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settled character of the population the supply is frequently unequal to the demand, and then prices go to high figures, especially in the remoter districts. The cost of the necessaries of life generally for laboring men is three times as great in the mining counties of California as in the interior counties of New York, and from four to six times, in Nevada, Idaho, and Arizona.

5.–CAPACITY TO MAINTAIN A LARGE POPULATION.

California can maintain a large population. In many respects the State resembles Spain. It has a similar climate, soil and size, and should support as many inhabitants. The population of Spain is at present fourteen millions, and under the Moorish dominion many valleys which are now bare and desolate were well tilled and densely populated. Spain has 188,000 square miles, and California 160,000, and our State has sources of wealth which the Spanish peninsula has not The Sacramento basin bears a strong resemblance to Lombardy, which has the densest population and most thorough tillage of Europe. In an area of 6,000 square miles three millions of people are collected ; and they are noted for physical beauty and intellectual activity; hence it does not appear that their crowded condition has done them harm. A large part of the wealth of the Lombards is derived directly and indirectly from irrigation, which they have carried further than any other hation. The Alps there rise to an average height of 6,000 feet, from their northern boundary along a line one hundred and twenty miles, and the snow which falls in these mountains furnishes the water for many of the most valuable canals. The Sacramento basin has an area of 25,000 square miles, lying along the foot of a mountain range 400 miles long and 10,000 feet high on an average. The low land of the basin has a soil as fertile and a climate as genial as that of Lombardy. The amount of moisture from rain is not so great in the valley, but that obtainable from the mountains is greater. The Lombards bave natural lakes that serve as admirable reservoirs; but the Californians can make lakes by throwing dams across the cañons. The vine, 'the silk-worm, and rice, which contribute much to the wealth of the valley of the Po, will thrive at least as well in the valley of the Sacramento. When, in addition to these agricultural resources, we consider the mineral wealth of the Sierra Nevada, and the commercial advantages of the terminus of the Pacific railroad, the central position between China and New York, and between Oregon and Mexico, we are justified in the conclusion that California can well support a population of ten or fifteen millions.

6.-NUMBER OF MINERS.

The following table shows the number of miners of different classes in certain counties of California, as estimated by well-informed persons in those counties, the limited time for the preparation of this report not permitting more than an estimate on this point:

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The mining counties of California are generally supplied with abundant timber for present uses.

The forests, from 3,500 to 5,500 feet above the level of the sea, on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, are very dense, and are composed of magnificent conifers, many of which have a diameter of five feet or more, and a height of 200 or 250 feet. The sugar pine and the Douglas spruce, both valuable for lumber, are large and abundant. These dense forests are, however, higher up than most of the mining districts, which are found among hills covered with scattered oak and nut pine. In the vicinity of the chief mining towns the trees 'have been destroyed in a ruthless manner, and many hills that were once well timbered are now bare. There was no private owner for the land, and the timber was wasted in many cases; trees were cut down for firewood, and only the branches were taken because by that means the wood chopper could cut more wood than if he split up the tough trunk. This course was profitable to the woodman, but bad for the State ; and numerous complaints were made until 1864, when the legislature made it a criminal offence to destroy the timber in this manner, although permitting any one to cut the timber on the public land for firewood or other useful purposes in an economical manner.

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In the northwestern corner of California and the southwestern corner of Oregon the forests are so dense in several of the mineral districts that they interfere greatly with mining, and will prevent the exhaustion of the auriferous deposits for many years. In eastern Oregon and in Idaho there is enough timber to supply the miners for many years. In Nevada and in western Arizona there is a great scarcity, and wood can be obtained in few places without high expense. Good firewood costs from two to four dollars per cord in most of the mining towns of California, and from ten dollars upwards in Nevada.

*SECTION 9.

Annotated catalogue of the principal mineral species hitherto recognized in Cal

ifornia, and the adjoining States and Territories : by IVilliam P. Blake. March, 1866.

Actinolite.-Occurs with garnets in steatite at Petaluma.

Alabaster.-In Los Angeles county. Specimen in cabinet of the author, received from Mr. Tyson, of Arizona.

Andalusite.- Mariposa county. In the drift of the Chowchillas river, near the old road to Fort Miller, there is a great abundance of fine crystals of andalusite which show the dark lines or crosses in a remarkably perfect and interesting manner. They are found also in the stratum of conglomerate which caps the hills along the stream, and are doubtless in place in the slates a little higher up the river.

Smaller and less perfect “macles” occur in the slates at Hornitos, on the road to Bear valley. Some of the specimens from the Chowchillas river resemble those from Lancaster, Massachusetts.

