had not been stranunworthiness be adduced than the state gled by the rope of the hangman. in which we find the people subjected They were surrounded by those who
mourned for them with as keen a sym- other midland and western counties, pathy, and as tender an affection, as if and is rapidly extending itself towards they had died each on his humble palm the north. Neither are those outrages let of straw ; hundreds flocked around now perpetrated solely against those the corpse-houses from all directions; who transgress the agrarian code in and we shall leave others to conjec- respect to the management of their ture whether the sight was calculated, estates. Assassination is found a in the present alleged state of the safe, ready, and efficient remedy for country, by the advocates of a Coer- every violation of the popular will. cion Bill, to induce tranquillity, or to Mr Baily was shot, because, as chairrake up the fires of desperation and man of a board of guardians, he revenge. They had funerals. The refused indiscriminate out-door relief. funeral of Fogarty took place on Sa- Mr Hassard, because he prosecuted a turday. It was attended, we under- steward for theft ; a widow had her stand, by some thousands, who fol- brains beaten out because she was lowed his remains to the grave in about to marry another husband; and crowds more numerous, with feelings a man named Burns was murdered at more interested, than if he had otherwise Belturbet, merely because he thought gone out of the world. Hayes fit to change his religion. There is and Rice were buried on Sunday. a spirit of anarchy abroad, which noThere were forty cars, a strong body of thing but strong and decisive meaequestrians, and a vast crowd of pedes- sures can arrest, and which nothing trians accompanying the former. The short of martial law will enable the latter was attended by one of the executive to cope with. largest funeral processions remembered Oar space will not permit us to for a long time in the district through comment as fully as the importance which the remains were conveyed." of the subject would require, on the What a lesson are we taught by those other remedial measures suggested for revelations! “Funeral honours paid to the benefit of Ireland by men who convicted murderers !” and the demo- argue that, because such would be ralisation so wide-spread, as to induce beneficial in other countries, therefore the attendance of even the more they must be well adapted for that respectable class of farmers, whose apparently incomprehensible island. presence was attested by the “ forty We will merely say that it is an error jaunting cars and the large body of to suppose that the waste lands of equestrians," who swelled the ranks Ireland can be cultivated with success of the admirers of assassination. Some by the state, or with any degree of say that the Irish criminals are few, advantage as regards the location of others, that the mass of the popula- the superabundant population. The tion is tainted with the fatal leprosy: expense of their reclamation would in either case the conduct of govern- amount to much more than the price ment should be to repress crime with at which the very best ground can be à strong hand, and with a celerity purchased; and it would be manifestly which would strike terror into the absurd to undertake, at the public hearts of the malefactors. The govern- expense, such an immense and profitment have to deal with a revolution- less work, while three-fourths of the ary priesthood and a demoralised richest soils in the country are in : people, and it is not by such paltry state of semi-cultivation; and where, expedients as their present measures, by judicious advances, which are sure that the one can be checked in their to be repaid, an equal amount of emcareer, or the other awed into sub- ployment may be afforded by the mission ; and to enact remedial mea- landlords without any loss to the sures while all laws are openly set at state. Neither do we conceive that defiance, would be but a ridiculous the location of the peasantry on profarce. The ministry must be aware, perties under the control of the governalthongh they have dishonestly, con- ment is at all judicious; experience cealed the fact, that the same spirit of teaches us the reverse. On the estates outrage which is evinced by acts of of the Crown in Roscommon, agrarian assassination in the five counties they outrages in that county had their have alluded to, is prevalent in all the origin. From uismanagement or other
causes which we have not heard ex- the land uncultivated and lying wasto plained, the tenants on the Crown aronnd them. Death is the penalty lands were permitted to run many they are certain to pay, if they years in arrear; and now they refuse take the ground from which others to pay any rents whatsoever, on the have been removed, no matter what ludicrous pretence " That Queen Vic- may have been the cause of their toria never took out administration to expulsion. They therefore realise King William the Fourth!" And thus their property, and carry their capital they have been allowed, by their suc- and their industry to other countries, cessful resistance to the Crown, to where they can freely use the one, encourage others in a similar course and fearlessly enjoy the fruits of the of conduct towards her Majesty's other; while the idle and profligate lieges, who are, in their eyes, but the ruffian who is the means of driving subordinate owners of the soil. them from the land of their birth,
The difficulty of dealing with revels in his crimes with impunity, the subject of emigration, when and derives a legal support from the the task is undertaken by men community which he oppresses-he who are not practically acquainted either cannot, or he will not emigrate. with the state of Ireland, and the Now, it is clear, that if a system feelings and habits of the Irish were adopted by which men who people, is made manifest by the become a charge on the public should speeches delivered on the scheme in have the option of leaving the country parliament. Mr Hawes, when the at the public expense-of course wo question was brought forward last mean exclusively at the expense of session, refused to sanction any Ireland—and that at the same time government system, on the grounds the laws were so vigorously admithat voluntary emigration was pro- nistered, as to prevent the possibility ceeding at too rapid a rate already; of their earning a livelihood by the and that it would be much better to commission of crime at home; the keep the people at home. Now, while country would get rid of the worst we advocate a measure which would and most irreclaimable culprits, and remove a certain portion of the popu- society be relieved from the crimes