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them of the real and effective labor which others might bestow on them, I ordain and command, that whosoever, during four successive months, shall fail to work any mine with (at least) four paid workmen, occupied in some exterior or inte rior work of real utility, shall, by so doing, lose all his right in said inine, which shall belong to any person denouncing it, upon his satisfactory proving, according to the provisions of chapter six, such act of desertion on the part of the owner.

Sec. 14. Experience having shown that the provisions of the preceding section have been eluded by the artful and fraudulent practice of some owners of mines, who cause their mine to be worked during some days in cach [period offour months, keeping them in this manner many years in their possession, I ordain that whosoever shall fail to work his mine in the manner prescribed by the said section during eight months in the year, counting from the day of his coming into possession, even though the said eight monthis should be interspersed with some days or weeks of labor, shall by such labor forfeit tlie mine; and it shall be adjudged to the first person who denounces the same, and satisfactorily proves this second species of desertion; unless for this, or the one mentioned in the preceding section, there be just cause assigned, such as pestilence, famine, or war, in that same mining place, or within twenty leagues thereof.

Sec. 15. Considering that many mine owners who have formerly worked their mines with ardor and diligence, expending large sums in shafts, adits, and other undertakings, may often be obliged to suspend their operations while soliciting supplies, or for want of workinen, or necessary provisions, and other just and sufficient causes, which, combined with their former merit, render them worthy of equitable consideration, I declare that any suchı mine owner keeping his mine in disuse in the manner and for the time above mentioned shall not forfeit it at once in the manner described above, but his mine shall nevertheless be liable to denouncement before the respective new tribunals of miners, in order that, both parties having been heard, and alleged merits and causes considered and proved, justice may be done between the parties.

Sec. 16. Since many mine owners abandon their mines either for the want of the capital necessary for carrying on operations therein, or because they do not choose to consume that which they may have already acquired from them, or because they have not spirit to venture on the difficulties of those undertakings, from which they may have conceived great hopes, or for other causes, and since persons are not wanting who might be desirous of taking such mines if they were informed of their intended abandonment, and as it is much easier to maintain a mine when in a course of working than to reinstate it after it has suffered the injuries of time, it is my will that no person shall abandon the working of his mine or mines without making the deputation of the district acquainted therewith, in order that the deputation may publish the same by fixing a notification on the doors of churches and other customary places for the information of all persons.

SEC. 17. In order to avoid the false or equivocal reports which are often spread concerning deserted mines, the consequence of which reports is to augment the distrust in which this profession is ordinarily held, deterring miny persons from engaging therein who do not otherwise want inclination to follow it, I ordain :

Sec. 18. That no one shall abandon the working of his mine without giving notice to the respective deputation in order that an inspection may immediately be had thereof by the deputies, accompanied by the clerk and surveyors, who must examine and measure the mine, particularizing all its circumstances, and draw up a map describing its plan and outlines, which, together with all the necessary information, must be preserved in the archives, with liberty of access to all persons who may wish to see it, or to take a copy thereof.

CHAPTER XI.

SECTION 1. Inasmuch as mines are often worked by miners joined in companies, from the time of the denouncement of such mine, or according to contracts entered into subsequently in various ways, to the great advantage and improvement of the operations in mines, since it is much easier to engage therein when many persons concur, each subscribing a part of his capital; and as where the wealth of one alone is not sufficient for great undertakings, that of a united company may be ample; in such cases I desire and command that such companies, whether public or private, may be encouraged, proinoted, and protected by all convenient measures, my viceroy granting to those who may form themselves into such companies every favor, aid, and exemption which can be granted them, according to the judgment and discretion of the royal tribunal of miners, and without detriment to the public or my royal treasury.

Sec. 2. Although by these ordinances I prohibit any individual mine-owners, working within the ordinary limits, from denouncing two adjoining mines on the same vein; yet, notwithstanding, to those who work in companies, although they be not the discoverers, and without prejudice to the right which they might derive from becoming discoverers, I grant the right of denouncing four new portions, or four deserted mines, even though they should be contiguous and on the same vein.

SECTION 12.

Books on California.-2. Table of distances.

1.-BOOKS ON CALIFORNIAN MINES.

