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still other revolutions in industrial processes, machinery was introduced and the railroads provided speedier transport. Dairies sprang up all over the country and the industry entered the foreign field with more vigor. In 1889, 32,340,000 pounds of butter were exported. The total export for the decade was over 220,000,000 pounds of a value of about $57,105,000. This rose to 411,400,000 pounds (value $90,990,000) for the years 1891-1900; 1896 was the high-water mark, with an export of 54,340,000 pounds. During the nineties butter rose to the second place among Swedish articles of export; the production of cheese, though important, was dwarfed beside it.
The prosperity of the eighties brought its abuses. Inexperienced entrepreneurs got command of capital and multiplied plants; and, as usual, they fell into a murderous competition. This resulted in careless use of by-products, hasty and inefficient methods and great loss to investors. Worse still, the quality of the product deteriorated and its well-deserved reputation seemed to be compromised. The industry was driven into the hands of larger and more efficient companies, under whose management economy of material was effected. Technical aid was employed, transportation was improved and the product was carefully tested and kept up to the proper quality.
The Swedes fear competition, and to judge by the author of the present treatise are far from confident concerning the future state of the dairy-industry. They are not sure that another period of internal competition and deterioration may not ensue, and since the quality of the product constitutes its chief claim upon the market, they apprehend grave results if the grade is lowered. Australian competition causes them some alarm, as does that of Canada, the United States and Argentina. Ireland, however, is regarded with most concern; it is nearer the chief market (England) and numbers among its dairy-industries many under Swedish direction. The Swedes feel that they cannot long enjoy their present high profits, for during the last two decades the price of their product has steadily declined.
To maintain their standard of profits the cost of the raw material must be reduced; this implies selection of cattle and a wider application of scientific method. Other desiderata suggest themselves, all of which appear under the familiar form of economies of centralized production. Producers covet Denmark's frequent and more convenient transport facilities by sea, lower railroad rates, etc. In
short, everything points to the conclusion that the industry must centralize.
The proper application of this system of centralization is suggested by the author, in conformity with the character of land and industry. Conditions are different from our own in some details, but it is certain that Sweden has been drawn into the current of modern business methods and industrial development, in spite of her comparative economic isolation.
A. G. KELLER. Yale University.
The Ibero-American Conference. This congress, convened in Madrid, November 10, 1900, marks still another effort of the Latin nations toward consolidation and resistance to the on-swelling tide of Germanic, and especially Anglo-Saxon, aggression. A large attendance was secured owing to the presence of many Central and South American delegates at the Paris Exposition. All the LatinAmerican states except Bolivia, together with Portugal, were officially represented. The object of the conference was to exchange ideas, do away with animosities, establish genial relations,-in short, to take the first tentative steps towards Iberian solidarization. Spain repudiated her traditional régime toward the colonies, and the latter found her former shortcomings not hard to forgive.
The delegates divided into committees for the consideration of the several subjects before the congress. The committee on arbitration voted for the establishment of permanent obligatory arbitration, allowing no exceptions. Debates on the subjects of jurisprudence and legislation, sciences, arts and letters, and education led to resolutions favoring harmonization of civil, penal and administrative codes, guarantees of authors' and inventors' rights, the spread of inventions and other advantages (especially among the Iberian races), the maintenance of the Spanish language in its pure form, unification of educational methods, etc. The committee on public economy favored the establishment of a central junta of emigration which should look out for the interests of the emigrants.
Other committees, deliberating on commerce, transportation, banks and credit, and expositions, returned resolutions supporting reciprocal commercial treaties, establishment of better transportation facilities, docks and ports, lower customs-tariffs and freightrates, an exclusively Spanish-American cable, monetary unity under the superintendence of an Hispano-American bank, advanced exchange-facilities and permanent Ibero-American expositions in the aid of commerce. The committee on the press advocated pressassociations, removal of hindrances to the free international circulation of literature, etc.
