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to the short-statured long-headed type of the ancient inhabitants of Sta Barbara island. A rapid reduction of the Indian population is in process.
Borba (T. M.) Caingang deluge legend. (J. Amer. Folk-Lore, Boston, 1905, XVIII, 223-225.) Accounts for westward course of rivers, origin of monkeys, tigers, tapirs, ant-eaters, song and dance, size of feet of Indians, etc. English text of a legend published originally in Portuguese in the Revista do Museo Paulista, 1902.
river, Mo.; and a white flint spearhead from near Seneca, Mo.
Benedict (J. D.) Normal schools for teachers of Indians. (So. Wkmn., Hampton, Va., 1905, XXXIV, 518–522.) According to author "the greatest need of Indian education to-day is a corps of teachers trained to understand Indian life," and all that this means. Boas (F.) The mythologies of the Indians. (Intern. Quart., N. Y., 1905, XII, 157-173.) Illustrates historical development of mythology by citation and discussion of the Tlingit tale of the adventures of Nanak (i. e., the Russian explorer and trader Baranoff, 1801), and of a sun-myth of the Comox Indians. The elements of a complex myth "appear in endless combinations, partly in the tales of the tribe that owns the myth, partly in those of its neighbors." As to geographical distribution, "there has been liberal exchange all over the northern half of the continent," and "a certain amount of interchange between the Old World and the New." First efforts at explanation must be directed toward an interpretation of the reasons leading to borrowing, and to the modification of mythological material by assimilation.
Anthropometry of central California. (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 1905, XVII, 347-380, 9 pl.) Treats material collected by Dr R. B. Dixon in 1899-1900 and by Mr V. K. Chesnut in 1892-1893. Measurements are given of 216 individuals (Maidu 60, Hat Creek and Pit River 8, Paiute 1, Pomo 28, Yuki-Pomo, 2, Yuki 48, Wintun 2, Yokuts 1, Wintun-Yuki 1, Wylackie 2, half-breeds 12, Maidu halfbreeds, 18, Pit River half-breeds 4, Pomo half-breeds 12, Yuki half-breeds 9, Wintun half-breeds 5, miscellaneous 3). The Yuki differ in type from all the neighboring tribes, being short (av. of males 1590 mm.), longer headed (av. ceph. ind., 77.5), with narrow and low faces. This type is also found among the Maidu of the foot hills (but disappears farther to N. and E.) and to a less extent among the Pomo. Among the Pomo and toward the interior a type (av. stat. of males 1680; ceph. ind., 83; av. width of face, 149) prevails a tribe resembling that of the Indians of the Nevada-Utah plains. The Pit River Indians are excessively short-headed (possibly due to head flattening). Dr B. suggests that the Yuki type may be related
Conard (Lætitia M.) A visit to Quinault Indian graves. (Open Ct., Chicago, 1905, XIX, 737-744, 5 fgs.) Describes graves of Quinault and Queets Indians of Washington state, visited in 1902. They are houses of the dead rather than graves,
and "the profuseness with which the graves are furnished with articles of luxury and use is quite in contrast with the meager furnishings of the houses of these Indians, which must be seriously diminished when a member of a household dies." Traces of old Indian customs still survive.
Curtis (W. E.) Education and morals among the Navajos and Pueblos. (Amer. Antiq., Chicago, 1905, XXVII, 259-264.) Reprinted from the Chicago Record-Herald for Aug. 12, 1905. Discusses the effect of education, "the morals of the Pueblo Indians have always been high, but they were higher before the whites came." According to C. J. Crandall, superintendent of the Indian school at Santa Fé, "the Navajos are much brighter and more ambitious than any other Indians and the Apaches are next to them." Diguet (L.)
Anciennes sépultures indigènes de la Basse-Californie méridionale. (J. Soc. d. Amér. de Paris, 1905, N. S. 11, 329-333, 2 fgs.) Gives an account of author's examination of two funerary grottos or shelters at El Pescadero, near Cape Pulmo, southern California, their contents (7 skeletons, bone implements, etc.). In a cave near Santiago were found woman's "apron," some wooden implements and objects; besides the human remains. These burials belonged probably to the Indians known as Pericus.
