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victory reached Philip II., he was tion. The Turks were amazed at the attending vespers at the church smallness of our number, and thought of the Escurial. A loud “ Te Deum that we should fly; but they were laudamus" was immediately sung speedily undeceived, and very much with the whole strength of the choir, to their cost ; for, in the short space of and the following day a solemn pro- time I have mentioned, not a vessel of cession took place in gratiarum ac- theirs but was taken, sunk, or burnt, tione,” at which the austere monarch or had fled. Many escaped by running assisted. We cannot do better than their smaller vessels ashore, and quote a short letter, written to Philip's Uchali,* with a part of his galliots, estrusty and confidential secretary, An- caped. The Admiral Pasha died tonio Perez, by one Francisco Murillo, fighting, but his two young sons were who was engaged in the battle of Le- taken. Many other notorious corpanto; the letter is dated the 9th Oc- sairs were likewise taken or killed. I tober 1571, two days after the victory. cannot exactly say the number of ves

“ Illustrious Sir,- Te Deum lau- sels taken or destroyed; but I think damus, te Deum confitemur! God and for certain they are above two hunhis illustrious Mother have been pleased dred ; and the best is that, of our to give us the victory over the Turk- squadron, no captain-general or perish feet, and His omnipotence hath son of any importance is missing or been most clearly made known, inas- even wounded; of the others I only much as this proud and great armada know of Captain Francisco de Corhath been broken and conquered. We doba, the nephew of the Marquis of fought valiantly some two or three Santa Cruz, who was killed by an arhours; many of our galleys were en- quebuse-shot; of other folk but few gaged with two, three, or four of the are killed or wounded. It is the enemy's vessels. The number of the work of God and not of man.

You Turkish vessels, as far as I could learn, will be pleased to hear that not one amounted to about 270, rather more of our vessels but has another in than less ; in the which they had tow, which it has taken, and that we stowed as many men at arms as they all did well. The galley in which I could collect in all Greece, both was did the least of all; we fought cavalry and infantry, the best they the Turk who was opposed to us, atcould find ; and they were directed to tacked the infidels' vessel by the poop, come in search of us—for such were throwing into it shot, stones, and the orders from Constantinople. Some fire until it surrendered ; and we of the vessels of the armada, and some captured two flags which hung at foot-soldiers, having been despatched the stern. Some soldiers got good on the approach of Don John of booty in clothes. After this we seAustria, to consult with the Turk cured some others, and drove so many as to what was to be done, the ashore that it is a shame to tell; and Seignior ordered the Turkish fleet in all our vessel we had not so much to seek until it found us. Nor had as six wounded, and not one killed. they much trouble therein : for the Many of our galley-slaves who were very same morning on which they released fought like lions, and restored left the port with this intent, namely, to liberty an infinite number of Chrison Sunday the 7th October, the tian captives who were in the Turkish day of St Mark, Pope and Con- fleet; among these were more than fessor, the two fleets came in sight of 2,000 Spaniards, and many women each other, near some islands called and children whom the Turks had Le Corcholare, (?) whither they were seized in Cephalonia and other parts. coming with the same intent as our- Had not the season been so far adselves, namely, to anchor. When we vanced, we might have gone safely made this mutual discovery, nothing as far as Constantinople; at any rato was to be done save to prepare for ac- we might have taken all Greece and

* Uchali was a famous renegade, a Calabrian by birth, who, from being a slave of the Grand Seignior's, became King of Argel.- See Brantóme, Hennes Illustres, vcl. i. p. 286.


the Morea ; but it is already winter, Spanish monarchy ; still less could and, moreover, we have not sufficient he think of establishing a rival and provisions aboard.

