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bishop of Aleth excommunicates in cation of God and the saints. Anhis diocese those who dance in that other picture represented a Dominican fashion. Nevertheless, the practice holding a pair of scales, in one of is so common in Auvergne, that which was a basket full of fruit, and children learn at one time to walk and in the other an empty basket, with to dance."

the inscription Retribuat tibi Deus. Did space permit, we would gladly The promissory note of the Jacobins accompany the Abbé on other of was so heavy that it outweighed the excursions in the environs of the laden basket. The guide would Clermont, for which he continually fain have expatiated on the beauty finds excuse in the necessity either of of this allegory, suggested, as he escorting ladies or of enjoying the maintained, by a miracle actually winter sunbeams. As at Riom, he wrought in favour of his order, but always manages to pick up some Fléchier cut him short in bis homily, anonymous but intelligent acquain- and passed on to the next painting, tance, to enlighten him concerning the representation of one of those the gossip of the country, and to “piously impious" legends, as M. father those sallies and inuendoes of Gonod justly styles them, so often which he himself is unwilling to assume met with in monkish chronicles. This the responsibility. Ilis account of a one, in which the Saviour of mankind is visit to the Dominican convent is represented as supping with and confull of quiet satire. He was accom- verting a beautiful Roman courtesan, panied by his friend Monsieur de B shocked the religious feelings of the a sensible

man, well acquainted Abbé Fléchier in the year 1666, alwith the belles lettres, and of very though in the year 1832, it was not agreeable conversation.” M. de B- deemed too irreverent for reproduction is made the scapegoat for the sly hits in a work entitled “ Pouroir de at the abuses of the church, and at Marie,” written by the notorious the pictures and records of miracles Liguori, and published at Clermont to which they are introduced by a Ferrand, by the Catholic Society for simple and garrulous monk. There pious books. “I could not help tellwere few founders of religious orders, ing him," says Fléchier, “that I had they were informed, of such good seen pictures more devout and touchfamily as St Dominick, who was a ing than this one ; that these disguises grandee of Spain, and consequently of Jesus Christ as a gallant, were far superior to St Ignatius, whose rather extraordinary ; that there are nobility the Jesuits vaunted, and who, so many other stories more edifying, after all, was but a mere gentleman. and, perhaps, truer :

Here There were, of course, many pictures the monk interrupted the Abbé, and of the grandec upon the church and was about to repeat a whole volume cloister walls, representing him en- of miracles, compiled by one of the gaged in various pious acts. “In brotherhood, when the vesper bell one of them he was depicted present- summoned him to prayer, to the great ing a request to the Pope, surrounded relief of Fléchier, who manifestly disby his cardinals, whilst on the same approved as much the profane tracanvass was seen the horse of Troy, vesty of holy things, as the lying dragged by Priam and by the gentle miracles by which the Dominicans men and ladies of the town, with all strove to attract into their beggingthe circumstances related by Virgil in box and larder the contributions of the second book of the Æneid.” the credulously charitable. Fléchier was considerably puzzled We perhaps risk censure by terby this mixture of sacred and profane minating this paper without a more personages; but his guide explained minute consideration of the Grandsits singularity by assigning the pic- Jours themselves, the ostensible subture to a pious and learned monk, as ject of Fléchier's book, and without well read in Virgil and Homer as in examining in greater detail the nature his breviary, who made a good use of of the crimes and characters of the his reading, and was particularly culprits brought before the arbitrary happy in employing it to the glorifi. tribunal. Although we have shown

