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Reed, in fact, became, in a little time, the inti mate companion of his thoughts, his bosom counBelor. He felt the need of such a friend in the present exigency, placed as he was in a new and untried situation, and having to act with persons hitherto nknown to hin

In military affairs, it is true he had a shrewd counselor in General Lee ; but Lee was a wayward character; a cosmopolite, without attachment to country, somewhat splenetic, and prone to follow the bent of his whims and humors, which often clashed with propriety and sound policy. Reed, on the contrary, though less informed on military matters, had a strong common sense, unclouded by passion or prejudice, and a pure patriotism, which regarded everything as it bore upon the welfare of his country.

Washington's confidence in Lee had always to be measured and guarded in matters of civil policy.

The arrival of Gates in camp was heartily welcomed by the commander-in-chief, who had received a letter from that officer, gratefully acknowledging his friendly influence in procuring him the appointment of adjutant-general. Washington may have promised himself much cordial coöperation from him, recollecting the warm friendship professed by him when he visited at Mount Vernon, and they talked together over their early companionship in arins ; but of that kind of friendship there was no further manifestation, Gates was certainly of great service, from his practical knowledge and military experience at



this juncture, when the whole army had in a manner to be organized; but from the familiar intimacy of Washington he gradually estranged himself. A contemporary has accounted for this, by alleging that he was secretly chagrined at not having received the appointment of major-general, to which he considered himself well fitted by his military knowledge and experience, and which he thought Washington might have obtained for him had he used his influence with Congress. We shall have to advert to this estrangement of Gates on subsequent occasions.

The hazardous position of the army from the great extent and weakness of its lines, was what most pressed on the immediate attention of Washington; and he summoned a council of war, to take the matter into consideration. In this it was urged that, to abandon the line of works, after the great labor and expense of their construction, would be dispiriting to the troops and encour aging to the enemy, while it would expose a wide extent of the surrounding country to maraud and ravage. Besides, no safer position presented itself, on which to fall back. This being generally admitted, it was determined to hold on to the works, and defend them as long as possible ; and, in the mean time, to augment the army to at least twenty thousand men.

Washington now hastened to improve the defenses of the camp, strengthen the weak parts of the line, and throw up additional works round the main forts. No one seconded him more effectu. ally in this matter than General Putnam. No works were thrown up with equal rapidity to those under his superintendence, " You seem, general," Baid Washington, “ to have the faculty of infusing your own spirit into all the workmen you employ;" and it was the fact.

The observing chaplain already cited, gazed with wonder at the rapid effects soon produced by the labors of an army.

“ It is surprising," writes he, “how much work has been done. The lines are extended almost from Cambridge to Mystic River ; very soon it will be morally impossible for the enemy to get between the works, except in one place, which is supposed to be left purposely unfortified, to entice the enemy out of their fortresses. Who would have thought, twelve months past, that all Cambridge and Charlestown would be covered over with American camps, and cut up into forts and intrenchments, and all the lands, fields, orchards, laid common, horses and cattle feeding on the choicest mowing land, whole fields of corn eaten down to the ground, and large parks of well-regulated forest trees cut down for fire-wood and other public uses.”

Beside the main dispositions above mentioned, about seven hundred men were stributed in the small towns and villages along the coast, to prevent depredations by water; and horses were kept ready saddled at various points of the widely extended lines, to convey to head-quarters intellia gence any special movement of the enemy.

The army was distributed by Washington into three grand divisions. One, forming the right wing, was stationed on the heights of Roxbury.





It was commanded by Major-general Ward, who had under him Brigadier generals Spencer and Thomas. Another, forming the left wing under Major-general Lee, having with him Brigadiergenerals Sullivan and Greene, was stationed on Winter and Prospect Hills; while the centre, under Major-general Putnam and Brigadier-general Ileath, was stationed at Cambridge. With Putnam was encamped his favorite officer Knowlton, who had been promoted by Congress to the rank of major for his gallantry at Bunker's Hill.

At Washington's recommendation, Joseph Trumbull, the eldest son of the governor, received, on the 24th of July, the appointment of commissarygeneral of the continental army. He had already officiated with talent in that capacity in the Connecticut militia. “ There is a great overturning in the camp as to order and regularity," writes the military chaplain ; “new lords, new laws. The generals Washington and Lee are upon the lines every day. New orders from his excellency are read to the respective regiments every morning after prayers.

The strictest government is taking place, and great distinction is made between officers and soldiers. Every one is made to know his place and keep it, or be tied up and receive thirty or forty lashes according to his crime. Thousands are at work every day from four till eleven o'clock in the morning.”

Lee was supposed to have been at the bottom of this rigid discipline — the result of his expe.

rience in European campaigning. His notions of military authority were acquired in the armies of

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the North. Quite a sensation was, on one occasion, produced in camp by his threatening to cane an officer for unsoldierly conduct. His laxity in other matters occasioned almost equal scandal. He scoffed, we are told, “ with his usual profaneness," at a resolution of Congress appointing a day of fasting and prayer, to obtain the favor of Heaven


their cause. “ Heaven,” he observed,

was ever found favorable to strong battalions."

Washington differed from him in this respect. By his orders the resolution of Congress was scrupulously enforced. All labor, excepting that absolutely necessary, was suspended on the appointed day, and officers and soldiers were required to attend divine service, armed and equipped and ready for immediate action.

Nothing excited more gaze and wonder among the rustic visitors to the camp, than the arrival of several rifle companies, fourteen hundred men in all, from Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia ; such stalwart fellows as Washington had known in his early campaigns. Stark bunters and bush fighters; many of them upwards of six feet high, and of vigorous frame; dressed in fringed frocks, or rifle shirts, and round hats. Their displays

. of sharpshooting were soon among the marvels of

We are told that while advancing at quick step, they could hit a mark of seven inches diameter, at the distance of two hundred and fifty yards. 2

i Graydon's Memoirs, p. 138.
2 Thacher's Military Journal, p. 37.

the camp:

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