Dorsey (G. A.) Caddo customs of childhood. (J. Amer. Folk-Lore, Boston, 1905, XVIII, 226-228.) Treats of customs to protect new-born child (sunblessing, fire-blessing, etc.) and the in
fant up to two years. Also the "teaching" of the child by grandmother or some old person when eight or ten, child's preparation for dangers of travel to the other world.
Doxson (C.) An Indian as a mechanic.
(So. Wkmn., Hampton, Va., 1905, XXXIV, 503-505.) Relates experiences of author, an Onondaga, now a member of the labor union and one of the highest paid machinists in the shop. Fehlinger (H.) Das Einwanderungsprob
lem in den Vereinigten Staaten. (A. f. Rassen- u. Ges.-Biol., Berlin, 1905, 11, 413-423.) Discusses statistics of Report of the Commissioner of Immigration for 1904 and of the Twelfth Census. The effects of "good times" and "bad times" in the U. S. is marked less so than that of corresponding conditions in Europe. The most important change in the last decade is the drift of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, instead of from the north and northwest. The most frequent intermarriages are those between born Americans and immigrants from English Canada. Fletcher (A. C.) Preparation of Indians for citizenship. (So. Wkmn., Hampton, Va., 1905, XXXIV, 425-428.) There is "ample proof of the capacity of the Indian to become an enlightened citizen of the United States." The "agency system " and the reservation have not taught the Indian the real duties of citizenship or made the most of him for it. Schools and the establishment of the Indian court of offenses have brought about good results.
France (J. J.) Sudy and prevention of tuberculosis among colored people of Virginia. (Ibid., 494-498.) Discusses statistics; argues that the negro's greater susceptibility to tuberculosis, like that of white women as compared with the white men, is largely due to urban indoor labor, insufficient food, scant clothing, etc. Manchester, Va., is alone in reporting a higher death rate from tuberculosis for whites (3.30 per thousand) than blacks (2.20).
Geraes, Brésil. (J. Soc. d. Amér. de Paris, 1905, N. S., II, 323-325, I fg.) Describes two "thunder stones,' flint hatchets of the old Indians of Minas Geraes, found in digging a ditch at Los Tranqueros. Native superstition attributes to them an origin from lightning and thunder.
Golder (F. A.) Aleutian stories. (J. Amer. Folk-Lore, Boston, 1905, XVIII, 215-222.) English texts of 5 tales: The sad woman, the woman who was fond of intestines, the man and woman who became sea-otters, a sea-otter story, the brother and sister who became hair-seals. Hamy (E.-T.) Deux pierres d'éclair (pedras de corisco), de l'État de Minas
Hrdlička (A.) Diseases of the Indians, more especially of the southwest United States and northern Mexico. (Washington Med., Ann., 1905, IV, 372-394.) Résumés data to be published in a forthcoming Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Based on the author's personal observations during 6 expeditions, 1898-1905, among 38 groups or tribes of Indians, with the addition of facts from the reports, 1904-1905, of agency school physicians, etc., relating to 102 localities, and ca. 125,000 Indians (including some mixed bloods). Dr H. finds that, "on the whole, the health of the Southwestern and North Mexican uncivilized Indians is superior to that of the whites living in larger communities." The most unfavorable regions for the Indian are, at present, in the north, parts of Wisconsin, the Dakotas and Montana. Many interesting facts are given in this valuable paper concerning numerous diseases. Dr H. does not think pre-Columbian syphilis proved. Also, "in all probability, the proportion of the several main varieties of tuberculosis is not much if any larger among the Indians as a whole than it is among the poorer classes of whites as a whole." In the discussion Drs Lamb, Kober, Johnson, Morgan, and Gen. Forwood took part, and added facts from their own observations.