independent kingdom at Tunis. А “Don Bernardino de Cardenas died despatch was therefore forwarded to of a spent ball from an arquebuse, Don John, in which all the reasons which struck him on the breast; al- for the dismantling of Tunis were urthough the ball did not enter the flesh, gently put. But Don John disobeyDon Bernardino fell and never rose ed orders, and fortified the town, in again. The Count de Bianco, and a the vain hope of erecting Tunis into few other gentle folks likewise fell the capital of his future kingdom. fighting valiantly. Captain Juan Ru- Shortly afterwards, the town fell again bio is safe and sound, after performing into the hands of the Turks. Juan marvels with his crew ; for he fought Soto was shrewdly suspected at headwith three large galleys at once, and quarters of advising this act of disobemade them all yield ; but neither he dience to royal orders. It was therenor I have got a single maravedi. It fore deemed expedient to remove the would have been no bad thing to have scheming and dangerous secretary; but stumbled across a good purse full of some prudence was necessary lest Don ducats. But you, sir, will remem · John might see through the suspicions ber your servants ; wo have of the Spanish court. Juan Soto was hope from any one after you but in accordingly rewarded by promotion, God, who we pray may keep you and made Proveedor-general of the and your house in that health and in armada. Juan Escovedo, a creathat increase of wealth which we, ture of Philip II., who, as we shall your servants, do desire. From Le subsequently sce, became far more Corchorale, this 9th October 1571. dangerous than his predecessor in ofIllustrious sir, I kiss your hands. I fice, was placed about Don John as entreat you to send a servant with his secretary. Soto, however, was this, on the first opportunity, to my

too useful to Don John to be so brother the canon. I take this liberty easily parted withi, and we still find as the affair is of importance.

him acting, in conjunction with EscoTwo years after the battle of Le- vedo, in the capacity of secretary, as panto, Don John of Austria gained late as 1577. Philip II. soon discofresh laurels at Tunis and Biserta: vered to his cost that the change of and these victories seem to have con- secretaries brought no change of pofirmed him in his ambitious projects licy ; nay, Escovedo proved a more of obtaining an independent kingdom. willing tool, and inspired Don John Juan Soto, a man of much experience with far loftier schemes of ambition in military matters, who, at the time than Soto, his predecessor in oflice, of the expedition to Grenada, had had ever conceived. been placed about his person as sec- In the year 1576 Philip II. thought retary by Ruy Gomez de Silva, fit to take Don John of Austria from Prince of Eboli, and who had served the scenes of his triumph in the Mediwith Don John all through the terranean, and to remove him from his Moorish and Italian campaign, ap- dreams of independent kingdoms at pears to have much encouraged Don Tunis into the midst of European inJohn in these ambitious aspirations. trigues. Don John was sent to take By allusions to the former pomp and command of the forces in the Low splendour of ancient Carthage, Juan Countries, where the ferocious and Soto inspired Don John with the idea iron rule of the Duke of Alva, and of of erecting Tunis into an independent his successor, Don Luis de Requesens, kingdom ; the Pope even was induced the commendador mayor of Castile, to recommend this scheme to Philip had plunged the Flemings deeper into II.’s favourable consideration. But rebellion, and had obliterated the the monarch had no wish to lose so little loyalty to the crown of Spain able a general as Don John, to whom which still lingered in the Low Counhe looked for the extension of the tries. Don John was selected for this


* Documentos ineditos para la II istoria de España, vol. iii. p.224.

post from his likeness to his father, orders to proceed direct to the Netherthe late Emperor Charles V., whose lands, reached Barcelona, with two memory the Flemings still cherished, fast-sailing galleys, and hurried on to and from his connexion with the coun- Madrid, where he found his brother try, his supposed mother belonging to Philip fully apprised of his scheme. one of the best families in Flanders. For But such was Don John's manly air, these reasons, this appointment was such the influence which his straightheld likely to be popular, and to lead forward conduct exercised over the to good results. Don John was or- suspicious nature of Philip II., that the dered to proceed without delay to his Spanish monarch yielded a reluctant new government; and his secretary, assent to his brother's plans of agEscovedo, came to Madrid to procure grandisement, and promised to allow money and other matters necessary him to make use of the Spanish vetefor his master's new office.

rans in aid of his expedition against While Escovedo was in Madrid, England, after he had pacified the Low apparently engaged in these details, Countries. Perez says that Philip Antonio Perez, Philip's confidential consented to this scheme with the view secretary, accidentally discovered from of encouraging Don John of Austria the Pope's nuncio, who asked him if to use greater diligence in Flanders. there was about the court such a per- Full, therefore, of his new governson as one Escovedo, "* that Don ment and of his own ambitious proJohn's ambitious views were by no jects, Don John left Spain; and on means extinguished. As his brother's the 17th October 1576, we find the policy would not permit him to found following letter from him to his friend a new empire at Tunis, the Pope, the and adviser Don Garcia de Toledo, Guises, and Don John had planned Marquis of Villa Franca, whose repuan expedition for the conquest of tation as a general was founded upon England. Mary, queen of Scots, was the capture from the Moors of the imto be released from prison ; Elizabeth pregnable fortress of El Peñon de Velez. dethroned ; England brought back to

