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confederation. The fifth has a full account of the important events of the War for Independence, and the sixth gives a concise history of the Republic, from its formation to the present time. The Supplement is composed of the most important State Papers connected with that formation, such as the Stamp Act, and papers put forth by the Stamp Act Congress ; the papers presented to the consideration of the world by the First and Second Continental Congresses ; the Declaration of Independence; the Articles of Confederation; and the Federal Constitution, with the admirable Farewell Address of Washington. These documents, thus grouped and preserved, will be found valuable as embodying the principles of our government.

The original draft, with the amendments, of the Declaration of Independence, is given; and, in foot-notes, every charge made against the king of Great Britain, in that manifesto, is proven from History. The Federal Constitution is also accompanied by important commentaries.

The system of concordance interwoven with the notes throughout the entire work, is of great importance to the reader. When a fact is named

a which bears a relation to another fact elsewhere recorded in the volume, a reference is made to the page where such fact is mentioned. A knowledge of this relationship of separate events is often essential to a clear view of the subject, and without this concordance, a great deal of time would be spent in searching for that relationship. With the concordance the matter may

be found in a moment. Favorable examples of the utility of this new feature may be found on page 289. If strict attention shall be given to these references, the whole subject will be presented to the mind of the reader in a comprehensive aspect of unity not to be obtained by any other method.

The engravings are introduced not for the sole purpose of embellishing the volume, but to enhance its utility as an instructor. Every picture is intended to illustrate a fact, not merely to beautify the page. Great care has been taken to secure accuracy in all the delineations of men and things, so that they may not convey false instruction. Geographical maps have been omitted, because they must necessarily be too small to be of essential service. History may be read for the purpose of obtaining general information on the subject, without maps, but it should never be studied without the aid of an accurate Atlas.

The author has endeavored to make this work essentially a FAMILY HISTORY, attractive and instructive; and the Publishers have generously co-worked with him in producing a volume that may justly claim to be excellent in every particular. With these few observations concerning the general plan and merits of the work, it is presented to the public, with an entire willingness to have its reputation rest upon its own merits.

ILLUSTRATIONS.

COOO

PAGE 1. ILLUMINATED FRONTISPIECE. 2. Sioux INDIANS...

9 8. PORTRAIT OF RED JACKET.

9 4. A WIGWAM

13 5. WAMPUM

13 6. INDIAN HIEROGLYPHICS.

13 7. INDIAN WEAPONS..

14 8. CALUMETS.....

14 9. INDIAN BURIAL-PLACE..

15 10. INDIAN TOTUM...

15 11. PROFILE OF BLACK HAWK.

18 12. Uxcas's MONUMENT..

21 13. PORTRAIT OF SAMUEL KIRKLAND.

25 14. SOUTHERN INDIANS..

80 15. COLUMBUS BEFORE THE COUNCIL OF SALAMANCA 34 16. PORTRAIT OF AMERIGO VESPUCCI.

34 17. NORTLMAX.

84 13. NORMAN SHIP..

85 19. OLD TOWER AT NEWPORT.

85 20. PORTRAIT OF COLUMBUS.

36 21. PORTRAIT OF ISABELLA.

88 22. THE FLEET OF COLUMBUS.

89 28. BANNER OF THE EXPEDITION

40 24. BALBOA....

42 25. PORTRAIT OF DE SOTO.. 26. PORTRAIT OF SEBASTIAN CABOT

46 27. PORTRAIT OF VERAGAZZI..

47 28. CARTIER'S Sup..

48 29. ARMS OF FRANCE...

48 80. FRENCH NOBLEMAN, 1540

49 81. RALEIGH'S EXPEDITION AT ROANOKE.

53 32. PORTRAIT OF SIR WALTER RALEIGH.

55 83. RALEIGH'S SHIPs..

55 84. ExgLisu GENTLEMAN, 1580..

57 35. PORTRAIT OF HENRY HUDSON

59 36. THE HALF-Moox......

59 37. BUILDING JAMESTOWN..

61 88. PORTRAIT OF CAPTAIN JOHN SMITI.

61 89. PORTRAIT OF POCAHONTAS

66 40. SEAL OF NEW NETHERLAND.

78 41. A PCRITAN...