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that a large portion of the Mémoires Auvergne by a less decent name—but consists of matters wholly unconnected language, as Fléchier says, purifies with the proceedings of the court, it itself even in the most barbarous must not be thence inferred that the countries. And certainly there was Abbé neglects his reporting duties, much of the barbarian in the Auand does not frequently apply himself vergnat, even so late as 1666. The to give long and elaborate accounts of odious exaction referred to was comthe trials, especially of the criminal pounded by payment of heavy tribute, ones. Many of these are sufficiently re- often amounting to half the bride's markable to merit a place in the pages dowry. The Baron d'Espinchal was of the Causes Célébres. Some have ac- another brilliant specimen of the aristually found their way thither. In Flé- tocracy of Auvergne. Aftercommitting chier's narrative, their interest is often a series of crimes we have no inclinaobscured and diminished by wordi- tion to detail, he pursued his wife ness and digression; and persons inter- (a daughter of the Marquis of Châested in the civil or criminal jurispru- teaumorand) with gross insult, ereu dence of the period will surely quarrel in her convent-sanctuary at Clermont. with the divine, who is a poor lawyer, The unfortunate lady had contracted apt to shirk legal points, or, when he such a habit of fear, that she could not endeavours to unravel them, to make be in his presence without trembling; confusion worse confounded. The and on his putting his hand to his state of society in Auvergne, in the pocket to take ont his watch, whilst seventeenth century, is exhibited in separated from her by the grating of a most unfavourable light. We find the convent parlour, she thought he was a brutal and unchivalrous nobility, about to draw a pistol, and fell fainting deficient in every principle of honour, from her chair. Numerous traits of and even of common honesty, unfeel- this description prove baseness and ing to their dependents, discourteous brutality as well as vice on the part of to ladies, perfidious to each other. the higher orders of the province, who Here we behold a nobleman of an- appear to have been deficient in the cient name offering his adversary in a military virtues and redeeming qualiduel the choice of two pistols, from ties sometimes found in outlawed and one of which he lias drawn the ball, desperate banditti. We should have with a resolution to take his advan- had less gratification in dwelling upon tage if the loaded weapon is left him, the crimes and excesses narrated in and to find a pretext for discharging the Mémoires, than we have derived and reloading the other, should it fall from the consideration of their lighter to his share. He gets the loaded passages, and of the occasional eccenpistol, and shoots his man. A gentle- tricities and many admirable qualiinan of rank and quality enforces the ties of their estimable and reverend droit de noces, formerly known in author.

DON JOHN OF AUSTRIA.

Don John of Austria, the illegiti- At his death, Charles left Don John mate son of the Emperor Charles V.(for nothing but a strong recommendation an account of whose life we purpose to to his successor Philip II. The only lay under contribution several curious wish which escaped the dying monarchi documents lately published at Mad- was, that Don John should be edurid) was born in 1545. His parentage, cated for the church. on the mother's side is not quite so Meanwhile, Don John, who was certain. Brantôme, Moreri, and but one year younger than Don others, after mentioning the Countess Carlos, was brought up with Philip's Barbe de Blomberghe as Don Johu's ill-starred son: and at this period of putative mother, assert that, although his life a circumstance occurred which Charles's mistress, she certainly was greatly influenced Don John's future not mother to Don John, whose destiny. The boy revealed to Philip parentage, they hint, should be laid II. some hare-brained folly of his at the door of some far nobler dame. son Don Carlos. This conduct gave But Ranke, and the best informed the Spanish monarch so high an modern historians, affirm that Barbe opinion of his young brother's de Blomberghe was really Don integrity and honour, that he deterJohn's mother. This lady belonged mined not to follow out Charles V.'s to a noble family of Flanders, and intentions, but to educate Don John was a celebrated beauty of her day. for the military, instead of the eccleAfter his love for her was extinct, siastical profession. This was not Charles V. gave Barbe de Blomberghe, done, however, without strong oppowith a large dowry, in marriage, to a sition from some of Philip's royal certain Seigneur Rechem, who held council. The conduct of Don John, considerable possessions in the pro- however pleasing to Philip II., vince of Luxemburg, and lived con- drew upon the young prince the bitter stantly at Antwerp.

animosity of Don Carlos who, ever Don John's early life was passed after, treated his companion with in the farm-house of a rich peasant marked indignity: his hatred one day in the vicinity of Liege, where the went to the length of twitting Don young lad was subjected to all man- John with his illegitimacy. Don ner of privations, and early inured Carlos called him a bastard, hijo de to hard labour and coarse fare, puta. “Yes,” said Don John, “I a fitting preparation for his future a bastard; but my father is å career. Brantôine mentions it as a better man than yours :" whereupon fact much to Don Jolin's credit, that, the two lads came to blows. in spite of this humble education as a Passing over much of his early life, peasant, he showed no trace of vul- we come to the year 1569, when Don garity in after life, but, on the con- John was sent against the Moors of trary, that he had excellent and noble Grenada. In this expedition he demanners in the field and in drawing- veloped considerable military talents, rooms. The emperor, Charles V., selit and gave such evidence of personal for the lad, when he grew up, to come courage, that the old captains and to Spain, rewarded the honest peasant veteran soldiers who remembered for his trouble, and announced to Don the early campaigns of his father, John the secret of his birth. Although Charles V., called out with one accord, the Emperor loved the boy as the "Ah! this is a true son of the son of his old age, he gave him nothing Emperor." Ea! es verdadero hijo during his lifetime, of which the del Emperador. Don John returned ardent young

