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Copper, native.—This species is common in small quantities in the surface ores of the principal copper mines of the State, but is not found below the permanent water level. No veins of this metal like those of Lake Superior are

the Pacific coast, but the abundance of large drifted masses of solid copper in one or more streams upon the northwest coast, (Russ. Poss.,) leave little doubt that such veins do exist in that high latitude. . Calaveras county, at the Union mine, some very fine masses of dendritic or moss copper have been taken out.- (Cabinet of J. B. Meader.) The Keystone mine, adjoining the Union, also produced some good specimens in 1861. Found also at the Napoleon and the Lancha Plana mines; and in Sacramento county, at the Cosumnes mine. In Santa Barbara county, occurs disseminated in grains in the midst of serpentine rock. Arizona, on the Gila river, about ninety miles from Fort Yuma, at the Arizona Copper Company's mine; associated with red oxide of copper and green carbonate, and spread in crystalline masses through a gangue of calc spar.-(Cabinet of the author.) For the ores of copper, see Chalcopyrite, Red Copper, Vitreous Copper, 8c.

Copper glance.—Los Angeles county, at the Maris mine, Soledad district, in grains and irregular masses in a sienitic granite. It contains silver. The decomposition of this ore at and near the surface gives metallic copper, and metallic silver, incrusting the surfaces of the granite where fissured. This locality was known and worked as early as 1853. In Arizona this is the most common ore of copper, especially in Weaver district, near La Paz, or Olive City. It is usually argentiferous, and is there associated with gold in quartz veins. Found also in the Chahuabi valley, the Tajo, and the San Pedro mines, and near Caborca, in northwestern Sonora.

Derbyshire spar.—Castle Dome district. . (See Fluor spar.)

Diamond.-Butte county, Cherokee Flat, ten miles from Oroville. In well formed, highly modified crystals, from one-eighth to three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter, and generally of a pale straw yellow color. Crystallization tetrahedral, like figure 267, page 24, Dana's System of Mineralogy.

Idaho.—Reported to exist on the Owyhee river.

Diallogite, (carbonate of manganese.)Occurs abundantly in the silverbearing veins about Austin, Nevada. By decomposition it becomes black, and discolors the upper parts of the vein, but at and below the water line, with the unchanged ores of silver, it has a delicate flesh-red or pink color.

Dolomite —Amador county, in narrow, snow-white veins, traversing a talcose chloritic rock, and bearing coarse free gold.-(Cabinet of the author, specimen presented by Mr. James.) Calaveras county, Angel's Camp, in the Winter, Hill's and other mines, massive, with the quartz veins, and bears gold. Sometimes in fine crystals, lining cavities. San Bernardino county, at the Armagosa mine, bearing coarse gold.

Embolite. Is believed to occur in the surface ores of Lander county, Nevada, near Austin, and of Washington district, further south, but has not been certainly identified.

Emerald nickel.-Monterey county, with chrome ore.
Feldspar.San Diego county, in crystals. (See Orthoclase.)

Fluor spar.-In crystals and large cleavable masses of various tints—white, pink, and purple and green, like the specimens from Derbyshire, England, in the veins of galena and blende, Castle Dome district, Colorado river, Arizona. Sparingly, in small white cubes, with the copper ore, at Mount Diablo.

Galena, (sulphuret of lead.)This common ore of lead has not yet been found in finely crystallized cabinet specimens on the Pacific coast. The localities of the massive or granular ore are numerous, it being found in small quantities in many of the gold-bearing veins of the State, especially at the following: Mariposa county, at Marble Springs mine; Princeton mine; Adelaide. Calaveras county, at the Barnes and Silver Elephant claims, at Murphy's; at the Star of the West, Blue Mountain district, and the Good Hunter claims, with gold. In Sacramento county, at Michigan bar, with blende and pyrites. Nevada county, at Meadow lake, with blende. Tuolumne county, at the Soulsby mine, with blende and iron pyrites and gold. In Nevada county, in several of the veins at Grass valley, with free gold. In Tehama county, on Cow creek; and abundantly in veins on the island of Santa Catalina. In Arizona it is abundant in the veins of the Castle Dome district, twenty five miles from Fort Yuma, and in the Eureka district on the same river, about twenty-five miles further north ; also in the Piccacho district, and in the Weaver district, near La Paz; at the Santa Rita mine, with gray copper ore; in the Tajo vein, with copper glance, blende, tetrahedrite, and gold; in the Santa Cruz mountains, south of Fort Buchanan ; at the Mowry and Patagonia mines; at San Xavier, on the Santa Cruz, (Pumpelly.) In Nevada it is abundant on Walker's river, north of Esmeralda, and at Steamboat Springs, Galena district. It is also found in portions of the Comstock lode, Washoe, associated with the silver sulphurets ; but where it is associated in that vein with much blende and copper pyrites, it is not rich in silver--forming the ore commonly known there as "base metal.”