75 42. The MAYFLOWER.

77 43. GOVERNOR CARVER'S CHAIR.

79 44. PORTRAIT OF CECIL, LORD BALTIMORE..

81 45. HOOKER'S EMIGRATION TO CONNECTICUT.. 83 46. First MEETING-HOUSE IN CONNECTICUT.. 86 47. PORTRAIT OF ROGER WILLIAMS.

90 48. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM PENN.

95 49. THE ASSEMBLY HOUSE, PENNSYLVANIA

97 50. OGLETHORPE ON THE SITE OF SAVANNAI. 101 51. EMBARKATION OF THE PILGRIMS.

104 52. PORTRAIT OF JAMES EDWARD OGLETHORPE. 104 53. Currch Tower AT JAMESTOWN..

112 54. First COLONY SEAL, MASSACHUSETTS.

117 55. PORTRAIT OF JOHN WINTHROP.

117 56. FIRST MONEY COINED IN THE UNITED STATES.. 122 57. PORTRAIT OF KING PHILIP..

124 58. PALLISADED BUILDING..

127 59. PORTRAIT OF CAPTAIX CHURCH.. 61. PORTRAIT OF COTTON MATHER.

183 61. Williams's HOUSE, DEERFIELD.

135 62. PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF LOUISBURG

187 63. PORTRAIT OF PETER STUYVESANT.

142 64. CITY OF NEW YORK IN 1664..

144 65. STUYVESANT SURRENDERING Fort AMSTERDAM TO THE ENGLISII.

145 66. THE CHARTER OAK.

156

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PAGE 67. PENN'S HOUSE..

162 68. PLAN OF CHARLESTON IN 1680.

166 69. EARLY NEW ENGLAND HOUSE.

176 70. DUTCHMAN, 1660...

176 71. PLAN OF Fort Du QUESNE.

186 72. PORTRAIT OF BRADDOCK,

186 78. BURIAL or BRADDOCK.......

187 74. PLAN OF FORT EDWARD.....

190 75. PORTRAIT OF SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON.

190 76. PLAN OF FORT WILLIAM HENRY..

191 77. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL ABERCROMBIE.

191 78. PLANS OF FORTS AT OSWEGO,

192 79. BLOCK HOUSE...

192 80. MAP OF LAKE GEORGE AND VICINITY,

194 81. PORTRAIT OF LORD HERST.

196 82. PLAN OF TICONDEROGA......

196 83. RUINS OF TICONDEROGA.

197 84. PORTRAIT OF LORD HOWE...

197 85. PLAN OF CROWN POINT..

200 86. PLAN OF FORT NIAGARA.

200 87. GENERAL WOLFE..

201 88. MILITARY OPERATIONS AT QUEBEC.

202 89. MONUMENT TO WOFLE AND MONTCALM.

202 90, PATRICK HENRY BEFORE THE VIRGINIA ASSEMBLY

207 91. PORTRAIT OF JAMES Otis....

207 92. Portrait OF BENJAMIN WEST..

210 93. PORTRAIT OF David RITTENHOUSE.

211 94. PORTRAIT OF PATRICK HENRY.

214 95. A STAMP

215 96. PORTRAIT OF CADWALLADER COLDEN.

216 97. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM Pitt..

217 98. PORTRAIT OF JOHN DICKENSON.

219 99. PORTRAIT OF SAMUEL ADAMS

321 100. PORTRAIT OF LORD NORTH..

224 101. FANEUIL HALL.....

225 102. SNAKE DEVICE,

226 108. PORTRAIT OF CHARLES THOMsOX.

227 104. CARPENTER'S HALL..

228 105. JOHN HANCOCK..

230 106. PLAN OF BUNKER HILL BATTLE.

285 107. BUNKER HILL MONUMENT.

235 108. PORTRAIT OF JOSEPI WARREN.

287 109. PORTRAIT OF PILIP SCHUYLER.

239 110. PLAN OF THE WALLS OF QUEBEC.

242 111. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MONTGOMERY.

242 112. CULPEPPER FLAG..

243 118. UNION FLAG......

245 114. BILL OF CREDIT OR CONTINENTAL MONEY 245 115. PortraIT OF GENERAL LEE..

248 116. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MOULTRIE.