California has been the subject of hundreds of books written since the discovery of gold; but most of them were notes of personal adventure, with a few rambling and vague remarks about the mineral resources and mining industry of the Pacific coast.

Nevertheless, although only a small proportion of the works published about the land of gold, the Californian contributions to mining literature are not unimportant; and when the State geological survey shall have completed its labors and published all its reports, it may safely be said that few countries have done so much in so brief a space of time to illustrate the metallurgy, mineralogy, and geology of the precious metals.

The following are titles of some of the books that treat of the mineral resources and mining industry of the coast : Geology and Industrial Resources of California. By Philip T. Tyson.

Το which is added the official reports of General Persifer F. Smith and B. Riley, including the reports of Lieutenants Talbot, Ord, Derby, and Williamson, of their explorations in California and Oregon, and also of their examination of routes for railroad communication eastward from those countries. Baltimore: 1851. 8vo., pp. 160.

Professor John B. Trask's Report on the Geology of the Sierra Nevada or California Range. Document No. 59, Senate of California. 1853. 8vo.,

pp. 30.

Report on the Geology of the Coast Mountains and part of the Sierra Nevada, embracing the Industrial Resources in Agriculture and Mining. By John B. Trask. Document No. 9, Senate of California. 1854. Svo., pp. 90.

Report of a Geological Reconnaissance in California, made in connection with the expedition to survey routes in California to connect with the surveys of routes for a railroad from the Mississippi river to the Pacific ocean, under the command of Lieutenant Williamson, corps topographical engineers, in 1853. By William P. Blake, geologist and mineralogist of the expedition. New York. H. Bailliere, 1858. 4to, pp. 600.

Geology of North America, with two reports on the Prairies of Arkansas and Texas, the Rocky Mountains of New Mexico, and the Sierra Nevada of California, originally made for the United States government by Jules Marcon. Zurich, 1858.

4to, pp. 144. General Report upon the Geological Collections of the Pacific Railroad Survey, by William P. Blake, geologist of the office of the United States Pacific railroad explorations and surveys. 4to , pp. 50. (In vol. iii of Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from

the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.) Report upon the Geology of the Route from San Francisco Bay to the Columbia River, by J. S. Newberry, M. D., geologist and botanist of the expedition. 4to., pp. 84. (In vol. vi of Explorations, &c., as above.)

Geological Report on the Route from San Francisco to Santa Fé, by way of the Coast and the Gila, by Thomas Antisell, M.D., geologist of the expedition. 4to., pp. 204. (In vol. vii of Explorations, &c., as above.)

Mining on the Pacific States of North America, by John S. Hittell. San Francisco, 1861. 18mo., pp. 224.

The Resources of California, comprising agriculture, mining, geology, climate, commerce, &c., and the past and future development of the State, by John S. Hittell; second edition, with an appendix on Oregon and Wasliington Territory, San Francisco, 1866. 12mo., pp. 494.

The Comstock Lode, its character, and the probable mode of its continuance in depth, by Ferdinand Baron Richthofen, (Dr. Phil.) San Francisco, 1866. 8vo, pp. 83.

Nevada and California Processes of Silver and Gold Extraction, for general use, and especially for the mining public of California and Nevada, with full explanations and directions for all metallurgical operations connected with silver and gold, from a preliminary examination of the ore to the final casting of the ingot; also a description of the general metallurgy of silver ores. By Guido Kustel, mining engineer and metallurgist, former manager of the Ophir works, &c. Illus. trated by accurate engravings. San Francisco, 1863. 8vo, pp. 330.

2.–TABLE OF DISTANCES.

75

.. 15

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1, 470

FROM SAN FRANCISCO.
Northern towns.

Miles.

Miles. End of Wood Island... 5 68 BY OCEAN; NAUTICAL MILES. Sacramento

117 Rio Vista..

5 73 Marysville 171 Cache creek.

1 84 Up the coast. Downieville. 236 Hog's Back ..

4 78 Oroville..

197 Mouth of Steambo't slough 6 84 Tomales, Cal.... 45 Red Bluff. 264 Head of Steamboat slough 6

90 Mendocino City, Cal.. 128 Weaverville.

365 Head of Randall's island.. 6 96 Humboldt bay, Cal 223 Yreka...

401 Grape Vine ranch

5 101 Trinidad, Cal... 239 Jacksonville, Oregon.

