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jasa, based on a tale in the Mahâbhârata. The wajang-play was popular in Java in the twelfth century, so its origins lie beyond that period.
Erb (J.) Ein Fund von Steinwaffen in Süd-Sumatra. (Int. A. f. Ethnogr., Leiden, 1904, XVI, 173-175, 4 fgs.) Describes two stone weapons (a lancehead and a second piece of undetermined use) found in 1901 at Tjahia Negri at the edge of the mountains in the Sunge Septutih division of Lampong. Giuffrida-Ruggeri (V.) Crani dell' Australia, della Nuova Caledonia e delle Isole Salomone. (A. d. Soc. Rom di Antwp., 1905, XII, Estr., pp. 31, 2 fgs.) Treats, with tables of measurements of three Australian, three New Caledonian and six Solomon Islands crania. The two New Caledonian skulls are "absolutely typical of the South Pacific region." The Solomon Islands skulls are morphologically superior to the Australian, New Caledonian and Papuan and are not marked by Melanesian characters,-this indicates the presence of an "Oceanic" race in the sense of Stratz (from Indonesia to Samoa, and from Hawaii to New Zealand).
the first time. The ceremonies include painting the novice, "fire-throwing," water-squirting, the game of "thunder," caricatures and representations sometimes obscene, "smoking" the boys, etc. Nyuak (L.) Rites and customs of the Iban or Dyaks of Sarawak. (Anthropos, Salzburg, 1906, 1, 11-23, 3 fgs.) First part of account drawn up by "a Dyak, who, when a child, had acquired the knowledge of reading and writing at the Mission school at Kanovit, which he attended for several years," and translated (closely) by Very Rev. Edm. Dunn, Prefect Apostolic of Labuan and N. Borneo, who contributes a general introduction. Pages 18-22 contain in parallel columns Dyak texts and English translation descriptive of the spirits invoked by the Iban, gods and goddesses, their names, etc. The highest of all is Batara then come the creator of matter, the mixer, the molder, the makers of heaven and earth, the maker of water and divider of streams, the maker of fruits, the helpers of man, etc. Papillault (G.) Cours de sociologie. Méthodes générales. Application aux Australiens. (R. de l'Éc. d'Anthr. de Paris, 1905, xv, 243-261.) Treats the "first attempts at social organization" as revealed among the Australian aborigines. Based on Fison and Howitt, Baldwin Spencer and Gillen, etc. P. sees in tribal divisions and subdivisions only "successive limitations of promiscuity.' The savage is neither a philosopher nor a machine, he thinks under an extremely confused religious form. Groupmarriage and class-division were in their beginnings confused. Pöch (R.) Bemerkungen über die Eingeborenen von Deutsch-Neu-Guinea. (Z. d. Ges. f. Erdk. zu Berlin, 1905, 555558.) Brief notes (from letter of 6 Aug., 1905) on the "four elemental populations" of this region: Coast peoples from Augusta river to Hüon gulf (Papua type). mountain-tribes of the Kai country, mountain-tribes of New Pomerania (Baining), people of New Mecklenburg (representing probably the purest Melanesian type). Richter (O.) Unsere gegenwärtige Kenntnis der Ethnographie von Celebes. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1905, LXXXVIII, 154-158, 171-176, 191-195.) Résumés our knowledge of the native tribes of Celebes, past and present, and discusses the chief problems of East Indian ethnology, the distribution of implements,
Graebner (F.) Einige Speerformen des Bismarck-Archipels. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1905, LXXXVIII, 333-336, 11 fgs.) Describes and compares spears from Mutschau and New-Hanover in particular; also specimens from other islands. The Mutschau and New-Hanover types are related, the former being perhaps primitive. The Mutschau and Potsdamhafen spears probably belong with the three, part North-Australian. Krämer (A.) Die Gewinnung und die Zubereitung der Nahrung auf den RalikRatakinseln, Marshallinseln. (Ibid., 140-146, 7 fgs.) Treats, with some detail, of the obtaining of food and its preparation in the Ralik-Ratak archipelago. The ground-oven, cooking processes and utensils, use of bread-fruit, arrow-root, cocoa-nut, pandus products, etc., are described. Many fish-names (also 15 native terms for ways of taking fish) are given, besides text and translation of a dolphin-catching song, notes on the capture and use of this creature, etc. Mathews (R. H.) Some initiation ceremonies of the aborigines of Australia. (Z. f. Ethn., Berlin, 1905, XXXVII, 872879.) Describes the Wonggumuk and Kannety ceremonies of initiation, the former with considerable detail, and for
customs, etc. Hindu influence, according to R., has been underestimated. The Minahassa - Bolaang Mongondon group stands in contrast to the BugiMacassar-Central Celebean tribes. The Toalas of Sarasin represent probably a pre-Malayan type. The Minahassa are mixed. The ethnography of Celebes offers still great difficulties.
