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comfortably lodged than the king's troops in the hospitals ; indiscriminately, it is true, for I acknowl. edge no rank that is not derived from the king.

“My intelligence from your army would justify severe recriminations. I understand there are of the king's faithful subjects, taken some time since by the rebels, laboring, like negro slaves to gain their daily subsistence, or reduced to the wretched alternative to perish by famine or take arms against their king and country. Those who have made the treatment of the prisoners in my hands, or of your other friends in Boston, a pretense for such measures, found barbarity upon falsehood.

“I would willingly hope, sir, that the sentiments of liberality which I have always believed you to possess, will be exerted to correct these misdoings. Be temperate in political disquisition; give free operation to truth, and punish those who deceive and misrepresent; and not only the effects, but the cause, of this unhappy conflict will be removed. Should those, under whose usurped authority you act, control such a disposition, and dare to call severity retaliation; to God, who knows all hearts, be the appeal of the dreadful consequences," etc.

There were expressions in the foregoing letter we!l calculated to rouse indignant feelings in the most temperate bosom. Had Washington been as readily moved to transports of passion as some are pleased to represent him, the rebel and the cord might readily have stung him to fury; but with him, anger was checked in its impulses by higher energies, and reined in to give a grander



effect to the dictates of bis judgment. The fol lowing was his noble and dignified reply to General Gage :

“ I addressed you, sir, on the 11th instant, in terms which gave the fairest scope for that huinanity and politeness whiclı were supposed to form a part of your character. I remonstrated with you on the unworthy treatment shown to the officers and citizens of America, whom the fortune of war, chance, or a mistaken confidence, had thrown into

hands. Whether British or American mercy, fortitude, and patience are most preëminent; whether our virtuous citizens, whom the hand of tyranny has forced into arms to defend their wives, their children, and their property, or the merciless instruments of lawless domination, avarice, and revenge, best deserve the appellation of rebels and the punishment of that cord which your affected clemency has forborne to inflict; whether the authority under which I act is usurped, or founded upon the genuine principles of liberty, were altogether foreign to the subject. I purposely avoided all political disquisition ; nor shall I now avail myself of those advantages which the sacred cause of my country, of liberty, and of human nature give me over you ; much less shall I stoop to retort and invective; but the intelligence you say you have received from our army requires a reply. I have taken time, sir, to make a strict inquiry, and find it has not the least foundation in truth. Not only your officers and soldiers have been treated with the tenderness due to fellow-citizens and brethren, but even those




execrable parricides, whose counsels and aid have deluged their country with blood, have been protected from the fury of a justly euraged people. Far from compelling or permitting their assistance, I am embarrassed with the numbers who crowd to our camp, animated with the purest principles of virtue and love to their country.

“ You affect, sir, to despise all rank not derived from the same source with your own.

I cannot conceive one more honorable, than that which flows from the uncorrupted choice of a brave and free people, the purest source and original fountain of all power.

Far from making it a plea for cruelty, a mind of true magnanimity and enlarged ideas would comprehend and respect it.

“ What may have been the ministerial views which have precipitated the present crisis, Lexington, Concord, and Charlestown can best declare. May that God, to whom you, too, appeal, judge between America and you. Under his providence, those who influence the councils of America, and all the other inhabitants of the united colonies, at the hazard of their lives, are determined to hand down to posterity those just and invaluable privileges which they received from their ancestors.

“ I shall now, sir, close my correspondence with you, perhaps forever. If your officers, our prisoners, receive a treatment from me different from that which I wished to show them, they and you will remember the occasion of it.”

We have given these letters of Washington almost entire, for they contain his manifesto as commander-in-chief of the armies of the Revolution; setting forth the opinions and motives by which he was governed, and the principles on which hostilities on his part would be couducted, It was planting with the pen, that standard which was to be maintained by the sword.

In conformity with the threat conveyed in the latter part of his letter, Washington issued orders that British officers at Watertown and Cape Ann, who were at large on parole, should be confined in Northampton jail ; explaining to them that this conduct, which might appear to them harsh and cruel, was contrary to his disposition, but according to the rule of treatment observed by General Gage towards the American prisoners in his hands; making no distinctions of rank. Circumstances, of which we have no explanation induced subsequently a revocation of this order; the officers were permitted to remain as before, at large upon parole, experiencing every indulgence and a vility consistent with their security.

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Dangers in the Interior. — Machinations of the Johnson Family. — Rivalry of Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold. — Government Perplexities about the Ticonderoga Capture. – Measures to secure the Prize. Allen and Arnold ambitious of Future Laurels. — Projects for the Invasion of Canada. — Ethan Allen and Seth Warner honored by Congress. — Arnold displaced by a Comunittee of Inquiry. — His Indignation. – News from Canada. --The Revolution to be extended into that Province. – Enlistment of Green Mountain Boys.

Schuyler at Ticonderoga. - State of Affairs there. Election for Officers of the Green Mountain Boys. Ethan Allen dismounted. — Joins the Army as a Volunteer. – Preparations for the Invasion of Canada. — General Montgomery Indian Chiefs at Cambridge. — Council Fire. Plan for an Expedition against Quebec. — Departure of Troops from Ticonderoga. — Arrival at Isle Aux Noix.

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E must interrupt our narrative of the

siege of Boston to give an account of

events in other quarters, requiring the superintending care of Washington as commanderin-chief. Letters from General Schuyler, received in the course of July, had awakened apprehensions of danger from the interior. The Johnsons were Baid to be stirring up the Indians in the western parts of New York to hostility, and preparing to join the British forces in Canada; so that, while the patriots were battling for their rights along

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