Antimony, (sulphuret of.)-(See Stibnite.)
Antimony ochre.—San Amédio mountain, with antimony-glance.

Agates and carnelian.—Beautiful pebbles of agate and carnelian are abundant along the beach at and near Crescent City. They are much water-worn, and are generally of light colors. Larger pebbles and more highly colored are abundant in the pebbly drift along the Colorado river. Small but very smoothly worn specimens of agate and jasper may be picked up on the shores of Lake Tahoe.

Arsenic.-Monterey county, at the Alisal mines, twenty-five miles from the Mission of San Carlos.

Arsenical antimony. -Ophir mine, Nevada Territory. In reniform, finely crystalline, somewhat radiated masses, of a color between tin-white and ironblack, on a fresh fracture, but grayish black from tarnishing; associated with arsenolite, calcite, and quartz.-(F. A. Genth, Am. Jour. Sci., (2) xxxiii, 190 )

Arsenolite. Occurs in large masses, with native gold, at the Armagosa mine, Great Basin. It is also reported from the Ophir mine with arsenical antimony.-(Genth.)

Asbestos.-Calaveras county, Salt Spring valley, at the Kentucky claim. Los Angeles county (?) in large masses. (From Major Stræbel.)

Azurite, (Blue carbonate of copper.)--In fine crystalline groups and masses, with malachite, at Hughes's mine, Calaveras county. (1861.)

Brotite.--From the vicinity of Grass valley. (Cabinet of C. W. Smith.)

Bitumen.-Occurs abundantly in numerous places in the Coast mountains, south of San Francisco, but especially south of San Luis Obispo, and in the vicinity of Los Angeles. It is frequently seen floating in the Santa Barbara channel. It is abundant in Tulare county, on the west side of the Tulare val

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ley, near Buena Vista and Kern lakes, and at this and other localities is associated with petroleum, (which see.)

Blende occurs sparingly in many of the gold-bearing quartz veins of the State, especially when lead is present, as, for example, at the Princeton mint, Mariposa estate; the Adelaide mine, Hayward & Chamberlain's mine, and in several of the Grass valley mines in Nevada county ; at Meadow lake, in considerable masses, with galena, iron pyrites, and copper pyrites. It is associated with yellow copper in the Napoleon mine and the Lancha Plana ; in Sacramento county, at Michigan bar, associated with galena, oxide of iron, and cop- : per ore.

(Cabinet of Dr. Frey.) Placer county, fifteen miles from Lincoln, towards Nevada, with galena and gold; at the Bloom claim, near Angels' camp, Calaveras county ; also in a quartz vein in Coulterville.

Borax.—Lake county, in large crystals in the clay of the Borax lake.
Boracic acid.Clear lake, Lake county.
Carbonate of magnesia.—(See Magnesite.)

Carbonate of soda.-San Bernardino county, at Soda lake, sink of the Mohave river; in Tulare county, along the borders of the smaller lakes, when drying up; at the borders of the Santa Anna river, near San Bernardino.

Cassiterite.-San Bernardino county, at the - Temescal tin region,” about sixty miles from Los Angeles. Occurs in many veins associated with schorl (?) traversing granite. In most of the ores the tin oxide is found only by crushing and washing. At the “Gun lode" a peculiar drab colored oxide is found in considerable quantities. It appears to be liberated by the decomposition of an arsenical ore, arsenic being abundant in the samples. The oxide, as collected in that region for examination, is in various degrees of purity, and exhibits different colors. Some of the samples obtained by washing are black, others brown, and some red and drab colored.

Idaho Territory, on Jordan creek, in placers, in beautiful rounded masses, from one-eighth to half an inch in diameter, very pure and clean--the variety known as wood tin.-(Cabinet of the author, specimens received from Charles T. Blake, esq., of Idaho City.)

Mexico, State of Durango : wood tin of great purity and beauty occurs . abundantly in this State. It closely resembles the stream tin of Idaho.

Cerusite, (carbonate of lead.)-In large crystals resembling those from Siberia, in the Russ district (?) Great Basin, near the Mojave river; Arizona, in heavy incrusting masses upon the galena of the Castle Dome district.

Chalcedony.-Large masses of white chalcedony, delicately veined, and in mammillary sheets, occur in Monterey county, near the Panochés; on Walker river, Washoe; and of a fine pink color near Aurora, Esmeralda. In pearshaped nodules in the eruptive rocks between Williamson's Pass and Johnson's river, Los Angeles county.