463 Embarcadero..

8 109 Crescent City, Cal.. 280 Salem, Oregon

710 Sutterville

9 118 Port Orford, Oregon. 338 Portland, Oregon.

760 Sacramento

3 121 Umpqua river, Oregon 402 Olympia, W. T.

850 Columbia river, Oregon.. 550 Folsom

138 Astoria, Oregon.. 559 Nevada

182 SAN FRANCISCO TO SAN DIEGO. Portland, Oregon.

642 Vancouver, W. T 632

Via coast road. Cape Flattery, W. T

683

Overland route. Port Angeles, W. T 738

San Francisco to Port Townsend, W. T. 773 Placerville 165 San Mateo

21 Seattle, W. T. 807 Carson City, N. T.

253
Redwood City

10 31 Steilacoom. W. T 836 Humboldt mines, N. T.

420
San Jose..

19 50 Olympia, W. T... 855 Great Salt Lake City.

784 Gilroy

32 82 San Juan island, W. T 765 South Pass.

1,035
San Juan

12 94 Bellingham hay, W. T 798 St. Joseph, Mo 1,975 Monterey

36 130 Victoria, V. I.... 1753 St. Louis, Mo.

2, 279
San Antonio

205 New Westminster, B. C.... 823 New York City...

3, 417
San Luis Obispo.

43 248 Santa Inez...

68 316 Down the coast.

Southern town 3.
Santa Barbara..

42 358 San Buenaventura.

30 388 Half Moon bay, Cal.. 46 Stockton.

117
Los Angeles...

. 100 488 Santa Cruz, Cal... 80 Copperopolis

153 San Gabriel ranch.

10 498 Monterey, Cal.... 92 Nokelumne Hill.

178 Anaheim...

15 513 San Luis Obispo, Cal... 200 Big Trees.

198 Aliso ranch...

22 535 Point Conception, Cal. 250 Sonora..

197 San Jua: mission..

7 542 Santa Barbara, Cal.. 288 Mariposa.

211 San Mateo ranch.

11 553 San Pedro, Cal... 373 Yoseinite Valley.

247
Los Flores ..

11 564 San Diego, Gal. 456 Visalia.

308
San Luis Rey

10 574 La Paz, Mexico 1, 305

Los Encinitas.

18 592 Mazatlan, Mexico..

1, 480
Coast road.
Soledad ranch.

15 607 Guaymas, Mexico 1,710

San Diego...

622 San Blas, Mexico..

Redwood City..

31 Manzanilla, Mexieo

1, 570
San Jose,

51 Acapulco, Mexico

1, 840
San Juan

94 SACRAMENTO TO RED BLUFF. Panama, C. A.. 3, 280 Monterey

130 Callao, Peru

3,900
San Luis Obispo..

234

Via Sacramento river.
Valparaiso, Chili

5, 210
Santa Barbara

344 Cape Horn..

6, 380
Los Angeles..

444 Sacramento to
San Diego.
576 Russian Crossing

12 Via Panana,

Fremont...

14 26 Butterfield route. Charleston.

10 36 New Orleans 4, 680

Knight's landing

10 46 New York. 5, 140 San Bernardino

504 Eagle Beud ...

8 54 Southampton

7,800
Fort Yuma..
732 Old Eagle Bend.

5 59
Tucson, Arizona
1,013 Three Rivers..

5 64 Via Cape Horn. Mesilla, Arizona.. 1, 306 Poker Bend.

5 69 St. Louis, via Arizona..

2,881
Howell's,

5 Rio Janeiro. 8, 323

Big Eddy

5 79 New York 13, 140

Dry Slough

8 87 Liverpool.

13, 100
SAN FRANCISCO TO SACRAMENTO. Eddy's.

8 95

Twenty-Mile island. 10 105
Across the ocean.

By steamer.
Font's ferry..

112 Butte creek.

6 118 Honolulu, H. I.

2, 100
San Francisco to

Colusa..