prince much com- from this campaign covered with plained, saying that “the Emperor, glory, and with the reputation of being having acknowledged him as his son, one of the best captains of the age. should have given him the means of Meanwhile, the infidels were making living befitting his rank and birth.” rapid progress in another part of the

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Don John of Austria.

71
globe. The taking of Cyprus by the fighting men, of whom eleven.
Turks alarmed all Europe to such a or twelve thousand were Spaniards,
degree, that_a league was formed the rest Italians and Germans. Don
between the Pope, the Venetians, and John, like a good general, had care-
the Spanish monarch, in order to put fully seen that the galleys were
a stop to any further inroads in this well-provided with ammunition :
quarter ; a fleet was manned, soldiers each galley, in addition to its regular
were levied, to stem the threatened crew and armament, had one hun-
invasion of Christendom. Don John, dred and fifty extra soldiers on
whose reputation was now exceedingly board. The Turkish fleet consisted
great, was selected for the command of of two hundred and twenty-five large
the allied forces. It had previously galleys, and seventy other smaller
been offered to the Duke of Anjou. vessels, on board of which were, in all,
At this time of his life, Don John about twenty-five thousand fighting
was six-and-twenty, in the full The Turks came sailing down
bloom of youth and manly strength. the wind, full upon the allied fleet,
Lippomano, a Neapolitan, describes with a confidence acquired by the

a person of a most beautiful frequency of their victories over the presence and of wonderful grace; Spanish vessels, which they had been with but little beard and large in the habit of seizing and carrying as mustachios. His complexion is fair, prizes into Argel and other ports. The and he weareth his hair long and Turks, moreover, had the advantage of turned back over his shoulders, the the sun in their backs, and consequently which is a great ornament unto him. it poured its hot rays full in the face He dresses sumptuously, and with of the Christian host. Don John of anch care and neatness, that it is a Austria was at first in some trouble, as sight to see. " Moreover, adds Don Alvaro de Bazan, the Marquis Lippomano, “he is active and well- de Santa Cruz, commanding the Neamade, and succeedeth beyond measure politan squadron, was by some means in all manly exercises."*

No one

detained behind, as well as Don Juan rode, no one wielded the sword better de Cardona, who had gone with than the young hero, who, moreover, eight galleys to reconnoitre a distant had all the popular qualities fitted to port. Don John, however, despatched ingratiate him with

and a few quick-sailing frigates in search soldiers—he was gracious, affable, and of them, the moment the Turkish fleet open-handed. Even at this early age, hove in sight. Meanwhile, Don John Don John lamented that he had not and the crew of his vessel, as well as already won by his own right handsome the crews and soldiers of all those galindependent kingdom of his own. To leys which were near him, raised cruthe attainment of this object he looked cifixes and standards, knelt down on confidently to the league or to the the decks of their vessels, and made Venetians; and the great victory of humble supplication to the Almighty Lepanto, which he gained at the head to give them the victory. Don John, of the allied fleets,-to which period with a soldier's heart, had a strong in the life of our hero we have now dash of the priest in his composition. arrived, -seemed to justify his expec- Absolution was likewise given, during tations; in this, however, he was this interval of peace, to all who doomed to be disappointed.

might so soon render up their souls The battle of Lepanto was fought to God, by Fray Juan Machuca, on the 7th October, 1571. On the side Alonso Serrano, Juan de Huarca, and of the allies were about two hundred other Franciscan and Capuchin friars large galleys, six smaller ones, and and Jesuits who accompanied the ex twenty-two other vessels ; of these, pedition. Luckily, at this moment the eighty-one galleys and thirty frigates wind lulled, and the Turkish squadro belonged to Spain, the rest to his was forced to come slowly on wit holmess the Pope, and to the Vene- their oars. This happy incident gay tians. The armament on board con- Don Jolin plenty of time to arrang sisted of about twenty-one thousand his order of battle.