249 117. STATE HOUSE, PHILADELPHIA..

250 118. PortRAIT OF BENJAMIN Rusi..

251 119. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL PUTNAM..

258 120. PLAN OF THE BATTLE ON Lox ISLAND.. 254 121. PLAN OF FORT WASHINGTON

256 122. RETREAT OF THE AMERICANS FROM LONG ISLAND 257 123. THE JERSEY PRISON-SHIP,

259 124. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT TRENTON.

263 125. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT MORRIS..

264 126. PORTRAIT OF SILAS DEANE..

266 127. PORTRAIT OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN.

267 128. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT PRINCETOX

269 129. PORTRAIT OF LA FAYETTE...

273 180. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT THE BRANDYWINE... 278 131. CHEVAUX-DE-FRISE ......

274 132. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT GERMANTOWN...... 275

129

291

310

PAGE

PAGE 133. PortraIT OF GENERAL ST. CLAIP.

276 208. PORTRAIT OF MARTIA WASHINGTON.... 387 131. PORTRAIT OF KosciOSZKO.. 277 209. PORTRAIT OF THOMAS JEFFERSON,

899 135. PORTRAIT OF JOSEPH BRANT 273 210. PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE BAIN BRIDGE.

391 136. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL BURGOYNE. 278 211. UNITED STATES FRIGATE..

891 137. A TREATY... 278 212. Portrait OF LIEUTENANT DECATUR..

392 189. BURGOYNE SURRENDERING HIS SWORD TO

213. MOHAMMEDAX SOLDIER...

892 GATES..

279 214. BUENING OF TIIE PHILADELPHIA AT TRIPOLI.. 393 139. PLAN OF OPERATIONS AT BEMIS'S IIEIGUTS.. 291 215. PORTRAIT OF Rufus KING..

895 110. PORTRAIT OF FRANCIS HOPKINSON, 281 216. PORTRAIT OF AARON BURR.

896 141. PLAN OF EXCAMPMENT AT VALLEY FORGE 255

217. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT FULTON.

399 142. PORTRAIT OF SIR HENRY CLINTON..

287
218. FULTON'S FIRST STEAMBOAT.

899 143. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT MONMOCTI.

289
219. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM PINKNEY

400 114. PORTRAIT OF Count D'ESTAING..

259
220. A FELUCCA GUN-Boat....

401 145. PORTRAIT OF BARON STEUBEN.

221. PortRAIT OF JOHN RANDOLPH

403 146. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL LINCOLN. 294 222. PORTRAIT OF JAMES MADISON.

405 147. PLAN OF STONY POINT... 293 223. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL DEARBORN,

410 149. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL WAYNE..

293 224. PORTRAIT OF STEPHEN VAN RENNESELAER 413 149. PORTRAIT OF DANIEL BOONE.. 299 225. SLOOP-OF-WAR.

415 150. PORTRAIT OF GEORGE ROGERS CLARKE. 300 226. PORTEAIT OF GOVERNOR SHELBY

417 151. CLARKE's EXPEDITION ACROSS THE " DROWNED 227. PLAN OF Fort MEIGA.

419 LANDS." 301 223. PLAN OF FORT SANDUSKY

419 152. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL SULLIVAN 804 229. MAJOR CROGIAN.

420 153. PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF SAVANNAHI. 305 230, PERRY ON LAKE EBIE.

421 154. Portrait OF COUNT PULASKI.. 305 231. PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE PERRY.

423 155, PORTRAIT OF JOIN PAUL JONES. 307 232. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL PIKE..

425 156. A GUX-BOAT AT BOSTON. 307 233, Fort NIAGARA IN 1813..

427 157. Portrait or ADMIRAL HOPKINS.. 305 234. PORTRAIT OF CAPTAIN LAWRENCE.

429 159. CIPHER ALPHABET....... 309 235. PORTRAIT OF COMODORE PORTER.

431 159. PORTRAIT OF GOVERNOR RUTLEDGE..

236. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL Brown,

432 16). PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE WHIPPLE. 810 237. MAP OF THE NIAGARA FRONTIER.

434 161. PLAN OF TUE SIEGE OF CHARLESTON

811 239. PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE MACDONOUGII. 435 162. PORTRAIT OF DAVID RAMSAY..