La Flesche (F.) The past life of the plains Indians. (So. Wkmn., Hampton, Va., 1905, XXXIV, 587-594.) Treats of agriculture, buffalo-hunt and preparations for it, the "surround," preparation of meat and hides, harvesting, making bows, arrows, lances (teaching boys) and other weapons, etc. Describes one phase of Omaha life in the past. de La Grasserie (R.) Renseignements sur les noms de parenté dans plusieurs langues américaines. (J. Soc. d. Amér. de Paris, 1905, N. S., II, 333-338.) Cites names of relationship in several Salishan languages (Skqómic, Bilqula, Stla'tl Emch, Shushwap, Kalispelm), with comments. These names refer to sex of relation spoken of, respective age
of two relations, degree of relationship, sex of intermediary relations, indication of whether intermediary relations are dead or living, relationship or alliance, sex of relation speaking. Lapham (Julia A.) A glimpse at maps of the northwest territory. (Amer. Antiq., Chicago, 1905, XXVII, 121–126.) Notes on maps of 1670-71, 1681 (Marquette), 1684-8 (Franqueline), 1696, 1679, 1752, 1770, 1791, 1832, 1835, 1836. These maps are valuable for the sites and names of Indian settlements, rivers, lakes, etc., and the variants in spelling.
Lehmann (W.) Les peintures MixtecoZapotèques et quelques documents apparentés. (J. Soc. d. Amér. de Paris, 1905, N. S., II, 241-280.) Lists with description, historical sketch, bibliographic references, the group of picturewritings dominated by the Codex Borgia and influenced by Zapotec culture (Codex Borgia, Codex Vaticanus B., Codex Cospi; Codex Féjerváry-Mayer, Codex Landa; No. 20 of the Aubin collection) and picture-writing of Oaxaca, including Mixtec (Codex Becker No. 1, Codex Columbinus, Codex Becker No. 2, Lienzo de Zacatepec, Lienzo de Amoltepec, Lienzo Vischer No. 1, Codex Yancuitan), Zapotec (Codex Vindebonensis, Codex Nuttall, Codex Bodleianus, Codex Selden No. 1, Codex WaeckerGotter, Codex Selden No. 2, Dorenberg Fragment, Codex Dehesa, Codex Baranda, Map of Tehuantepec, Lienzo de Huilotepec, Lienzo de Guevea, Lienzo de Santa Maria Chimalapa, Codex Alvarado, Lienzo de Petapa), Cuicatec (Codex Porfirio Diaz, Codex Fernandez Leal, Mazatec (Lienzo Seler 1), Chocho-Popoloca (Lienzo Seler II, Codex of Santa Catarina Texupan, Annals of Quecholac), Chinantec (Survey of Xochitepec, Survey of Muagnia), -35 Mss.
von Luschan (F.) Ueber ein Os supratympanicum beim Menschen. (Z. f. Ethnol., Berlin, 1905, XXXVII, 625626.) Note on a well-marked occurrence of the spina supra meatum (Bezold) as a small independent bone in the skull of a Peruvian mummy from Puno.
negroes) the female excess is 59,091 (making the ratio of women to men 118 to 100). In Chicago negro men exceed women in numbers. In Atlanta the ratio of women to men is 145 to 100. Training for domestic service is one solution of the problem.
Newton (E. E.) Impressions of the Navahos. (Ibid., 600-615.) Notes on experiences, etc., of wife of a school physician. The Navaho makes a good physical impression, is deeply superstitious, tenacious in adherence to the established order of things, an inveterate gambler, is hippophile and philocanine, is an excellent artisan, and possesses intelligence of a good order. His future lies in the education of his character. Peet (S. D.) Stone relics in California. (Amer. Antiq., Chicago, 1905, XXVII, 169-176, 3 fgs.) Based chiefly on Holmes, Anthropological Studies in California (Rep. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900). Refers also to Mercer's Exploration of Durham Cave in 1893 (Publ. Univ. of Penn., 1897). In the California province art in stone is practically uniform at al! points. Variations in local resources account largely for differences existing.
