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with the other Malayan dialects of the Philippines, the language of Madagascar, and the Chamorro language of Guam. The most striking of these similarities is the use of particles combined with primitive words or roots to form derivatives of various shades of meaning, not only in the form of prefixes and suffixes, as in the English words beloved' and 'lovableness,' but as infixes into the body of the primitive word itself. Thus by inserting the particle in into the word bulan (moon) before the tonic vowel, we form binudan (monthly); and in the same way from kalbig (strike) we form kinalbig-mo (literally, 'your-striking'), you struck. Another distinguishing peculiarity is the use of possessive suffixes in place of separate possessive pronouns; as, taad-ko, knife-mine; balei-mo, housethine; kabadyo-to, horse-his; chalan-tayo, road-ours (yours and mine); abong-me, hut-ours (theirs and mine); ama-dyo, father-yours; asu-cha, dog-theirs. These possessive suffixes are used not only with nouns, but with certain forms of the verb as well. They are common to all the languages of the sub-family, including the Chamorro, Malagasy, and Philippine languages, and are also found in certain languages of the Melanesian and Micronesian islands, and in the endings of the Polynesian pronouns; as ta-ku, or to-ku (New Zealand), my; ta-na, or to-na (New Zealand), his, in which to and ta may be considered as particles signifying ownership or belonging, followed by the possessive suffix, just as in the Chamorro the independent possessives iyo-ko, my belonging (used with names of inanimate objects), and ga-ko, my belonging (used with animals) occurs, and in the same manner iyo-mo, ga-mo, thy belonging; and iyo-ña, ga-ña, his belonging.

Among the derivative words which are characteristic of the Philippine sub-family are those formed by adding the particle an to the root and signifying locality, or the place of an action. Thus, from tungau, sit, we form tungau-an, sitting-place, or seat; from inum, drink, inum-an, drinking-place, or spring; and from the Spanish escuela, school, eskueda-an, school-house, or school-place. When an action is implied, the derived noun also takes a verbal prefix pan or pang (corresponding to the Chamorro particle fan, which is used in the same way); as, pangala-an, getting-place, in the sentence Twai i pang-ala-an-mo ni kiu?, Which (was) the getting-place-yours of the wood?' that is, Where did you get the wood? '


Only a few more features of the Nabaloi need here be mentioned to further illustrate its relationship to other members of its sub-family. Instead of an indefinite article it uses the numeral saxei (one). The definite article, e, or i, is identical with that of the Chamorro, and like the Chamorro and the Philippine languages it possesses a personal article



si, which is used before the names of persons and of relationship. Its use in the Nabaloi is carried farther than in many kindred dialects, however, since it takes the form of a prefix to personal pronouns, as sikak, from ak (I); sikam, from ka (thou); sikato, from to (he). It is probably identical also with the prefix to the interrogative pronoun sipai, who. The verb guara, 'there is' or 'is there' (Fr. il y a, or y a-t-il), is identical with the Chamorro guaha, and is used exactly in the same way; as, guara chanum, 'is there water?' (Chamorro, guaha hanum?). And it is also used to express ownership in the absence of a verb to have'; which may be likened to the expression there-is belonging-to-me a cow,' for I have a cow.' In the negative anchi, there is not,' the last syllable chi is without doubt to be identified with the Chamorro negative ti (not) and the Madagascar tsi, which occurs in the Bontok dialect as di and the Tagalo as di. It is interesting to find in the Tagalo that the sense of guara (which takes the form uala) is reversed, signifying 'there is not,' instead of 'there is a change from the original meaning, perhaps, after the manner of the French jamais, 'ever,' which when used alone signifies 'never.' The use of a ligation, or connecting particle, though not so frequent as in the Tagalo and Chamorro, is found in the examples furnished by Mr Scheerer; thus we have saxei a tóo, one person; aának a kurab, blind child; iman a balei, that house; achaxel a too, many people, in which a may be regarded as a ligation connecting the adjective with the noun.