S. Paul und Fritz Sarasins Forschungen in Celebes. (Ibid., 362-367, 9 fgs.) Résumés the Sarasins' recent book Reisen in Celebes (2 vols. Wiesbaden, 1905), treating of the Minahassa, who inhabit the east of the long northern peninsula and are completely under Dutch influence, the mountainous tribes of the Alfuros and Toradja, the Luwu country and its peoples, the Tokeja, and Tomuna and (particularly) the Toala of the Lamontjong mountains in the south, who represent the most primitive people of the island, the pile-dwellers of Limbotto and Matanna (the pile-dwellings erected probably for peaceful reasons and not merely for protection), etc. Seidel (H.) Sprachen und Sprachgebiete in Deutsch-Mikronesien. (Ibid., 181184.) Discusses chiefly Senfft's Sprachenkarte Deutsch-Mikronesien (Berlin, 1905). Fritz and Safford's Chamorro monographs are noted. S. takes exception to Senfft's attempt to fix close relations between Nakuoro and Mariana islands. Kusaie has a language with some peculiar characteristics. The other linguistic areas are Ponape, etc., the central Carolines with the exclave on the Marianas, the west Carolines, Nukuoro, Jap with Ngulu, Palau, seven in all. Senfft (A.) Sage über die Entstehung der Inseln Map und Rumung und der Landschaft Nimigil, Japinseln. (Ibid., 139-140.) These islands are said to have been created in consequence of the amours of a native and a beautiful maiden, partly by her mother in anger, and partly as the result of the killing of the latter while in the form of
Stephan (E.) Beiträge zur Psychologie der Bewohner von Neupommern. Nebst ethnographischen Mitteilungen über die Barriai und über die Insel Hunt, Duvor. (Ibid., 205-210, 216–221, 25 fgs., map.) Treats of physical characters, life activities, pigeon-English, power of attention (weak), song and dance, attitude towards photographs and pictures (a lion was called "dog," or "pig "),
Berdau (E.) Der Mond in Volksmedizin,
Sitte und Gebräuchen der mexikanischen Grenzbewohnerschaft des südlichen Texas. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1905, LXXXVIII, 381-384.) Treats of TexanMexican folk-lore concerning the moon in medicine, customs, beliefs, etc., in the frontier regions of Starr and Hidalgo counties. The parteras (or "sages femmes "), with their lunar treatment of female diseases, moonshine-cures, due observance of moon-phases, lore of waxing and waning, sympathetic cures, etc., are described.
Boas (F.) Publications of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition. (Science, N. Y., 1906, N. S., XXIII, 102-107.) Critical résumé and review of works of Swanton (Haida ethnology), Jochelson (Koryak), Bogoras (Chukchee). Bridge (C. A. G.) A great moral upheaval in America. Ninet. Cent., Lond., 1906, 205-218.) Emphasizes "the resemblance of the institutions of the Americans to those of their English kinsmen. Advance in the U. S. towards aristocratic conditions is noted. The English element has not been swamped by the non- English (list of Presidents, judges, heads of educational institutions, etc., show this).