Concerning my own jourthe bosom of the Catholic church un- ney I desire to say as much as the der the guidance of Mary, queen of time will allow me, leaving to others Scots, and her new husband, Don to tell you more at length how I shall John of Austria-for this marriage go. I journey to Flanders in disformed part of the project. Here was a guise through France, and, next to scheme to captivate an ambitious, chi- God, the disguise will save me. I go, valrous young prince! The nuncio in not a little contented to be able to do answer told Perez that, in a despatch you some service ;-(Don John had which he had received from Rome, lie busied himself much in procuring for was instructed to interest Philip II. Don Garcia the promise of a grandeein this expedition, and to request the ship of the first class);—"desiring to Spanish monarch to aid Don John in encounter perils, and by no means this meditated attempt upon England. fatiguing myself with these new This was not quite new to Perez; some labours which I have undertaken. vague surmises had already been ex- Money is short, and my present necescited against the doings of Escovedo sities great. In the end God hath and Don John, by hints thrown out by to take up this his cause in every way, Don Juan de Zuniga, the Spanish and to aid me individually with a minister in Rome, whose suspicions miracle. You must let me know had been excited by the frequent where I shall receive your letters, and communications between Escovedo, I will advise you, God willing, of my the Pope, and the Guises. Antonio Pe- safe arrival : and I beseech you to rez, now that he held the threads of tell me alway of your health, and to the plot in his hand, instantly inform- advertise me, as is your habit, of your ed Philip of the whole project. At opinion as to my doings ; and to make this inauspicious moment Don John use of me in all ways as a sincere himself, against Philip's peremptory friend, and as such I congratulate you

* Memorial d: Antonio Perez del Hecho de su Caso, p. 300.

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on the marriage of Don Pedro, and who will inform you of the state in on the state in which the Señora Doña which things are here, and by the Elvira is ; and may it all turn out as grace of God they are better than you may best desire.

From the could be expected, as every thing Pardo, the 17th Oct., 1576. At your was, when I came, as bad as posservice, Don Juan."*

sible. To God be rendered thanks, We gather the particulars of his in that he hath given me patience journey through France from Bran- to suffer what it appeared impostôme, who says that “Don John sible for any human creature to without any great suite, and in order bear, before this blind people could to go with greater certainty, rode be brought out of their passion, post with sis companions only ; hav- which kept their minds so hardened ing with him Señor Don Otavio Gon- against their own peace and quiet. zagua as his confidant, and a French But since his Divine Majesty has postilion, whom he found in Spain, as permitted things to come to this pass, his guide; the latter was, moreover, an

I trust that with time the whole excellent companion, and knew every machine will come round to its proper road, lane, and bye-path in France. place. The moment any thing of This man led Don John across France consequence occurs I will let you in most dangerous and unquiet times: know; and I entreat of you to inform in Guyenne they were the eve of me of the state of your health, of a war, which indeed broke out some which I have heard nothing since I three months after. Don John arrived reached Luxemburg, which is now in Paris, and got off his horse at the more than three months and a half. hotel of the Spanish Ambassador in I know not how to account for this, the street of St Anthoine.”+ That as I do not hear that the passes same night he seems to have gone to are closed ... Some of the condia great ball at the Louvre, where he tions of this peace are hard, most was much struck with the beauty of the hard; but necessary to save religion Queen of Navarre, before whom he and to ensure obedience. Time will stood like one entranced. The fol- do something, and already much lowing day, Don John, still full of has been done by the grace of God. Marguerite of Navarre, the At your service, Don JUAN."I palace and the other sights of Paris, But now, when Don John fully and started again on his journey, --no expected to reap the benefit of peace, one having an idea, till he was gone, and to employ his Spanish veterans in that he had been in Paris at all. IIc thc conquest of England, he saw all travelled again in disguise, and on his hopes frustrated. The states of horseback, to the Duchy of Luxem- Flanders steadily refused to allow thie burg, and thence to Flanders, where Spanish troops to be embarked on be found that Antwerp had just been board any vessels in their harbours, taken and sacked. Shortly after his lest they should be used against Zeaarrival peace was concluded; one of land and Holland, but demanded, in the first conditions of which was the a peremptory tone, that the troops departure of all Spanish troops by should be instantly despatched by land. We shall see that they were land, according to the treaty. Moreforced to go to Italy instead of by sea over, Philip resisted the pressing to England, and were said to be so appeal of the Pope's nuncio to intercharged with booty that they could fere in this matter. Thus - was scarce walk. We find Don Jobn writ- England saved from the horrors ing in the following terms to Don Gar- of an invasion,-curious that for once cia de Toledo, on the 21st February, in their lives Elizabeth of England 1577, after peace had been concluded. and Philip of Spain should have had

“Most illustrious sir, -Not to tire similar interests at heart ! S you with a long letter, I will refer Don John's ambitious spirit still you to my secretary, Juan de Soto, drove him to se some means of ac.