lation, who can have no permanent and the oppressions which they pracoccupation afforded them on account tise; industry would be protected, of the numbers congregated in parti- and prosperity would advance. Lord cular localities, and who consequently Clarendon may seek, by his wellmust become a charge upon the re- intended advice and his sources of the country, we quite strances, to stay the march of crime; agree with the under-secretary of the but his efforts will only evince his colonies, that nothing can be more ignorance of the habits and prejudices lamentable or more ruinous to the of the people he has to govern. He prosperity of Ireland than the removal may subscribe his money to commuof those persons who emigrate at their nicate agricultural knowledge to those, own expense. But, paradoxical as it whose poverty and misery lead him may appear to the honourable gentle- to suppose that they only require man, the system which we consider instruction to become industrious and absolutely necessary, would act as a happy ; but he should know, that most effectual check to the abandon- those persons to whom he so praisement of their country by the industrious worthily wishes to impart informaand comparatively wealthy, which he tion, are in fact the best skilled agricul80 justly laments. Those industrious turists the country can produce. They and well-conducted men ought to be compose the migratory hordes who an. the "thews and sinews” of the land; nually proceed to Scotland and Engbut they are driven from their homes land. There is not a man amongst them by the insecurity of life and property above sixteen years of age, who bas not in their wretched country. They practical experience in the very best cannot extend their operations in systems pursued in those countries to proportion as they acquire wealth. which they resort; and we would *They dare not venture to enlarge the "wager a ducat," that scores of boys size of their farms, although they see may be found in Ennis and in Galway, who could instruct his paid lecturers her Majesty's advisers. Lord Minto in the performance of the nicest may earwig the Pope; but the Pope's operations of agriculture. The Irish influence is set at defiance by the Viceroy feelingly deplored the dis- Irish bishops, when it happens not to appointment of his hopes with regard be exerted in the furtherance of to the Irish Fisheries, when giving their own particular views. The audience to the Clare deputation. present pontiff's predecessor issued “ When I came to this country," said his commands, that both priests and his lordship, “I indulged in the hope prelates should abstain from agitaof promoting the prosperity of the tion, and avoid those political festi-Irish Fisheries; but I have been vals where some of their body had grievously disappointed. When the covered themselves with such wellnets and gear were redeemed from merited disgrace; but his encyclical the pawn-office, the men would not letter was treated as so much waste use them, or go to sea, unless they paper, and had only the effect of increawere fed; and when they were fed, sing the custom it was intended to they caught no fish.”
abolish.' The Viceroy can have no hope spirit which actuated the fisherman in or expect no succour but from the this instance, actuates the agricultural efficiency of the laws, and their uncompeasant. He will not till his land, promising administration. Military not because he is ignorant of the best tribunals must be substituted for civil method of doing so with success, but No juror in the present state because he prefersidleness to industry, of the country will hazard his personal and gratuitous support to honest safety by the due discharge of his independence.
duties, when he sees no chance of Werespect Lord Clarendon's talents, obtaining adequate protection. Sumand admire the honesty with which mary justice must supersede the ordihe has set about discharging the nary law's delay; immediate punishhigh and arduous duties of his office; ment must follow upon conviction; but we tell him that the pacification agitation of every kind must be supof Ireland can never be effected by pressed; and the disturbers of the the powers now at his disposal, nor public peace must be dragged forth yet by the emasculated measures pro- and made amenable for their crimes, posed by the ministry for the adop- whether they be found beneath the tion of parliament. Neither need he smock frock of the peasant, or the calculate on any assistance in his cassock of the priest. efforts from the diplomatic devices of
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In connexion with an article in this Number from our able American con tributor, it may be interesting to the readers of Maga to be informed of her precise position at present on the other side of the Atlantic, where she is figuring as the champion of the rights of authors, and the leader of an important revolution in literature.
Whether we consider the claims of literary men to the property of their works as founded on inherent right, to be controlled only by the superior good of the community, -or as supported by a mixture of moral and equitable considerations, having reference to the reward and encouragement of learning and talent, it is undeniable that, without some protection of this kind, the fairer and better productions of literature will fail, and their place be occupied by a rank and unwholesome growth, offensive to the senses and noxious to social life. Even the selfish and short-sighted policy of our American brethren, which, in extending the privilege of copyright to their own countrymen, has denied it to foreigners, is found to operate in the most prejudicial manner upon their native literature; as no American publisher is likely to pay its due price for any composition of domestic genius, when he can please his customers and fill his pocket by reprinting, without any remuneration to the author, the most successful productions of the British press. The repression of such a system of piracy in America, would benefit alike the foreigner, whose copyright is thus pilfered, and the American man of letters, whose talent is borne down by so disadvantageous a competition.
The publishers of the Magazine had for many years been aware that a cheap American reprint of the work was in regular circulation to a very large extent and they were naturally desirous to put an end to such an injustice.* While they were turning their attention to
* It may be worth while to insert here a copy of the American advertisement of the April Number, in which a denunciation of American piracy, which had been inserted in an article on the “ Model Republic,” is actually put forward as a puff of
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