Garnet.-El Dorado county, at Fairmount mine, three miles froin Pilot Hill, in large blocks and masses two feet thick or more. Associated with specular iron, calc spar, iron pyrites, and copper pyrites, with actinolite in steatite, near Petaluma, Sonoma county ; in large semi-crystalline masses, weighing ten to twenty pounds, and of a light color, from the Coso mining district. (Specimens of this were brought to San Francisco under the supposition that it was tin ore.) A beautiful green garnet, grossular, is found with the copper ore of the Rogers claim, Hope valley, El Dorado county, and similarly in copper ore at the Mountain Meadows, Los Angeles county. In Russian America, Stickeen river, in finely formed trapezohedral and dodecahedral crystals imbedded in mica slate, and much resembling specimens from Monroe, Connecticut.

Gold, (crystalline.) — Placer county, at Irish creek, three miles from Coloma, in arborescent and crystalline masses covered with octahedrons. (Eighteen hundred and fifty-four, cabinet of author.) At Forrest Hill, in the same county, in the placer claims of the Messrs. Deidesheimer, in flattened and distorted octahedra. One crystal is a partially formed octahedron, with a rectangular base one inch long by seven-eighths of an inch wide. At Mameluke Hill, near Georgetown, in iagged crystalline masses, in a quartz vein. In El Dorado county, at Spanish Dry Diggings, in large masses of irregular dendritic crystal lizations. One mass recently obtained weighed about sixteen pounds, and was purchased by Mr. Dickinson, of New York, for preservation. Calaveras county, a large partly formed crystal with octahedral edges ; if perfect would be two inches in diameter, Tuolumne county, flattened, distorted, octahedrons from the Whiskey Hill mine Mariposa county, octahedrons from the placers near Coulterville, but very rare. At the Princeton mine, rarely, in nests and bunches of octahedrons, with brilliant faces.

Small delicate microscopic prisms of gold have been found in the vicinity of Sonora. They appear to be terminated with crystalline planes at both ends, and probably are elongated oetahedrons. (From the collection of Doctor Snell.)

Crystals of spongiform gold, from one-eighth to one-quarter of an inch in diameter, and as light almost as cork, were washed out by Doctor Hill from a claim near Angel's. This is a condition of native gold which, it is believed, has not been hitherto noticed.

In Plumas county, Sherman lode, Light cañon, on coatings of green and blue carbonates of copper, proceeding from the decomposition of variegated copper pyrites or vitreous copper in part. This gold was apparently deposited after the deposition of the carbonate of copper. The specimens are beautiful. (Cabinet of Mr. Waters, Sacramento.) Mariposa county, in a narrow vein of calcite or dolomite, two inches wide, cutting slates; precise locality not known. The

gold was in coarse masses and strings in the middle of the vein. Amador county, near Drytown, in a vein of pearl spar, which is very pure and white, and without admixture with quartz or pyrites. The gold is in coarse masses in the midst of the pearl spar. (Specimens collected by Mr. James, and presented to the author.)

Gold in small quantities occurs at many places in the Coast mountains, and associated with cinnabar. Some specimens of coarse gold have been found in the cinnabar veins of Colusa county. In Excelsior district gold occurs with molybdenite. In San Bernardino county, at the Armagosa mine, in feldspar and in calc spar, in a granitic rock, associated also with arsenolite.

Many large masses of gold have been taken from the placers of California at various times, of which no authentic record or description has been kept. In 1864 a large mass, one hundred and eighty.seven ounces, (fifteen and seventwelfths pounds,) was taken from the middle fork of the American river, about two miles from Michigan bluffs, Placer county:

The Carson Hill quartz claim, in Calaveras county, is celebrated for the size and weight of the masses of gold taken from it, some of which weighed six and seven pounds. (For further observations upon gold, its geology and distribution, see an article at the end.)

Gold and tellurium.-- (See Tellurium.)

Gray copper ore.— With gold in the Pine Tree mine, Mariposa grant, and similarly at the Iona Company's claim, and others upon the same belt near Coulterville. (See Tetrahedrite.)

Graphite.About twenty miles above the Big Tree Grove, in crystalline scales; also at the mine of the Eureka Plumbago Company, (locality not known.)