Cannstatt (O.) Ueber die indianische Bevôlkerung der alten Jesuitenreduktionen in Südamerika. (Z. f. Ethn., Berlin, 1905, XXXVII, 882-898.) Based on Dobritzhoffer, Sepp, Burgos (pages 888897). Describes the life and routine of the Indian population in the old Jesuit "reductions" of South America. Carter (Oscar C. S.) The plateau country of the Southwest and La Mesa Encantada (the Enchanted mesa). (Jour. Franklin Inst., Phila., June, 1906, 451-467, ill.) Reviews the results of the expeditions to this celebrated mesa in New Mexico by Libbey and Hodge in 1897, and agrees with the latter that the evidence is in favor of the former occupancy of the height by the Acoma Indians. Collins (Mary C.) The training of the Indian child.) So. Wkmn., Hampton, Va., 1905, XXXIV, 390, 10 fgs.) General description of training of Siouan child, infancy, rules of conduct, chivalry, play, home life, religion, etc. Del Campana (D.) L'arte plumaria dei Mundurucu (Brasile) e di altri popoli del Sud-America. (A. p. l'Antrop., Firenze, 1905, XXXV, 177-197, I pl., 19 fgs.) Describes briefly 26 featherwork objects (articles of dress, ornaments, etc.) from the Mundurucu Indians of Brazil, now in the Florentine Museum, with notes on this art among other tribes, -Caribs, Arawaks, Roucouyennes, Indians of the Rio Napo, Tembé (Tupi), Ticuna ( Arawak), Bororó, Carayà, Apiakà, certain peoples of ancient and modern Peru, the ancient Calchaqui, many peoples of the Gran Chaco, the Charruas of Uruguay, some Patagonian, even Fuegian tribes, etc. The highest and most special development of art in feather-work in all South America occurs in Brazil, and the Mundurucu (numbering now 1429 souls, in the region of the Tapajoz and its affluents) are the most expert of all the Indians to whom the art is known.
annual ceremony not dependent on the vow of an individual. The torture and painted dancers are also peculiar. Hypnotism is possibly employed. Fritsch (G.) Versteinerter Ausguss von dem Mokassin eines Indianers. (Z. f. Ethn., Berlin, 1905, XXXVII, 970-971.) Describes a " petrified mocassin" from the south shore of the Little Slave lake in N. W. Canada. It may be a relic of tertiary man.
Giachetti (V.) Studi antropologici sugli antichi Peruviani. (A. p. l'Antrop., Firenzi, 1905, XXXV, 201-301, I pl.) Gives details of description and measurement of 62 ancient Peruvian skulls (39 from Cajamarca, 6 from Lima, 6 from Tacora, 6 from "Chepen"; of the nondeformed, 14 were brachycephalic, 4 mesocephalic and one dolichocephalic) and 18 mandibles, belonging to the Regnoli collection (obtained in 1869) of the Pisa Anatomical Institute. Of the deformed skulls lengthened by the process 6 had the Aymara deformation, 16 frontosuprainiac, 4 bregma parieto subiniac or submentonian; of those broadened artificially 5 had fronto-subiniac deformation and 15 were plagiocephalic. Deformation slightly diminishes the known small capacity of Peruvian skulls, which are normally brachycephalic, but made artificially hyperbrachycephalic, or mesocephalic (and even dolichocephalic), according to the degree of deformation. In the broadened skulls the face becomes platopic, in the lengthened a little more prominent. Other corresponding changes in nasal and palatal structure occur. Bibliography of 54 titles. Hermant (P.) Évolution économique et sociale de certaines peuplades de l'Amérique du Nord. (Bull. Soc. R. Belge de Géogr., Bruxelles, 1904, Extr., pp. 110.) This well-documented monograph on the economic and social evolution of certain American Indian peoples treats of the Eskimo (6-24); "Tinnehs," i. e., Athapascans (24-41); "Nootka-Colombians," i. e., Chinooks, Oregon tribes, Shastikas, Tsimshians, Kootenays, Salish, Kwakiutl, Tlinkits, Haida, Nootkas (41-64); Californian tribes (6470); Algonquins (70-83); Sioux (8394); Iroquois (94-100). The topics considered are: Habitat and distribution, dwellings, economic conditions, fishing, hunting, agriculture, technique and industries, social conditions (chiefs, authority, etc.), family (number of wives,
Dorsey (G. A.) The Ponka sun-dance. (Field Col. Mus., Anthrop. Ser., Chicago, 1905, VII, 62-88, 35 pl.) Describes preparations, ceremonies, etc., of four days, paints and costumes, etc. This "sun-seeing dance," or "mystery dance," held when the moon is at least half full, is carried out by the "thundermen," or priests, who are "a close corporation with self-perpetuating power." The Ponca sun-dance is simpler than the Arapaho and Cheyenne and is an
acquisition of wives, incest, stability of marriage, family property, inheritance, levirate, adultery, chastity, age of marriage, consent of woman, conjugal affection, etc.).