Miller (K.) Surplus negro women. (So. Wkmn., Hampton, Va., 1905, XXXIV, 522-528.) In the U. S. negro women exceed men by 54,347 (or 13 per 1000). In 15 cities (of more than 20,000
Rivet (-) Les indiens Colorados. Récit de voyage et étude ethnologique. (J. Soc. d. Amér. de Paris, 1905, N. S., II, 177-208, 5 pl., I fg.) Treats of visit to the Colorado Indians of western Ecuador in 1903. Dress and ornament, bodypainting (red and black, applied with finger), mutilations (facial depilation, nose-piercing, cranial deformation), dwellings and furniture, sugar-cane press, marimba, agriculture, food and drink, hunting and fishing, position of woman (neither servant nor slave), family life, marriage, alcoholism (abuse of népi), death and burial, religion, "governor (religious and civil authority lacking), visit of Quito priest, Indian character (he has not yet been made a slave with low and miserable soul). The Colorado is not idle per se, and he is intelligent, and about his only vice is drunkenness. Twenty years ago the Colorados numbered more than 700; to-day 350, and alcoholism and small-pox are killing them off. Schenk (A.) Note sur un crâne humain ancien trouvé au Tennessee, près JamesTown, États-Unis. (R. de l'Éc. d'Anthrop. de Paris, 1905, xv, 156-162, 3 fgs.) Describes, with measurements,
an ancient Indian skull, found (with some flints and fragments of rude pottery) at a depth of 5 feet below a bed of ashes and animal bones in a cave near Jamestown, Tennessee, and presented to the Anthropological Museum of Lausanne in 1880. The cephalic index is 78.73. thinks the skull belongs with the "mound builders."
land," an upland region in the San Pedro Martin range of Lower California. Also items of superstition relating to Tauquitz peak in S. California from the San Jacintos and Sabobas. Thorndike (T. W.) A plea for the establishment of a commercial game and fur preserve in the Northwest. (Rep. Intern. Geogr. Congr., Wash., 1904, VIII, 870-891.) Contains at pages 884-885 notes on the Indians (ca. 15,000) of "the north country," or "muskeg region," south of Hudson Bay. The admixture of white blood is very large, and the "breeds" outnumber the fullbloods, the whites are mainly Scotch, with some French Canadians. The future welfare of the Indians depends on the preservation of the fur. The Canadian preservation system is superior to the American, but what is wanted everywhere, for Indians, animals, land, is not reservation but preservation. Thouar (A.) En el país del caucho. (An. de Instr. Prim., Montevideo, 1905, II, 883-889, 3 fgs.) Treats of the Acre region of Brazil, an india-rubber country. Refers briefly to the Araonas and Tacanas. Translated from the French. Upham (W.) Mounds built by the Sioux in Minnesota. (Amer. Antiq., Chicago, 1905, XXVII, 217-223.) Cites evidence (from Capt J. Carver, etc.) that the mounds on Dayton's bluff, in the eastern portion (Mounds Park) of the city of St Paul, were built for sepulture by the Sioux, partly in Carver's time (less than 150 years ago) and partly much earlier. Other mounds in Minnesota may also have been made by the Sioux (e. g., at Red Wing).