7 125 Jeddo, via H, I. 5, 550 Opposite Alcatraz island. 2

Sherman's

7 132 Shanghai, via H. I

6, 450
South end Angel island.. 4 6 Snyder's

4 136 Hongkong, via H. I

6, 980
North end Angel island.. 11 71 Nine-Mile house.

5 141 Sydney, via H. I

6,720
Red Rock...
5 12 Bogg's

5 146 Melbourne, via H. I 7, 200 Brothers 2 141 Princeton

5 151 Calcutta, via H. I...

10, 400
Pinola
4 18+ Butte City

ny 158
Mouth of Straits.
61 25 Cut Off.

7 165 INLAND; STATUTE MILES.

Benicia
5 30 Pike's..

5 170 Navy Point

1 31
Plaza City

9 179 Vicinity of San Francisco bay. Point Edith

3 34 Jennings

9 188 Seal Islınd... 1 35 Monroeville

3 191 San Quentin. 12 Point Gillespie 3 38 Big Chico

8 199 Petaluma 48 Point Roe.. 1 39 Bidwell's.

6 205 Geyser Springs 105 Snag Point.... 2 41 Soule Landing

212 Vallejo.. 28 New York Slough 51 461 Snadon's....

8 220 Napa City. 50 Point Hanson 2 49 Gazelle shoot.

6 226 White Sulphur Springs 67 Montezuma island 2 51 Moon's..

6 232 Benicia 30 Tree island.. 4 55 Mayhew's

8 240 Suisun. 50 Twin Houses..

58 Tehama.

R 248 Martinez 33 Sacket Hog Bend.. 6 62 Doll's ranch..

11 259 Diablo coal mines 44 San Joaquin Slougk.... 1 63 Red Bluff .

11 270 Via John Day mines. Simpson's park. 16 336 Grant's creek

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2.---Table of distances-Continued. SACRAMENTO TO VIRGINIA CITY.

Miles.

PORTLAND TO LEWISTON.
Oroville.

26 71
Via Dutch Flat.
Chico ...
26 97 Portland to

Aliles.
Tehama
26 123 Lower Cascades..

50 Sacramento to Miles. Red Bluff

13 136
Portage.

5 55 Auburn..

40 Horsetown.
29 165 Danes

38 93 Illinoistown 18 58 Shasta. 8 173 Celilo..

13 106 Dutch Flat... 12 70 French gulch.. 15 188 Five-Mile rapids.

5 111 Wilson's ranch 14 84 Trinity Centre

27 215
John Day

11 122 Summit valley 16 100 New York house 14 229 Indian rapids.

3 125 Donner Cabins 9 109 Callahan’s. 13 242 Squally Hook.

3 128 O'Neal's bridge. 21 130 Fort Jones 22 264 Rock creek.....

ng 135 Steamboat Springs 15 145 Yreka.

.. 18 282

Chapman's woodyard 6 141 Virginia City... 12 157 Henly 20 302 Big Bend

6 147 Mountain house .. 17 319 Willow creek

9 156 Via Henness Pass.

Jacksonville
23 342 Castle Rock..

8 164
Grave creek.
41 383 | Long island (foot).

5 169 Sacramento to

Canyonville.
26 409 | Long island (head).

ng 176 Colfax.

55
Roseberg

.. 26 435 Grand Ronde landing. 10 186 Madden's. 61 Oakland 17 452 Uinatilla rapids..

8 194 Dutch Flat.

69 Hawley's
30 482 Windmill rock

in 201 Zeus.

781 Eugene City
25 507 Wallula...

15 216 Polly's 89: Corvallis. 39 546 Snake river (mouth)

11 227 Jones's. 100 Albany 10 556 Rapids...

6 233 Donner lake i. 110 Salem. 24 580 Fish Bend.

10 243 Prosser creek 1204 Oregon City. 37 617 Jim Fort's island

10 253 Chamberlin's 1281 Portland 13 630 Pine Tree rapids

hy 260 Brown's 1351

Pelouse crossing.

30 290 Hunter's 1454

Wort Taylor..

5 295 Virginia City. 1572 STOCKTON TO VISALIA AND

Penana creek

25 320 Virginia City to the Hum

OWEN'S VALLEY.

Almota creek

14 334 boldt mines 150

Alpowa creek

26 360 Virginia City to Aurora... 116 Stockton to

Smith's ferry

3 363 Heath & Emory's. 28 Lewiston.