In the Nabaloi preposition chi (at, in, on) may be recognized the Chamorro gi; as in the phrases chi chanum (Chamorro gi hänum), ‘in the water'; chi chalan (Chamorro gi chälan), 'on the road'; chi balei (Chamorro gi gima), 'at or in the house.' This preposition is without doubt identical with the ki of Tonga and New Zealand, which in Samoan and Hawaiian becomes i. It is the Malayan di and is used as in the Malayan for forming compound adverbs and prepositions; as chi inaitapou,


on top,' 'upon' (Chamorro, gi hilo; New Zealand, ki runga; Samoan, i lunga; Hawaiian, i luna; Malayan, di atas); chi inaidúung, 'below,' 'underneath', 'on the lower side'; chi pinaidaem, within,' on the inside'; chi inaidingeb, behind,' 'in the rear.' Combined with the demonstratives iai (this), itan (that), iman (yon), this preposition forms the adverbs of place chiai (here), chitan (there), chiman (yonder).

The examples of verbs do not show the use of reduplication of syllables to express tense or duration of time, which is so characteristic a feature of the Chamorro and Tagalo. Other features of the verb, however, indicate that it is used very much as in other dialects of the Philippines. Such are the presence of a causative particle, the use of distinct

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forms of the verb in cases where the subject is the principal idea to be conveyed and where the object is to be emphazized; and a difference also in the form of the verb if it has a definite object or an indefinite or vague object.

An understanding of the use of the verbal forms is aided much by Mr Scheerer's examples; but it must be admitted that these would not afford an adequate introduction to the intricacies of the subject unless one were familiar with the grammar of Tagalog or other Philippine dialects. In studying a language of this kind one is always to be grateful for as many simple, concise sentences as possible as illustrations of its grammatical features. Such sentences should be gleaned from natives themselves and rendered literally with a verbatim translation, if possible. Tabular forms suggest artificial constructions. The author labored under the great disadvantage of having to prepare his work for publication in Japan, far remote from the people of whose language he writes, and with no subsequent opportunity to verify doubtful points which must have arisen.

Mr Scheerer, in concluding the introduction to his very interesting and valuable paper, calls attention to differences in the dialects of neighboring communities, which must necessarily cause discrepancies between vocabularies compiled by different authors. To him belongs the credit of being the first to introduce the Nabaloi dialect to writing, though he modestly protests that he has cut only a narrow trail through the jungle of the hitherto unexplored territory, which he hopes will be the means of facilitating further investigation. WILLIAM E. SAFFORD.

The Aboriginal Pipes of Wisconsin. By GEORGE A. West. (Wisconsin Archeologist, published by the Wisconsin Archæological Society, vol. Iv, nos. 3, 4, Milwaukee, April-August, 1905.)

This monograph will be welcomed by all American archeologists as a valuable addition to our present knowledge of the distribution of Indian pipes in the United States. The specimens illustrated, of which there are more than two hundred, comprise both historic and prehistoric examples. Metal tomahawk pipes of every known type are represented, and those of metal of the trade type are shown to be quite numerous, as are the Sioux type of stone pipes, many of which are inlaid with lead. The known area of the Micmac or "keel-base pipes" is shown to extend throughout Wisconsin, and the same may be said of the disk pipe. The author illustrates a number of specimens of what he designates "handle pipes,” apparently a type distinct from any pipe heretofore described. These are provided with a distinct handle extending below the bowl, and are apparently so made as to protect the hand from the heat of the burning tobacco. J. D. MCGUIRE.



[NOTE.-Authors, especially those whose articles appear in journals and other serials not entirely devoted to anthropology, will greatly aid this department of the American Anthropologist by sending direct to Dr A. F. Chamberlain, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, U. S. A., reprints or copies of such studies as they may desire to have noticed in these pages. EDITOR.]