Gypsum.- Los Angeles county, in the Great Basin, near the entrance to the Soledad or “ New Pass.” San Diego county, along the banks of Carizzo creek, and on the slope of the desert. Tulare county, at the vein of stibnite, in crystals. Nevada county, near the Truckee Pass, in beautiful stellar radiations, from one-half of an inch to three inches in diameter. (Cabinet of C. W. Smith, Grass valley.)

TIematité, (specular iron ore )- This is a very abundant ore in California, and Arizona, on the Colorado river, near Williams's Fork. Some of the dry arroyos or cañons in that region are crowded with blocks of the pure ore, from one to two feet in diameter. It is broken from beds and seams in an impure metamorphic limestone. The structure is granular, passing into micaceous, and freshly broken surfaces are extremely brilliant. Specimens of similar ore were brought in by Jules Marcou, in eighteen hundred and fifty-three, from the valley of Williams's Fork, further north. This ore occurs also in Humboldt valley, and abundantly on the coast of Mexico, south of Acapulco.

Hessite.-E1 Dorado county. (See Telluret of silver.)

Hornblende.--At San Pablo. At Soledad, in sienite. At Vallecito, near Murphy's.

Hyalite.- Associated with semi-opal, in the Mount Diablo range, about thirty miles south of Mount Diablo. (In cabinet of J. B. Meader, Stockton.)

Idocrase.-Siegel lode, El Dorado county. (?)
Iodide of mercury.-Santa Barbara county. (?)

Ilmenite.-El Dorado county, near Georgetown, from the gold washings; a very fine crystal, about an inch in diameter, with brilliant planes.

Iron ores.-(See Magnetite and Hematite.)

Iridosmine.-— With platinum and gold in the beach sands of the northern counties. An analysis by C. Kurlbaum, jr., in Dr. Genth's laboratory, of a sample of the residue from gold washing and amalgamation cbtained by the author in eighteen hundred and fifty-four, gave 48.77 per cent. of iridosmine. Found also as a residue in melting large lots of placer dust.

Iron pyrites.-Found in most of the gold-bearing quartz veins, either crystal

ore.

line or massive; usually from one to five per cent. of the whole weight of the

The value for gold varies greatly. At Grass valley the concentrated sulphurets are worth from one hundred dollars to three hundred dollars per ton. Cabinet specimens of this mineral may be bad in very large crystals, cubes, at the Fairmount claim, three miles from Pilot Hill, Eldorada county. It is there associated with garnets, brown spar, and specular iron. Found in brilliant druses lining fissures in the rocks of the E Pluribus Unum tunnel, three miles from Murphy's, Calaveras county. In brilliant but small cubical crystals in the gold ore of the Mameluke claim, near Georgetown, Eldorado county. Mariposa county, in large and perfect crystals in the slates near the Deville mine, south of Princeton Hill. Placer county, in large crystals, near the Grizzly Bear House, between Auburn and Forest Hill.

Jasper.-Very fine masses of brown and yellow jasper are abundant near Murphy's, Calaveras county, in the quartz veins, and in the debris from them.

Kerargyrite.—(See Chloride of silver.)

Lignite.-San Francisco county, Contra Costa county, Monterey county; in Amador county, in thick beds at the base of the Sierra Nevada; used in Ione City for steam boilers ; Santa Barbara county, Humboldt county, along the Eel river; Klamath county, at Gold Bluff, four hundred feet below the surface. (Lieutenant Tuttle, U. S. army.) Del Norte county, at Point St. George. (Professor Sherman Day.) In Nevada, Washoe county, along the Truckee river ; in Lyon county, at the “Whitman mines.”

Limonite.- Mariposa county, at Burns's creek, near the old road to Fort Miller, in a heavy outcrop of quartz; solid blocks of limonite, from two to four feet thick, are found there. (See Geol. Rec. Cal., p. 290.) Oregon, sixteen miles from Portland, in an extensive bed; specimens were sent by Governor Gibbs to the Mechanics' Fair exhibition in 1864.

Macle.—Mariposa county. (See Andalucite.)

