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century. The results are presented in perspicuous tables, which offer material for numerous interesting deductions. Of these the most apparent is the relatively rapid increase in the value of urban as compared with that of farming land, though the latter has increased sevenfold since the first two decades of the century.

Under the catching title of “America's Economic Supremacy” (The Macmillan Co., New York), Mr. Brooks Adams has grouped a series of essays on what may be styled the symptoms of the present state of the world. A wide range of historical reading is drawn upon for much hazardous generalization about the past and a good deal of ingenious guess work about the future. The latter may turn out to be penetrating forecasts, but at present, in view of the slender evidence, they are far from convincing and with the generalizations will not appeal to the serious student. “English Decadence in the West Indies," for example, is studied without taking into account the abolition of slavery or the varied make-up of the populations of the different islands. The essay on “Natural Selection in Literature” is a most interesting and suggestive study of the working of social forces in literature by a comparison of Scott and Dickens as the exponents of militant and industrial society.

Apart from occasional brief extracts in the newspapers, the American reader has had little opportunity to see with others' eyes the course of events in the Philippines. For this reason as well as for its high sincerity, Mr. Richard Brinsley Sheridan's “The Filipino Martyrs" (John Lane: The Bodley Head, New York) should have a wide reading. Mr. Sheridan is an English lawyer, and if our conjecture be not amiss a grandson of John Lothrop Motley, who was in Manila shortly before and during the outbreak of hostilities. His record is that of an eye-witness, warmly sympathetic with the United States in the Spanish war, but equally warmly opposed to our policy in the Philippines. As he believes it is supported through a misconception of the situation, he is at special pains to show that the Filipinos are a civilized people among whom he found “men of refinement and cultivation.” The most valuable chapters are those describing his visit to Aguinaldo and the night of the outbreak of hostilities.

The widespread sympathy of liberal minds with the people of Finland last year in their peaceful resistance to practical absorption by Russia led to the sending of a delegation to the Czar bearing a petition signed by over a thousand names of distinction in politics, science and literature asking for a reconsideration of the decree of

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Feb. 15, 1899. One of the members of this unofficial embassy from liberal Europe, Professor Van der Vlugt of Leyden, has written a most interesting account of the deft and courteous baffling of their efforts to secure an interview with the Czar (Pour La Finlande. L'Humanité Nouvelle. 15 Rue des Saints-Peres, Paris). There are also some vivid sketches of the leading Russian ministers and a pathetic picture of the universal sadness in Finland over the impending loss of their traditional rights. With this pamphlet Professor Van der Vlugt also publishes a critical examination of the Finnish question (Le Conflit Finlandais, envisagé au point de vue juridique), consisting of a study of the personality and ideas of Pobyedonostseff the ruling spirit of Russia, and an impartial presentation of the Russian and Finnish cases with a general review of the whole. Russia could not have a happier moment for bringing to a successful issue this enterprise of imperialism than when the two foremost champions of liberty in the world are engaged in projects sufficiently similar to deprive sympathy or protests proceeding from them of all influence.

Mr. James H. Hopkins' "History of Political Parties in the United States" (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York) gives in an impartial narrative the superficial aspects of our party history without any penetrating analysis and with little evidence of extended study. One is surprised to learn that "in the early days of the Republic, the country was not disturbed by questions of the tariff or of the currency.” The Whigs as a party are introduced several years before the name was adopted. The appendix contains the party platforms in extract or in full from 1840, the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions, and a table showing the popular vote in the last four elections. The serious student will find little that is instructive or suggestive in Mr. Hopkins' pages.

The number of "source books” recently published and announced is a striking testimony of the interest awakened in the methods of teaching history by the discussions of the last few years. One of the most comprehensive of those manuals giving both constitutional documents and illustrative extracts from contemporary writers for the whole period of English history comes from the hand of Dr. Guy Carleton Lee, Johns Hopkins University (Source Book of English History, Henry Holt & Co., New York). In addition to the documents and extracts, the editor has performed a useful service in presenting a list of the sources of English History. He overestimates, however, the completeness of this list and its accuracy

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leaves something to be desired. Among the most important omissions are the failures to record the Italian "Relations," except the scanty one on the England of Henry VII, and the Reports of the Hist. MSS. Commission. There is also a lack of references to the critical discussions of the sources, like those in Lappenberg-Pauli, Busch's England Under the Tudors, Ranke, and Gairdner's Early English Chronicles. The Calendars of State Papers are said to begin with the reign of Henry VIII (p. 11), the note on the Acta Sanctorum is inexact, as is also that on the Granvelle Papers where the Correspondence du Card. Granvelle is included in the French Docs. Inédits. On page 31 the Eng. Hist. Review is called the English Historical Magazine and the same mistake is made in referring to the Am. Historical Review. Misprints in names, too, occur not infrequently. In short, one cannot help feeling that in the rush to get the book on the market the editor has not allowed himself time for either a high degree of accuracy or completeness. The beginning of the Tudor Period with the year 1509 (p. 225) will perhaps confirm this impression.

