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1909 California,

1909 Illinois,...


1909 Indiana,

1908 Idaho,

.1909 Lousiana,

1909 Massachusetts, 1907 Michigan,

1908 Minnesota,

? Missouri,

1909 Nebraska,

1909 North Carolina,.. 1909 Oklahoma,

1909 Pennsylvania,.. 1909 Wisconsin,


L.W. Duncan.
E. B. Babcock.
D. 0. Barto. Secondary schools.
F. L. Charles. Elementazy schools.
G. L. Roberts.
E. E. Elliott.
W. S. Ray.
W R. Hart.
W. H. French.
D. D. Mayne.
R. H. Emberson.

J. L. McBrien.
ii I. O. Sohaub.

E. E. Balcomb,
P. F. Mairs,
H. L. Hatch." (1)

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This table shows that little work was done before 1909.


most of these men were appointed primarily for extension

purposes, many also began to give courses in education.

In 1907 the Bureau of Education published Jewell's

study on agricultural education, which

was originally pre

pared as a thesis for the degree of doctor of philosophy at

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"The number of agricultural colleges maintaining summer schools
for teachers or offering normal courses of one or two years
is slowly increasing, and would probably be still larger were
not most of the colleges already handicapped for want of funds
and the members of the faculties badly overcrowded with work."

(2) The Nelson Amendment of March 4, 1907 provided the necessary

financial support for this work and this will explain why so

many colleges began the work in 1909.

The Nelson amandment, socalled because it was an

amendment to the agricultural appropriation bill for the

year 1908, provided for the addition of $5000 to the amount

received by the colleges under the Morrill act of 1890, with

an annual increase of $5000 til the total annual amount should reach the sum of $25 000. The act further provided that:

"said colleges may use a portion of this money for providing courses for the special preparation of instructors for teaching

the elements of agriculture and the mechanic arts." 1, loc. cit. 2, Jewell. Agrl education. p.107-8.


Senator Nelson clearly indicated that he especially wished

to aid agricultural instruction in the secondary schools

and that he was convinced that trained teachers of agricul-
ture had to be provided before such work would be efficient. (1)


the early part of 1908 the Bureau of Education

asked Liberty Hyde Bailey to prepare a bulletin on the

training of teachers of agriculture in the public schools

in order to be an assistance to colleges which were planning

to organize such courses. In his survey of the work that
had been done, Bailey reported the following: (2)

1, The Massachussetts Agricultural College had, in 1907,
established a department of agricultural education and had
announced a course of instruction for the year 1908-9.

2, The University of Illinois had appointed an instructor in
secondary school agriculture, who for the past two years had
worked among the public schools of the state in the interest
of the movement. Two courses of instruction were also offered.

3, The New York State College of Agriculture had, in 1903,
organized a two-years' normal course in nature study.

4, The Teachers College of the University of Missouri was
offering two courses in agriculture for teachers.

5, The University of Maine, thru its College of Agriculture, had late in 1907 organized a four-year course for prospective teachers of agriculture.


The North Dakota College of Agriculture offered a threeyear "teachers' course, which included four courses in "teachers' agriculture".

7, The Connecticutt Agricultural College had for several years offered a two-years' course for nature-study teachers.

8, The Washington State College offered a course in "methods
of teaching agriculture" for those desiring to engage as
school teachers.

1, For Nelson's arguments in favor of the bill see s.doc.189,

59 th Cong, 2d sess. In V.4, no.5071. 2, Bailey. On the training of persons to teach agriculture.37-48.

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