Balfour (H.) Presidential address.
(Rep. Brit. Ass. Adv. Sci., Lond., 1904
[1905, LXXIV, 689-700.) Treats of
the evolutional studies of Col. Lane Fox
in the material arts of man, the compara-
tive study of the musical instruments of
modern savage and barbaric peoples, the
phylogenetic history of the products of
human industry, the ethnologic study of
primitive races, "most savage races
are in a large measure strictly primitive"
(e. g. Tasmanians).

Barton (W. J.) The distribution of rural
occupations. (Geogr. Teacher, Lond.,
1905, III, 28-31, map.) Abstracted from
Hahn's Die Haustiere (Leipzig, 1896).
Bérillon (E.) Les femmes à barbe. (R.
de l'Hyp., Paris, 1905, XIX, 195-203;
1905, XX, 2-11, 35-46, 68-78, 99-108;
134-142, 167-176, 198-209, many fgs.)
Continues and ends an interesting psy-
chological and sociological study of
bearded women, ancient and modern, real
and in art and imagination. Heredity in
the matter of "bearded women" seems
to come from the father. Dr B. is in-
clined, with Brandt, to consider the
bearded woman prophetic, France,
"the most advanced in many aspects of
evolutions,"-leads; here slightly hirsute
women of this type are rather common.
Psychology and education will, however,
prevent any character-change in woman
being induced by her "beard."
Carus (P.) Image worship. (Open Ct.,
Chicago, 1905, XIX, 21-25.) C. states
that the early Christians were iconoclasts
and the whole Christian symbology is
due to pagan influence and pagan tradi-
Curious is the worship of
"black Marys," their images are
still found in Latin Europe, etc.

Pagan Christs. (Ibid., 92-99.) Based on J. M. Robertson's Pagan Christs (Lond., 1903). Refers to the Mithraic eucharist, the religious cannibalism of the ancient Mexicans, the Penitentes of New Mexico and their passion play.

Professor Mills, the Zendavesta scholar. (Ibid., 505-509, portr.) Sketch of life and activities of L. H. Mills, professor of Zend philology in the University of Oxford, and Zoroastrian scholar.

The reality of the devil. (Ibid., 717-736, 11 fgs.) The illustrations are of ethnic interest.

Froideveaux (H.) L'histoire géogra-
phique et l'histoire coloniale au Congrès
de Stuttgart.
(J. Soc. d. Amér. de
Paris, 1905, N. S., II, 325-329.) Ré-
sumés papers on geographical and colo-
nial history read at the Fourteenth Inter-
national Congress of Americanists at
Stuttgart, 1904.

van Gennep (A.) Notes sur l'héraldisation de la marque de propriété et les origines du blason. (Bull. Soc. d'Anthr. de Paris, 1905, ve s., VI, 103-112, 23 fgs.) Discusses the heraldization of propertymarks. The Hausemarke and Hofmarke (German), the Russian kleimo, Turco-Egyptian tamga, Arabic wasm, Japanese shirushi, etc., are considered. The blason is of polygenetic origin. Property-marks develop, with social classes, into armorial bearing and heraldic bla



Guyot (T.) La population et les subsistances. (Ibid., 167-182.) Treats of the ideal ration," vegetable ration in France, meat ration in France and England, the world's meat food, relations of population and food. The author

concludes that the production of grain and meat in the world is inferior to the necessary ration as determined by the physiologists, and that many who need a reparative nutrition have to put up with an insufficient one.

Hellwig (A.) Aberglaube und Strafrecht. (Unterhltgsbeil. z. Tagl. Rdschau., Berlin, 1905, Nr. 220, 877-879.) Discusses briefly "superstitious crimes," such as injury to property or objects of various sorts (animals, trees, etc.), done with a view to transfer or get rid of disease or the like; injuries to the body or its 66 organs, to drive out the devil," to cure diseases, etc.; killing a man to obtain his blood or some other part of him for "curative" purposes; mutilation of corpses through "vampire-beliefs"; the main de gloire. Perjury also stands in a peculiar relation to superstition.