In the body of the work Dr. Lee seems to have exercised good judgment in selecting from the mass of materials available. Yet one may be allowed to question whether the interests of the day should secure sixteen pages for the Boer question when Canada does not receive a page.

The second volume of Bishop Hurst's "History of the Christian Church" (Eaton & Mains, New York), although it comes down to the present day, is mainly devoted to the precursors of the Reformation, the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation. Students will find the voluminous bibliographies a serviceable guide to the recent secondary literature (down to 1899) of the field. The service, however, would have been greater had the lists been winnowed and the space taken up by antiquated secondary authorities been allotted to brief lists of the sources. Not that these are entirely neglected, but the attention given to them is occasional only. In his method, Bishop Hurst reminds the reader of Schaff. The narrative portions give evidence usually of the study of the recent important monographs. That such an oversight as calling Charles V the nephew of Maximilian, p. 168, should get into the text and stay there is perplexing

Cempuis, by Gabriel Giroud (Schleicher Frères, Paris), gives an account of the pedagogical experiment of M. Robin at the Orphelinat Prévost, at Cempuis, and the assault made upon them by clericals

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and conservatives, which is in a high degree interesting and instructive. The work is enriched by more than forty photogravures. From the same publishers come a volume of essays and addresses by Professor de Greef, entitled Problèmes de Philosophie Positive, written with the author's usual vigor and clearness.

Mr. Spofford's “A Book for All Readers” (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York) may be warmly commended to all who are buying books and forming libraries. His chapters cover nearly every topic of interest to the librarian and the book owner and are packed with pertinent information, valuable suggestion, entertaining observations and bookish anecdotes. The chapter on Bibliography is especially well adapted to guide students beginning research to the necessary helps in their work.

BOOKS RECEIVED.

Adams, BROOKS. America's Economic Supremacy. New York, Macmillan,

1900. ADAMS, CHARLES KENDALL. (Editor.) ALDEN, JOHN (Editor of 4th Vol.)

Representative British Orationes, 4 vols. New York and London, G. P.

Putnam's Sons. 1900. ADLER, George. Die Zukunft der Sozialen Frage. Jena, G. Fischer. 1900. Bulletin of the Department of Labor. No. 29. July, 1900. Washington, Gov.

ernment Printing Office. 1900. Bureau of Education, United States. Report of the Commissioner of Education

for 1898-9. Vol. 1. Washington, Government Printing Office. 1900. CLARK, CHARLES C. P. The Machine" Abolished and the People Restored to

Power, by Organization of all the People on the Lines of Party Organization.

New York and London, G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1900. CONANT, Charles A. The United States in the Orient. The Nature of the

Economic Problem. Boston and New York, Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 1900. COSENTINI, F. (Editor.) Studii Sociologici racotti in occasione del I Congresso

Sociologico Italiano di Genova. Palermo, A. Reber. 1900. CURRAN, J. H. Francis A. Walker. Seine hauptsächlichen Theorien. CONRAD,

Sammlung National-Ökonom. Abhandlungen. XXVIII. Jena, Fischer.

1900. Dochow, Franz. Untersuchung über die Stellung des Handels in der Volks

wirtschaft. Kommissionsverlag, Ed. Anton's Sortiment. (M. Zschan)

Halle a. S. 1900. FAIRBANKS, ARTHUR. A Study of the Greek Paean. Cornell Studies in Classi

cal Philology, No. XII. Published for the University by the Macmillan

Co., N. Y. 1900. FOLKS, HOMER. The Care of Destitute, Neglected and Delinquent Children. In

Monographs on American Social Economics. New York, The Charities

Review. 1900. Foster, John W. A Century of American Diplomacy. Being a Review of the

Foreign Relations of the United States, 1770-1876. Boston and New York,

Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 1900. Fourteenth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor1899. Washington,

The Government Printing Office. 1900. Giroud, GABRIEL. Cempuis, Education Intégrale-Coéducation des Sexes.

Paris, Schleicher Frères, Editeurs. 1900. GLOTH, CATHERINE, and KELLOG, MARIA. Index in Xenophontis Memorabilia.

Cornell Studies in Classical Philology. No. XI. Published for the

University by the Macmillan Co. N. Y. 1900. Gordy, J. P. A History of Political Parties in the United States. Vol. I.

Second Edition, Revised. New York, H. Holt & Co. 1900, HOFFMAN, FREDERICK L. History of the Prudential Insurance Company of Amer.

ica. Newark, N. J., Prudential Press. 1900. Horkins, JAMES H. A History of Political Parties in the United States. New

York and London, G. P. Putnam's Sons, Knickerbocker Press. 1900. JUDSON, FREDRIC N. A Treatise upon the Law and Practice of Taxation in

Missouri. Columbus, Missouri, E. W. Sutphens. 1900.

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