The author of the very temperate and judicious article from which the above data are taken, Professor Adolfo Posada, says the best effect of the conference is that the Spaniards have been compelled to give attention to the Americans—to realize that such affiliated states really exist. Though the conference was due to the initiative of an association of a private character, "la Unión Iberoamericana,” its sessions seem to have exercised a decided influence toward the formation of a sentiment of Ibero-American unity. The utterances of the delegates, particularly those of Señor Sierra, a Mexican delegate, display strong feeling for the preservation of Iberian racial ideas and habitudes, as well as warm affection for the unfortunate mother country. Stress certainly has caused all the Latin nations to draw together and to look upon each other more fraternally. The conflict of races seems about to succeed the conflict of nations.
A. G. KELLER. Yale University.
1“ El Congreso Hispanoamericano,” por Adolfo Posada. La España Moderna, Diciembre 1900 (Año 12°, tomo 144, pp. 120–38).
The Peace Conference at The Hague and its bearings on Inter
national Law and Policy. By Frederick W. Holls, D.C.L. New York: Macmillan Co., 1900.
La Conference de la Paix.
Par G. de Lapradelle. Paris: A.
These two accounts of the proceedings of the Hague Conference of 1899, differ diametrically in their judgments of it and of its value.
Mr. Holls in his preface "frankly avows his conviction that the Peace Conference accomplished a great and glorious result, not only in the humanizing of warfare and the codification of the laws of war, but above all in the promulgation of the Magna Charta of International Law, the binding together of the civilized powers in a federation for Justice, and the establishment of a permanent International Court of Arbitration."
On the other hand, Professor de Lapradelle, closing his volume with various estimates of the value of the work done at the Hague, writes thus, "A vigorous thinker, A. Schaeffle, has uttered in regard to the Hague Conference a severe sentence, parturiunt montes; you know the rest. Harsh as this judgment is, it is perhaps nearest of all to the truth. The next conference will profit by it. For me, I say with M. de Staal ‘wait for the harvest.'”
' Mr. Holls' hopeful spirit is entirely natural, for he shared in a conspicuous and useful way, in the deliberations of the Conference. It does not prevent his giving a resume of the proceedings, however, which appears sufficiently fair and unbiased, and is in the highest degree interesting. He makes clear some matters which have been commonly misunderstood.
Take the action of the Committee on the humanizing of war, in its prohibition of the dumdum bullet for instance, an action opposed by the British and American members. These two maintained that a bullet whose metal jacket left a trifle of the lead tip unsupported, that it might mushroom upon contact, was entirely consistent with the rules of the St. Petersburg convention of 1868, which forbade weapons “which uselessly aggravate the sufferings of disabled men or render their deaths inevitable."
Moreover, they asserted that the ordinary small calibre military cartridge fully jacketed did not necessarily have the effect of putting a man struck by it, hors du combat. In wars with uncivilized warriors this had been repeatedly proven. They offered an amendment to the resolution therefore, which was less sweeping in its prohibition, and argued cogently for it. Much to their surprise, however, the amendment was not put to vote, since neither chairman nor committee would admit that by parliamentary usage an amendment was entitled to consideration prior to final action on the original motion.
The number of proposals brought before this same committee which failed of adoption was considerable. One forbade the future use in war of powder stronger than any, already employed. Another prohibited explosive shells in field artillery. Others forbade new high explosives, field guns better than the present, a change in the type of musket.
The use of explosives from balloons was forbidden, however, for a limited time.
In naval war likewise, there were many rules proposed tending to make war more ladylike, which found no favor, such as the prohibition of diving torpedo boats, of rams on warships, of thicker armor, of guns increased in size or with higher initial velocity.
Captain Mahan even opposed the prohibition of projectiles filled with asphyxiating gases, on grounds which to the ordinary mind, do not appear conclusive.
Mr. Holls deprecates criticism of the complete failure of the disarmament movement, still it is a fact that both the Czar's notes mentioned this as an object of the Conference: that in committee the proposals aimed not at a decrease, but only at preventing an increase of soldiers, budgets, and so on; and that even this proved quite unattainable.
In contrast to this failure should be set the real achievements of a code of rules to govern land warfare, and of the extension of the Geneva rules to naval combat. These last have since been incorporated into the naval war code of the United States.
Upon the rules governing land warfare, we have no space to comment here, though it is a most interesting theme. They are founded upon the Brussels code of 1874, which had never been adopted, are enlightened and explicit, introduce some new and excellent features into the rules of war, and have been ratified by nearly all the powers represented.