Chalcopyrite, (yellow copper ore.) This is the chief ore of the copper mines of California, as it is likewise of the mines of Cornwall, England. It is therefore found at a great number of localities, along the copper-bearing belt which stretches in a nearly unbroken zone from Mariposa county northwesterly to Del Norte county, parallel with and on the western side of the chief gold-producing belt of the State.

In Calaveras county, the chief localities (for the massive ore) are: The Union, Keystone, Empire, Napoleon, Campo Seco, and Lancha Plana mines. In good crystals, implanted on and among clear quartz crystals, at the Noble copper claim on Domingo creek. (Collection of Dr. Jones, Murphy's.) In Mariposa county, the La Victoire mines in Hunter's valley, and Haskell's claims, below Mariposa town, and claims along the Chowchillas river. Amador county, at the Newton mine; Eldorado county, at the Cosumnes mine, Hope Valley mine, at the Bunker Hill mine, El Dorado Excelsior, and other claims at and near Pilot Hill. Plumas county, at the Genessee and Cosmopolitan mines. It

occurs,

Clara county.

also, in small quantities in Contra Costa county, in the rocks of Mount Diablo and in those of the Coast mountains south and north of San Francisco. In Los Angeles county, at Richmond district, and at Big Meadow district, both on the interior slope of the mountains at the margin of the Great Basin.(Vide Geol. Rec., Cal., p. 290.)

Lower California, a few leagues south of San Diego, at the Winder claims.

Arizona, at the Apache Chief mine, after getting below the “surface” ores. At the San Pedro mimes, near Fort Buchanan. Near Caborca, in northwestern Sonora.

Chloride of silver.-At the mines about Austin, Lander county, Nevada, this species is abundant in the surface ores, being derived from the decomposition of the mixed sulphurets of silver below the water level. It was also found in the decomposed ores of the upper portions of the Comstock lode, and is common to all the silver veins of the Great Basin. Some remarkably fine specimens were obtained at the mine in Slate Range district, California. Occurs also in the Willow Springs district, and in the veins of El Dorado cañon, Arizona.

Chrysocolla, (silicate of copper.)—Not common in California, where the sulphurets in decomposing give carbonates and oxides; but in Arizona, along the Colorado river, very common at and near the surface where the veins containing copper glance are decomposed. Fine specimens were taken from the Great Central claim, about twenty miles from La Paz and at the Blue lode.

Chromic iron.—Monterey county, in masses, with green crusts and coatings of emerald nickel. Santa Clara county, near the North Almaden mine.

Chrysolite.-In serpentine, near San Francisco, and at New Almaden, Santa

Cinnabar, (sulphuret of mercury.) This is the characteristic mineral of the coast mountains, from Clear lake on the north to San Luis Obispo on the south. It appears to be connected chiefly with the secondary rocks, though at San Luis Obispo Prof. B. Silliman collected a group of fossils which appear to be miocene tertiary. (See a notice by Mr. Gabb, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci.) The principal locality is the well known mine of New Almaden, in Santa Clara county, and the adjacent mines of the Enriqueta and the Guadalupe. The ore occurs massive, in large bunches and “strings, and is associated with calc spar, bitumen, and pyrites. The total production of quicksilver, chiefly from the New Almaden, up to January, eighteen hundred and sixty-five, was three hundred and seventy-one thousand eight hundred and eighty-three flasks, valued at about fifteen million of dollars in gold. At the North Almaden, on the east side of the San José valley, and nearly opposite the New Almaden, considerable quantities of cinnabar have been taken out of prospecting pits at this place, at several different points. A heavy ferruginous outcrop shows the general course of the metalliferous belt. The rock is hard and flinty, and is frequently beautifully streaked with brilliant red cinnabar, the whole sufficiently compact to give fine speciniens for polishing by the lapidary. It occurs abundantly, and in very handsome cabinet specimens, at the New Idria mines, in Monterey county, at which work has recently been resumed. There are many localities in Napa county, and in the vicinity of Clear lake, and the Geysers. In small crystals in hornstone, at Buckhorn ranch, north of Berreyesa valley.

In Mariposa county, near Coulterville, in finely colored crystals in quartz in a gold vein. Nevada county, about four miles from Grass valley, washed out of sluice boxes, and entirely different from the New Almaden ore in appearance. Arizona, about eighteen miles from the Colorado river; at Olive City, at the Alma claim, and the Eugenie, located by Mr. Ehrenberg; associated with silver. Reported to exist in Idaho, on the Owyhee river.

Corundum.-Los Angeles county, in the drift of the San Francisquito Pass, in small crystals. (Baron Richthofen.)

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