* Documentos ineditos para la llistoria de España, vol. iii. p. 178.
+ Brantôme, Hommes Illustres.
# Documentus ineditos para la llistoria de España, vol. iii. p. 182.
S Ranke, Fürsten und Völker ron Sud Europa, vol. i. p. 178.




quiring an independent kingdom, last Escovedo was stabbed in the either in the East, in England, France, streets of Madrid by one Insausti, on or Spain. Much to Philip's disquiet, Don the 31st March 1577. But for the John now held constant communica- whole of this most curious chapter in tion with the Guises ; emissaries went the history of Antonio Perez, whose to, and came frequently from, Rome, airs of authority had made him dewithout Don John ever acquainting tested,-for a full comprehension of his suspicious brother with his in- Don John's ambitious views,-of the trigues. Escovedo exceed- part which Escovedo played in this ingly busy, and Perez was drama, -of his murder by the comployed by Philip II. to worm out mand of Philip, and the manner in the secret, which he did by the which the guilty accessary, Antonio most dishonourable artifices. He Perez, was made the scape-goat of entered into a secret correspondence the whole transaction, and offered up with Escovedo, and, after blaming as a sacrifice to the long-cherished Don John's secretary for writing to hatred of Escovedo's family, and of the Pope without Philip's knowledge, his rival Mateo Vasquez-of the inPerez assured Escovedo that their surrection in Arragon, and other correspondence should be kept pro- matters connected with this transacfoundly secret from the king. All this tion,-we must refer our readers to time the wily secretary of state show- Mons. Mignet's interesting work on ed all the letters and despatches to Philip II. and Antonio Perez, where Philip, who frequently amended the they will find the whole story handled drafts of the minutes with his own with admirable precision by a master hand. Nay, to obviate suspicion, of his art. Perez occasionally put in some abuse The murder of Escovedo must have of the monarch.* * Don John, in opened Don John's eyes, and shown moments of disappointment, wrote him that Philip would never allow to Perez-For the sake of his life, him to acquire a separate and indeof his honour, of his soul, he must pendent kingdom. Don John's anquit Flanders — he would leave his bitious spirit seems now to have post when people least expected preyed upon itself, and his constituit-although this crime might be tion to have suffered from this interpunished with blood. He talked of nal struggle: he had frequent fits of entering France" at the head of a melancholy, accompanied by attacks band of adventurers, consisting of of low fever; and occasionally ex6000 infantry and 2000 horse."! More- pressed an earnest desire to leave a over, Don John was frequently heard career for which he daily felt an into say, “ Escovedo and money-money creasing dislike, and to be allowed and Escovedo." The latter became to retire into

monastery: exceedingly bold, and said that, This feeling was much aggravated after conquering England, it would be by the failure of the negotiation in easy to gain Spain: that with the the Netherlands, and by the proports of Santander and the Peña de spect of a long and lingering war, Mogron, a footing might be gained in in which none of those bold dashes Castile. But what brought matters and brilliant adventures, which to a crisis was the demand made by formed so great an attraction to one Escovedo, who was now in Spain, of Don Jolin's chivalrous and enthu-to be instantly appointed governor siastic nature, were to be expected. of the Peña de Mogron. Philip, seeing At length, after several small sucin this demand confirmation strong cesses, after a victory at Namur, Don of his worst suspicions, thought Esco- John was seized with the putrid fever, vedo too dangerous a person to be of which lie died on the 1st October allowed to live, and Perez was ordered 1578, in the 33d year of his age, and to despatch this intriguing emissary. with him perished all his ambitious Poison was administered in vain ; at desigus. On opening the body,



* Memorial de Antonio Perez del Hecho de su Caso, pp. 304-308.
+ Ibid.

# Ibid.
$ Antonio Perez et Philipe II., par Mons. Mignet, 1 vol. 3d ed.

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