*

women

* Ranke, Fürsten und Völker, vol. i. p. 170.

It was mid-day on the 7th Octo- reached the Turkish flag-staff. The ber 1571 before the two armadas came caboose of Don John's vessel, filled with together, and Don John fired a gun picked men under Don Pedro Zapata, as a signal to his fleet to commence did infinite service; one man alone the attack. By this time, most for- fired forty rounds of cartridge. At the tunately, the Marquis de Santa Cruz, end of an hour and a half's bard fightwith the Neapolitan galleys, had ar- ing, victory inclined to the side of the rived. Don John ordered all the bri- Spaniards. The Pasha and above five gantines and other light and fast- hundred of his men were killed, his sailing vessels to retire from the scene sons made prisoners, his standard of action, so that no one might think pulled down, and the Cross planted in of escaping, but should fight to the its stead. About the same time the last. When the armadas approached other galleys near Don John's vessel each other, Don John ordered the likewise forced their way through the trumpets to sound the charge, and ex- Turkish squadron. Don John now horted his people to prepare for ac- ordered victory to be loudly protion. On nearing the Turkish feet, claimed, and had time to look about Don John was able to recognise the him, so as to bring assistance where galley of the Turkish admiral, Basa it was most needed. Hali, (Ali Pasha) by its ensign and On his return from bis reconnoitsacred standard. Don John ordered ering cruise, Don Juan de Cardona, his own vessel to bear down upon the admiral of the Sicilian forces, bad Turk, who reserved his fire until the fallen in with some fifteen Turkish Spanish vessel was within half a boat's galleys, which he kept employed until length, when he fired three shots; the Don John of Austria bore down trifirst carried away some of the bulwarks umphantly to his assistance, and capof the vessel, killing several of the tured the infidels. Of five hundred galley-slaves at their oars; the second Spaniards who were with Don Juan passed over the caboose or kitchen on de Cardona, not fifty escaped without board Don John's vessel, which was a wound of some sort. It was in this occupied by soldiers armed with ar- same battle of Lepanto that Miguel quebuses ; while the third shot went Cervantes lost his arm, and most of over the heads of several soldiers who our readers will recollect how the brave were intrenched in one of the boats on soldier tells the story of his own life deck. Don John, who had likewise in the fortieth chapter of Don Quixoto reserved his fire, now poured in a de la Mancha. The Marquis de Santa volley, which did infinite mischief to Cruz fought most bravely, and twice the Turk; and the two galleys ran narrowly escaped death — two shots into one another with a mighty crash, from an arquebuse glanced off from his and got hopelessly entangled. The armour of proof. In this battle tho battle now became general, and raged Turks lost 117 galleys and some other furiously on both sides. No less than smaller vessels; 117 cannon, 17 morcleven other vessels were engaged in tars and 256 smaller guns, and 3,486 the immediate vicinity of Don John slaves; all which booty was divided and Ali Pasha, and all the several among the Spaniards, the Venetians, crews fought hand to hand. The and the Pope. The sacred standard Turkish admiral was supported by of Mecca, of which Luis Marmol has seven other Turkish galleys, while Don written a glowing description, was John was assisted by five large ves- sent, together with the news of this sels of his own side, of which one was great victory, to Philip II., and reachthe Roman galley, La Grifona, com- ed the Escurial in November 1571. manded by Marco Antonio Colonna, This standard was about as large and the others were Venetian or Spa- as a sheet; the white ground was nish. For one whole hour the fighting covered with writing in the Arabic continued without either party appa- character, and most of the letters were rently getting the best of it. Twice gilt. It was burnt in the great fire did the Spaniards carry the decks of which destroyed the monastery of the the Turkish admiral's vessel, and twice Escurial in 1671, just one hundred were they driven back with tremen- years after it had graced those walls. dons slaughter. Once they had almost When the news of this great

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