312 239. PLAN OF THE BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS. 439 163. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL GATES, 814 210. PORTRAIT OF W. C. C. CLAIBORNE.

440 164. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL SUMTER. 315 211. JACKSON AT NEW ORLEANS..

441 165. PLAN OF BATTLE AT SANDERS'S CREEK 315 242. PORTRAIT OF JAMES MONROE..

447 166. PORTRAIT OF BARON DE KALB.. 816 243. CAPITKE OF PENSACOLA..

449 167. PORTRAIT OF COLONEL TARLETON 316 244. PORTRAIT OF EDWARD LIVINGSTON.

452 163. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MArion.. 817 245. PortrAIT OF JOIN QUINCY AVAMS..

455 169. PORTRAIT OF LORD CORNWALLIS. 318 246. PORTRAIT OF DEWITT CLINTON..

456 170. MARION'S ENCAMPMENT ON THE PEDEE. 821 247. PortraIT OF Joux C. CALHOON

458 171. PORTRAIT OF GOVERNOR TRUMBULL. 323 218. PortRAIT OF GENERAL JACKSON

400 172. PORTRAIT OF BENEDICT ARNOLD..

325
249. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT Y. HAYNE..

463 173. THE CAPTORS' MEDAL..

327
250. PORTRAIT OF OSCEOLA....

466 174. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL GREENE..

831 251. MAP OF THE SEAT OF THE SEMIXOLE WAL.. 467 175. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MORGAN 831 232. PORTRAIT OF MARTIN VAN BUREX..

470 176. PORTRAIT OF COLONEL WASHINGTON. 332 253. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM H. HARRISON

474 177. PORTRAIT OF COLONEL HENRY LEE... 393 251. PORTRAIT OF JOHN TYLER..

476 178. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT GUILFORD). 833 2.5. PORTRAIT OF JAMES K. POLK..

479 179. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT HOBKIRK's lIIl. 334 256. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL SCOTT..

495 180. PORTRAIT OF REBECCA MOTTE..

335

257. Mar OF THE REGION OF Taylor's OPERATIONS 456 181. PLAN OF Fort NINETY-Six.. 836 258. PORTRAIT OF Joux C. FREMONT.

489 182. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL PICKENS,

3:36 259. Plax OF INTRENCILMENTS AT VERA (ruz... 499 183. PortraIT OF COUNT DE ROCHAMBEAU.

889

260. MAP OF THE ROUTE OF SCOTT'S ARMY IN MEXICO 490 184. PORTRAIT OF COUNT DE GRASSE.

810
261. BOMBARDMENT OF VERA CRUZ..

491 165. PLAN OF TILE SIEGE OF YORKTOWN... 841 262. OPERATIONS NEAR MEXICO..

493 186. PORTRAIT OF BENJAMIN THOMPSON (COUNT 203. GENERAL SCOTT ENTERING THE CITY OF MEXICO 495 RUMFORD)..

846
261. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL TAYLOR..

498 187. PORTRAIT OF JAMES JACKSON. 317 205. PORTRAIT OF LIENRY CLAY.

500 188. PORTRAIT OF GEORGE CLINTON. 350 266. PORTRAIT OF MILLARD FILLMORE

502 189. PORTRAIT OF JOHN MARSIALI...

267. PORTRAIT OF DANIEL WEBSTER.

503 190. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MIFFLIN, 8.52 269. PORTRAIT OF JOSEPU SMITII..

504 191. ORDER OF THE CINCINNATI...

352 269. MORMOX EMIGRATION.. 192. PORTRAIT OF B18fOP CARROLL.. 351 270. PORTRAIT OF PROFESSOR MORSE

507 193. FRANKLIN BEFORE THE CONSTITUTIONAL Cox- 271. PORTRAIT OF De. KANE..

510 VENTIOX.. 857 272. PORTRAIT OF FRANKLIN PIERCE.

514 194. PORTRAIT OF OLIVER ELLSWORTII. 360 279. PortraIT OF SANTA ANNA..

515 195. PORTRAIT OF ALEXANDER HAMILTON. 861 274. AN OCEAN STEAMSHIP....