Umfrage über kriminelle Aberglauben. (Z. f. d. ges. Strafrechtsw. Berlin, 1905-6, XXVI, 335-338.) Contains questionnaire of 13 items relating to superstitions of and about criminals and crime. The subject of superstition and crime has also been treated by Löwenstimm, in the Zeitschrift f. Socialwissenschaft (1903, 209-231, 273-286) and in his Aberglaube und Strafrecht (Berlin, 1897). Hutchinson (W.) The weapons and tools of the dog. (Open Ct., Chicago, 1905, XIX, 205-226, 15 fgs.). Author argues that "the main thing a dog is built for is to carry about and backup' his teeth,' but it is the dog's great-great-grandfather, the wolf, who can do really artistic things with his teeth. The different breeds of dogs "have had their original wolf set of teeth modified by the way in which they have been selected and bred for a particular 'trade.'" Jörger (J.) Die Familie Zero. (A. f. Rassen- u. Ges. -Biol., Berlin, 1905, II, 494-559.) This interesting and valuable monograph, with many tables, treats of the family of the Zeros, the remote ancestor was a mill-owner in 1639, — and their product in individuals afflicted with vagabondism, alcoholism, crime, immorality, mental diseases, pauperism. The tendency to vagabondism is said to be due to marriage with "foreign women. The paternal character was destroyed by unions of German mountaineers and Italian tinkers and "homeless" people. A vocabulary of the language (German

dialect) still used by the Zeros is appended. Kahle (B.) Der gefesselte Riese. (A. f. Religsw., Lpzg, 1905, VIII, 314-316.) Treats of the idea of the "chained giant" in the mythology of certain peoples of the Caucasus. Résumés Anholm's Den bundne Jætte i Kaukasus in the Danska Studier for 1904. Keller (C.) Die Mutationstheorie von de Vries im Lichte der Haustier-Geschichte. (A. f. Rassen- u. Ges. Biol., Berlin, 1905, 11, 1-19.) K. argues that there is no sharp boundary between natural and artificial selection, the latter being only a specially developed type of the former. As a rule the domestication of animals has taken place by the accumulation of small variations (Darwin), and only quite exceptionally by means of striking mutations (de Vries). Things in free nature occur in about the same way as in man's "artificial" selection. K. cites, e. g., the history of the East African Acacia fistula, hermit crab, the sheep, cattle, dog, etc. Kollman (J.) Ueber Rassengehirne. (Z. f. Ethnol., Berlin, 1905, XXXVII, 601-602.) Note on the investigation of four Fuegian brains by Jacob (see American Anthropologist, 1905, N. S., VII, 562). Dr K. observes that the results of Dr Jakob agree with those of Seitz and Manouvrier, affording additional evidence that "all nations, termed to-day civilized, exhibit and have exhibited for 2,000 years, the same quality of brain as the Fugians."

Ueber Rassengehirne. II. (Ibid. 758-759.) Note on recent description of the brain of a Papuan from the south coast of Dutch New Guinea by Bolk in Petrus Kamper. Kuhlenbeck (L.) Zur Kritik des Rassenproblems. (A. f. Rassen- u. Ges.Biol., Berlin, 1905, 11, 560–567.) Critique of recent article by Dr L. Stein in Die Zukunft.

Lejeune (C.) La place de l'homme dans l'univers et dans la série zoologique. (Bull. Soc. d'Anthr. de Paris, 1905, ve S., VI, 183-194.) Résumés and discusses the arguments of A. R. Wallace's Man's Place in the Universe and M. Réné Quinton's L'Eau de mer, Milieu organique, the first of which seeks to elevate the position of man in the universe by making earth its center, the latter to lower it, by making him not the last and highest member of the zoological series, but a species that appeared before the

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