Seler (E.) Photographie eines hervorragenden Stückes aus dem mexikanischen Altertume. (Z. f. Ethnol., Berlin, 1905, XXXVII, 527-536, 12 fgs.) Describes a female head of jadeite, with hair interwoven with snakes. S. considers it to represent Xochiquetzal. Solberg (O.) Ueber Gebräuche der Mittelmesa-Hopi (Moqui) bei Namengebung, Heirat und Tod. (Ibid., 626636.) Treats of the ceremonial cleansing of the child and the name-giving (the ceremony lasts from an hour to an hour and a half); marriage and ceremonies connected therewith (usually 40 days); death and burial, etc., from observations in the pueblos of Mishongnovi and Shipaulovi of the Tusayan (Moqui, or Hopi) stock. Stoddard (H. L.) Phallic symbols in America. (Amer. Antiq., Chicago, 1905, XXVII, 281-294, 8 fgs.) General discussion of the correlation of the solstitial and phallic symbols of America, to those found in Asia, Europe, and Africa. Reference is made to the " Yoni symbol" from Menard's mound, the altar at Copan, an idol from Nicaragua, etc. Author finds in America " 'Babylonian sun-dial and Teraphims." Stone age collection. (Narrag. Libr. Ass. Bull., Peace Dale, R. I., 1905, No. 2, 37-40, 7 pl.) Brief account of two flint scrapers from Mildenhall (Suffolk), England; a flint spearpoint from Wisconsin; a rubbing-stone from Antrim, Ireland; six obsidian " razors from Honduras; flint knife, gouge, and scraper from Denmark; a small collection of fine chalcedony and varying flint arrowpoints from the beach at Santa Barbara, Cal.; an Australian spalting tool of hard flint mounted in asphalt and a glass arrowhead made with it; two flint objects of uncertain use from California. Superstitions of the Indians. (Amer.
Antiq., Chicago, 1905, XXVII, 132–136.) Reprinted from the Chicago Inter-Ocean for July 22, 1900. Gives items of super
stition from the Catarina Indians concerning Monequanish, "the enchanted
Wake (C. S.) Asiatic ideas among the American Indians. (Ibid., 153–162, 189– 196.) By reference to ideas in Mazdaism, Mithraism, etc. (the "Great Medicine" of the Indians "answers somewhat to Mithra"; Persian fravashiism agrees with American Indian totemism; Arapaho myths have content resembling Oriental, especially Mithraic legends; American Indian "mystery" has analogies with Oriental), author seeks to establish contact between American and Asiatic ideas," but not successfully. Williamson (G.) Superstitions from Louisiana. (J. Amer. Folk-Lore, Boston, 1905. XVIII, 229-230.) Enumerates 35 items, chiefly from negro informants, concerning good and bad luck, etc.
Indian Ceremonies in Oklahoma and Indian Territory. The following list of Indian tribes and localities where ceremonies and dances take place and may be witnessed is arranged for the benefit of students or investigators within reach of points in Oklahoma and Indian Territory. In most cases the dances are repeated year after year in the same places, which are accessible to visitors on horseback. Each year celebrations occur approximately within the week preceding or the week following the dates given below. For example, the Sand Creek Yuchi, Creek Nation, Indian Territory, held their annual ceremony from July 17 to 19 in 1904, and July 21 to 23 in 1905. It ought to be added, however, that the Yuchi chiefs have decided to discontinue their rites owing to intoxication and disorder among the young men at the ceremonies. The list was prepared while the writer was engaged in field work for the Bureau of American Ethnology and the American Museum of Natural History.
Creeks (Muskogi). Annual Green-corn and New-fire ceremony.
Hickory Ground town, July 2-6, near Henryetta, Indian Ter. (Crazy
Arbeka town, July 21- Tulledegee Hills, near Henryetta.
Sand Creek, July 21-23, near Bristow, Indian Ter. (probably discontinued).
Choctaw. Cry or Lamentation.
July 27, Siloam, near McCurtain, Indian Ter.
August 26—, near Shawnee, Oklahoma.
August 10-14, near Tulsa, Indian Ter. (Upper Shawnees, also with Tulsa town Creeks).
Wyandot, Seneca, Peoria, and Miami. War-dance, barbecue, and games. August 15-20, near Wyandot, Indian Ter.
August 12-17, 101 Ranch, near Bliss, Oklahoma.
Pawnee, Cheyenne. Medicine-arrow ceremony.
August 14-20, near Pawnee, Oklahoma.
Sundays during summer, mescal-eaters dance about twelve miles south of
July 6, near Clinton, Oklahoma.
FRANK G. SPECK.