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creased, for Stolpe's intense interest in his work inspired interest in others. Notable among the acquisitions were the magnificent collections from Costa Rica, gathered by Mr C. V. Hartman, which were presented by Mr Ake Sjögren, and the collections brought from South America by Baron Erland Nordenskiöld and Count Eric von Rosen. In January, 1903, Dr Stolpe was appointed director of the ethnographical section of the Royal Museum in recognition of his services.
Hjalmar Stolpe's work for ethnography was of an epoch-making character. He was not only the first in Sweden to devote himself after extensive preparatory studies wholly to its interests and to bring together rich collections for a general ethnographical museum, but he made other contributions to the science that won recognition abroad.
During his extensive travels in Europe, in 1880-81, when he visited numerous ethnographical museums, "it soon became apparent," as he said fifteen years later, "that one real key to a scientific treatment of ethnographic objects is found in the comparative study of ornamental art." "It may seem strange," he added, "that this field was not cultivated long before, but such is the case. Many circumstances have contributed to delay the development of this branch of ethnography. The first is probably that the majority of ethnological museums are not yet scientifically arranged." Stolpe, a trained naturalist, at once applied to ethnography the comparative method inaugurated by Sven Nilsson in archeological research, and as a schooled archeologist the typological method that had been so successfully developed and employed by Hans Hildebrand and Oscar Montelius in archeology; and thus he became himself a pioneer in the new ethnology. The English archeologist, Lane Fox, afterward General Pitt-Rivers, is the only one who had previously applied similar methods; but Stolpe was the first in the field to clearly lay down scientific principles and endeavor to explain rationally the problems presented, especially as regards the ornamental art of primitive peoples. In his significant work, "Features of Evolution in the Ornamental Art of Primitive Peoples," published in Ymer for 1890-91, and later reprinted in English and German, he presented some of the results of his profound studies along this line.
During his visit to foreign museums in 1880-81, Dr Stolpe, an accomplished artist, made numerous copies of ethnographical objects bearing ornamental designs, and brought home more than 3,000 rubbings of carvings, as well as a large number of detailed sketches. This valuable material, which in the course of years he greatly augmented, made it possible for him later to conduct extensive comparative studies in the art of primitive peoples. Thus he was enabled to establish six different provinces within which ornamentation followed different laws of style among the natives of Polynesia. In 1896 he published an edition de luxe of his "Studies of Ornamental Art: a Contribution to the Biology of Ornamental Designs," which was awarded the Loubat prize by the Academy of Letters, History, and Antiquity. In this work Stolpe gave a clear presentation of the existing knowledge of the decorative art of the North American Indians, as well as a large series of reproductions of a group of South American clubs with carved anthropomorphic and zoömorphic ornaments that furnish a clear conception of their typologic development.
In the fall of 1903 Dr Stolpe visited the United States as a delegate to the Thirteenth International Congress of Americanists and made many warm friends among his scientific colleagues in America.
At home Stolpe was esteemed from his youth as a comrade among a large circle of friends. His pleasant address and fine conversational talent, with his superior education and agreeable wit, made themselves widely felt. He was tall of stature with handsome features of the genuine Northern type, and, gifted with a fine, powerful voice, he was a particularly popular Bellman singer. From his appearance one would have imagined him still a young man, since the vigor of youth, with a cheerful, jocular temperament, seemed to retard the effect of advancing years. He possessed the sensitiveness of the artist and the poet, a sensitiveness that was especially apparent when his ideals of justice were shocked by wrongs perpetrated by so-called civilized people upon primitive folk. As an author he possessed a good style, which is well illustrated in his excellent sketches of the Danish ethnographer Kristian Bahnsson and of Anders Retzius. He was a close student, often
working late into the night at the expense of his health. happy in his home life, which was made beautiful by a wife and daughter whose lives were examples of unselfish devotion. His daughter, the apple of his eye, assisted him for several years in his scientific labors.
Stolpe was not only Sweden's first real ethnographer, but was one of the foremost champions of the science in his generation. The Ethnographical Museum in Stockholm, wherever it may find its final place, will remain his perpetual monument.
Lectures on the Early History of the Kingship. By J. G. FRAZER. New York: The Macmillan Co. 1905. 12°, 309 pp. (Price $2.75.)
This work consists of a series of nine lectures originally delivered at Trinity College, Cambridge, under the title of "The Sacred Character and Magical Functions of Kings in Early Society." "Substantially," the author adds, "they consist of a series of extracts from the forthcoming third edition of my book The Golden Bough, which will contain fuller information on many points."
In spite of a certain lack of completeness which this statement naturally leads one to expect, the above work exhibits its author's characteristic, suggestive style so familiar to all students of Anthropology, and his usual breadth of information. He begins, as in The Golden Bough, by presenting the curious ethnological problem of the "king of the woods'' at Nemi, to the solution of which the remainder of the material here presented is made to subserve. In the second lecture he discusses the priestly and magical characteristics of the kingship in many countries, and in connection therewith enters upon a treatment of magic generally, which he divides into "homoeopathic magic" based on "the law of similarity," and "contagious magic" based on "the law of contact.' These terms are undoubtedly suggestive, though it might be questioned whether one of them does not cast an unnecessary slur upon a certain school of medicine. Through most of the succeeding lecture this discussion is continued, but toward the end the relation of magic to the kingship is again brought forward, and the thesis that kings have evolved out of an early class of magicians presented. In lecture five material is assembled tending to show that a magician evolves not merely into a king but into a god as well. In lectures six and seven the author takes up the subject of sacred marriages, including the ceremonial marriages between inanimate objects, or between inanimate objects and human beings,-gone through in order to affect the course of nature,—and particularly the marriages of mortals with immortals. In lecture eight the popular theory of a primitive matriarchal state of society is touched upon and several ingenious suggestions introduced regarding early social conditions in Rome and Latium. The overthrow of kingly power in Rome Mr Frazer suggests may have been partly owing to an attempt of Tarquin the Proud to alter the law of suc