516 196. PORTRAIT OF RUFUS PUTNAM.. 362 275. CRYSTAL PALACE IN NEW YORK.

517 197. INAUGURATION OF WASHINGTON. 304 276. POETRAIT OF CAPTAIN INGRATIAM

518 198. PORTRAIT OF GOUVERNEUR MORRIS. 864 277. PORTRAIT OF JAMES BUCHANAN.

532 199. PORTRAIT OF WASHINGTON. 365 273. FOUNDING NEW STATES..

537 200. PORTRAIT OP ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON, 366 279. PORTRAIT OF THOMAS JEFFERSOx,

599 201. PORTRAIT OF TENCH Coxe.. 869 250. PORTRAIT OF JOHN ADAMS..

559 202. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL KNOx. 370 291. PORTRAIT OF DR. FRANKLIN,

589 209. WAYNE'S DEFEAT OF THE INDIANS, 375 2-2. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT R. LIVINGSTOX.

599 214. PORTRAIT OF JOJIN JAY... 379 23. PORTRAIT OF ROGER SHERMAN.

589 205. PORTRAIT OF FISIER AMES.. 350 254. PORTRAIT OF CHARLES CARROLL.

601 206. Portrait of. Joux ADAM. 883 285. PORTRAIT OF JUDGE STORY.......

612 207. PORTRAIT OF C. C. PIXCKNEY.

854

351

HISTORY

OF

THE UNITED STATES.

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RED JACKET.

EVERY cultivated nation had its heroic age—a period when its first physical and

moral conquests were achieved, and when rude society, with all its impurities, was fused and refined in the crucible of progress. When civilization first set up its standard as a permanent ensign, in the western hemisphere, northward of the Bahamas and the great Gulf, and

1

the contests for possession began between the wild Aboriginals, who thrust no spade into the soil, no sickle into ripe harvests, and those earnest delvers from the Old World, who came with the light of Christianity, to plant a new empire, and redeem the wilderness by cultivation—then commenced the heroic age of America. It ended when the work of the Revolution in the eighteenth century was accomplished—when the bond of vassalage to Great Britain was severed by her colonies, and when thirteen confederated States ratified a Federal Constitution, and upon it laid the broad foundation of our Republic.'

Long anterior to the advent of Europeans in America, a native empire, little inferior to old Rome in civilization, flourished in that region of our Continent which now forms the south-western portion of our Republic, and the adjoining States of Central America. The Aztec Empire, which reached the acmé of its refinement during the reign of Montezuma, and crumbled into fragments beneath the heel of Cortez, when he dethroned and destroyed that monarch,' extended over the whole region from the Rio Grande to the Isthmus of Darien ; and when the Spaniards came, it was gradually pushing its conquests northward, where all was yet darkness and gloom. To human apprehension, this people, apparently allied by various ties to the wild nations of North America, appeared to be the most efficient instruments in the hands of Providence, for spreading the light of dawning civilization over the whole Continent. Yet, they were not only denied this glorious privilege, but, by the very race which first attempted to plant the seeds of European society in Florida, and among the Mobilian tribes,' and to shed the illumination of their dim Christianity over the dreary region of the North, was their own bright light extinguished. The Aztecs and their neighbors were beaten into the dust of debasement by the falchion blows of avarice and bigotry, and nothing remains to attest their superiority but the magnificent ruins of their cities and temples, and their colossal statuary, which has survived the fury of the Spanish iconoclast and the tooth of decay. They form, apparently, not the most insignificant atom of the chain of events which connects the history of the Aboriginal nations of America with that of our Republic. The position of the tribes of the North is different. From the beginning of European settlements, they have maintained, and do still maintain, an important relation to the white people.

- The first inhabitants of a country properly belong to the history of all subsequent occupants of the territory. The several nations of red or coppercolored people who occupied the present domain of the United States, when Europeans first came, form as necessary materials for a portion of the history of our Republic, as the Frenchmen and Spaniards, by whom parts of the territory were settled, and from whom they have been taken by conquest or purchase.

The history of the Indian tribes, previous to the formation of settlements among them, by Europeans,' is involved in an obscurity which is penetrated

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| Page 360.
· Page 51.

9 Page 43.
6 Page 40.

3 Page 29.

4 Page 180. 7 Before the year 1607.

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