7 370 SACRAMENTO TO SALT LAKE CITY. Dickinson's ferry.

21 49 Snelling..

13 62

DALLES TO LEWISTON. Via Austin, (Reese river,) Nevada. Hornitos

16 78 Chow chilla.

25 103 Dalles to Sacramento to

Fresno..
16 119 Deschutes.

15 Folsom 22 Millerton.. 15 134 Mud Springs

12 27 Latrobe. 15 37 King's river.

25 159
John Day's river

12. 39 Shingle Springs 8 45 Visalia... 28 187 Juniper spring

12 51 Placerville 8 53 Tule river 25 212 Willow creek

18 69 Sportsman's Hall. 11 64 Deer creek. 8 220 Well's spring.

16 85 Riverside station 10 74 White river 15 235 Butter creek

18 103 Webster's..

9 83
Linn's valley
9244 Umatilla river.

9 112 Strawberry valley

11
94 Kern river..
20 264 Umatilla crossing.

18 130 Summit.. 3 97 Walker's Pass. 25 289 Wild Horse creek

18 148 Yank's. 8 105 | Little lake 30 319 Walla-Walla

20 168 Lake Tahoe. 9 114 Owen's lake.. 35 354 Dry creek..

175 Genoa 10 124 San Carlos. 41 395 Reed creek.

15 190 Carson City 14 138

Tucanon

17 207 Virginia City. 16 154 LOS ANGELES TO LA PAZ,

Patapha.

11 218 First well.

13 167
ARIZONA.
Alpowa ..

14 232 Second well.. 7 174

Smith's ranch

8 240 Third well. 12 186 Los Angeles to-

Craig's ferry

9 249 Eighteen-Mile post. 8 194 San Gabriel...

12 Lewiston.

1 250 Ragtown... 12 206 El Monte..

2 14 Slough bridge 16 222 San Jose.. 12 26 Lewiston to Pierce City.

90 Sand Springs 16 238 Cocomungo 12 38 Lewiston to Elk City

145 West Gate .. 22 260 San Bernardino 25 63 Lewiston to Florence.

110 Cold Springs. 14 274 | Old S. B. mission.

8
71 Lewiston to Idaho City

190 Edward's creek. 12 286 | Frink's.

7 78 Mount Airy. 15 301 Dr. Edgar's

8 86

DALLES TO IDAHO CITY. Jacobsyille. 13 314 Chapin's ranch

6 92 Austin...

6 320
Antonio creek.

96

3 99 Dry creek..

21 357
Indian run

5 104 Dalles to
Robert's creek
29 386 White river
2 106 Fifteen-Mile creek.

12 Diamond Springs. 25 411 Agua Caliente 10 116 Todd's bridge

10 22 Ruby valley 24 435 Sand Hole 11 127 Salt spring..

8 30 Butte station.. 19 454 Old raucheria 6 133 Bake Oven hollow.

14 44 Shell creek... 30 484 Toro's .. 9 142 Thorn hollow

6 50 Antelope Springs. 19 503 Martinez.. 5 147 Antelope valley

12 62 Deep creek 24 527 Palma Seco. 12 159 Potato hills

10 72 Willow Springs 42 569 Dos Palmos.. 7 166 Pyramid rocks.

4 76 Fish Springs 21 590 Brown's Pass

10 176
176 Cherry creek.

10 86 Simpson's Springs

39 629
Tabasacco

8 184
Bridge creek.

7 93 Rush valley: 23 652 Chucolwalla. 18 202 Foot of mountain.

11 104 Fort Crittenden 17 669 Slough. 35 237 Rock creek.

12 116 Great Salt Lake City..... 41 710

La Paz.

16 253
John Day

17 133 South Fork

7140 SACRAMENTO TO PORTLAND, La Paz to Fort Mohave... 140 Canyon City

35 175 La Paz to Walker's diggings 146 Dixie creek

11 186 Sacramento to-La Paz to Pimo villages... 200 | Burnt river

35 221 Nicolaus

25
La Paz to Tucson ...
280 Malheur river

18 240 Marysville 20 45 La Paz to El Dorado canon. 190 Emigrant road

20 260

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