Janvier (T. A.) Legends of the city of
Mexico. (Harper's Mo., N. Y., 1906, CXII, 258-265, 2 fgs.) English texts of 4 legends collected by the author in the city of Mexico,-legend of Don Juan Manuel, legend of the Puente del Clerigo, legend of the obedient dead nun, legend of the Callejon del Armado.
ten Kate (H.) Bemerkungen zur Mitteilung des Hrn. J. Kollmann über Rassengehirne. (Z. f. Ethn., Berlin, 1905, XXXVII, 991.) Points out that two of the brains in question are Araucanian, not Fuegian. Drten Kate agrees with Dr K., though less positively, in believing that as far as present data show, "there is no morphological or micro-anatomical determination of race-differences." According to ten Kate the "historic education" of which K. speaks is conditioned by "physical factors,"-psycho-physical and anthropogeographical belong together. Kemp (J. F.) An interesting discovery of human implements in an abandoned river channel in southern Oregon. (Science, N. Y., 1906. N. S., XXIII, 434436.) Describes finds of mortars and pestles in the auriferous gravels of the Deep Gravel Mining Co., near Waldo, Ore.
Laut (Agnes C.) Sea voyagers of the northern ocean. (Harper's Mo., N. Y., 1906, CXII, 291-298, 2 fgs.) Treats of the Russian adventurers in Alaska (Shelikoff, Baranoff, etc.) and their relations with the Indian tribes.
Lehmann (W.) Altmexikanische Muschelzierate in durchbrochener Arbeit. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1905, LXXXVIII, 285-288, 4 fgs.) Describes a shell ornament (with 37 perforations) from Tampico now in the Berlin Ethnological Museum. Similar ornaments are reported from Guerrero, Morelia and Tuxpan (Vera Cruz). They all resemble the "shell gorgets" of the mound region of the U. S.
Die fünf im Kindbett gestorbenen Frauen des Westens und die fünf Götter des Südens in der mexikanischen Mythologie. (Z. f. Ethn., Berlin, 1905, XXXVII, 848-871, 19 fgs.) Treats of the five women of the west who died in child-bed and the five deities of the south in Mexican mythology, — dates, AM. ANTH., N. S., 8-27
symbols, etc. The five groups on the MS. are East (tlapco, tonatiuh in ieuayan), north (mictlan), middle or above-below (aco-tlani), west (cihuatlampa), south (uitztlampa, xochitlalpan). The basis of the article is a fine example of Zapotec picture-writing, No. 20 of the Aubin collection in the Parisian Bibliothèque Nationale, the history of which is briefly given. Boban's previous interpretation is erroneous. The five Ciuateteo correspond to the five Uitznahua in so far as these relate to Tezcatlipoca. The five pairs of deities belong to the cardinal-points tonalamatl. Matthews (B.) American character. (Columbia Univ. Q., N. Y., 1905, VIII, 97-114.) Discusses the characteristics of the American people as recently described by a French correspondent of Tolstoi. Prof. M. holds that the Americans are entirely devoted to moneymaking, hostile to art and all forms of beauty, devoid of ideals. America has contributed to civilization five things: Warred little and sought to substitute arbitration, set an example of the broadest religious toleration, made evident the wisdom of universal suffrage, welcomed all races into political freedom, diffused material well-being to a hitherto unheard-of extent.