Magnesite, (carbonate of magnesia.)-Tulare county, near Visalia, between Four creeks and Moore's creek, in the foothills, in solid beds of pure white, massive carbonate of magnesia, hard, fine grained, and like unglazed porcelain in texture. The beds are from one to six feet thick, and are interstratified with talcose slates and serpentine. Similar beds are described to me as existing in the Diablo range. Alameda county, about thirty miles south of the mountain. Mariposa county and Tuolumne county: a heavy bed of magnesian rock, chiefly magnesite, charged with crystals of iron pyrites, accompanies the chief gold-bearing quartz vein of those counties. This rock is charged also with nickel and chrome talc in green films, like the magnesite of Canada,

Magnetite.--In large leds, massive, and of superior quality, in Sierra county; also in octahedral crystals, forming beautiful cabinet specimens. In Plumas county, near the line, fine groups of octahedrons associated with garnet (?) and epidote. (?) Mariposa county: just east of the Mariposa estate, on the trail to Yosemite. Placer county, at Utt's ranch, six miles from Auburn. At the Cañada de las Uvas, Los Angeles county, in a vein about three feet thick, in limestone; in the sienitic granite of the mountains between the Great Basin and Los Angeles; seen in drift fragments in the valley of Soledad, or “Williamson's Pass.” Elderado county, at Volcanoville, on the middle fork of the American river, near the great quartz vein. This locality was noted by the writer in eighteen hundred and fifty-three. This ore is, perhaps, titaniferous, but specimens are not at hand for examination. Trinity county, near Weaverville, in small veins. (Trask, 3d report, 1865, p. 56.) Nevada county, three miles from Grass valley. Eldorado county, fine octahedral crystals, in slate, near the Boston copper mine; in small brilliant crystals, with quartz, pyrites, and calc spar; at the El Dorado Excelsior

claim. Malachite, (green carbonate of copper.).-In remarkably fine specimens, associated with crystalline blue carbonate, at Hughes’s mine, Calaveras county, (1861.)

copper

Manganese, oxide.-(See Pyrolusite.)
Manganese, carbonate of:-(See Dialogite.)

Mercury-Native quicksilver is found in Napa (?) county, near the Geysers, at the Pioneer claim, in a silicious rock.

(For sulphuret of mercury, see Cinnabar.)
Mercury, iodide of Santa Barbara county, (Mr. G. E. Moore.)

Mrspickel.-Grass valley, Nevada county, at Betsey mine, with gold. This mineral is a common associate of gold in the quartz of the State. Crystals of mispickel are sometimes penetrated with gold.

Molybdate of lead.- State of Nevada, Comstock lode, in the upper part of the California mine, in the “rusty lode,” in small yellow crystals ; in good crystals in the (?) mine, Weaver district, Arizona.

Molybdenite.-Occurs in fine specimens at several localities in the gold region ; Nevada county, at the Excelsior mine, Excelsior district, abundantly with gold.

Mountain cork.-Tuolumne county.
Nickel. (See Emerald nickel.)

Orthoclase.—San Diego county, in granite veins along the road between Santa Isabel and San Pasquale, associated with tourmalines and garnet. Fresno county, at Fort Miller, in coarse-grained granite, under the edge of the lava plateau.

Opal-semi-opal.-A white milky variety of opal is found in Calaveras county, at Mokelumne Hill, or on the hill near that place, known as Stockton Hill, on the west side of Chile gulch. A shaft has been sunk there three hundred and forty-five feet, and the opals are found in a thin stratum of red gravel. They vary in size from a kernel of corn to the size of walnuts. Many of them contain dendritic infiltrations of manganese oxide, looking like moss. About a bushel of these stones are raised in one day, and are said to have a market value. A white milky variety, similar to the above, and without "fire,” is found with magnesite in Mount Diablo range, thirty miles south of the mountain ; also in the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada, at the Four Creeks.

Pearl Spar.-(See Dolomite)

Petroleum.-Abundantly distributed throughout the coast counties from San Diego in the south to Crescent City in the north. The purest and most limpid natural oils have thus far been obtained from the localities north of San Francisco, in Humboldt and Colusa counties. These oils are green by reflected light, and resemble the best samples from Pennsylvania. No abundantly flowing wells have yet been found. In Humboldt county there are many springs, giving both oil and gas, and numerous wells are in progress. So also in Colusa county, at Bear valley, about twenty-five miles west of Colusa, several springs, giving a fine quality of lubricating oil and much gas; also at Antelope district, nineteen miles west of Colusa. In Contra Costa county, ten miles from Oakland, there are petroleum springs, and a very superior oil has been obtained from the region of Mount Diablo. In Tulare county there is an extensive region where oil and gas springs abound. The localities are numerous in the counties of San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Tulare, and Los Angeles.

Platina.-With iridium and iridosmine, on the coast at Cape Blanco, southern Oregon. Analysis of a sample of the mixed metals from Port Orford, in eighteen hundred and fifty-four, gave forty-three and fifty-four one-hundredths per cent. of platina.

Proustite, (light red silver ore.)- In the veins about Austin, Lander county, Nevada. At the Daney mine, and occasionally in the ore of the Comstock lode.

Pyrargyrite, (dark red silver ore.)-(See Ruby silver.)

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