Max Schmidt's Indianerstudien in Zentralbrasilien. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1905, LXXXVIII, 314-317, 7 fgs.) Based on S.'s recent volume Indianer
studien in Zentralbrasilien (Berlin, 1905). Treats-briefly of the Guato (bow, fire-fan), Bakairi (fire-fan, etc.) Trumai (basket), Auetö (wooden masks).
Motta (J.) O Portuguez falado no Brazil. (R. da Soc. Scient. de S. Paulo, 1905, 65-82.) General discussion of the pronunciation, vocabulary, etc., of Brazilian Portuguese, with numerous illustrative examples. M. says that the vocabulary of Brazilian Portuguese is much richer than that of European Portuguese and even purer, since the former is less favorable to the imputation of foreign expressions; its syntax is more natural, euphonic and often logical. In Brazil a national language is creating a national literature.
Nelson (H. L.) The pleasant life of Père Marquette. (Harper's Mo., N. Y., CXI, 1905, 74-82, 5 fgs.) Account of some incidents in the life of the famous missionary, the Joliet expedition. The
Post (C. J.) Indian music of South America. (Harper's Mo., N. Y., 1906, CXII, 255-257). Brief account, with musical notations, of the flute-music of the Aymara Indians of Achicuchi, Sorata, Some are sung at the great fiesta of Todos Santos. One song (at the expense of the whites) is very popular with the cholos, or half-breeds.
An ethnological paradox. (Harper's Mo., N. Y., 1905, cx, 910-916, 6 fgs.) Treats of the Lecco Indians of the eastern slopes of the Bolivian Andes, who, according to the author, show "distinct Malaysian resemblances",in physical characters, muscular development, costume, etc. Their balsas, huts, etc., are described. They have no death or burial ceremonies; no hierioglyphs or even crude pictures; no musical instruments. Their language is called Rikiriki and they count on a basis of five five. Families are small.
Across the highlands of the world. (Ibid., 1905, CXI, 20-26, 6 fgs.) Contains some notes on the Aymara Indians of Cocuta, Wailata, etc. In the latter village are the real highlanders of the Andes, the makers of the chalona and chuño that can only be prepared in the extreme cold of the high altitudes." Santin de Prade (O.) Una spedizione ai "Coroados" nello Stato di S. Paola nel Brasile. (Anthropos, Salzburg, 1905, 1, 35-48, 5 fgs.) Gives account of expedition of December, 1904, in search of the Coroados, the discovery of a clearing and cabin with implements, weapons etc., of various sorts. In the cabin were found the sick wife of a chief and a little girl,all others had fled from "the hated Brazilians."
Spanish influence." Since Aztec has been no longer an official language in the Indian countries, no new Aztec placenames have been formed.
Sapper (K.) Aztekische Ortsnamen in Mittelamerica. (Z. f. Ethn., Berlin, 1905, XXXVII, 1002-1007.) Discusses the origin and distribution of Aztec placenames of Central America. S. believes that outside the Pipil regions, the Aztec place-names of Central America are partly older formations of Aztec tradesmen and partly later creations under
Das mexikanische Territorium Quintana Roo. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1905, LXXXVIII, 165-167, map.) Contains notes on the Mexican campaign of 1900-1904 against the Mayas and the organization of the new territory of Quintana Roo in eastern Yucatan, marking the final subjection of the Mayas. Teschauer (C.) Mythen und alte Volkssagen aus Brasilien. (Anthropos, Salzburg, 1905, 1, 24-34.) First part of collection of myths and legends of the Brazilian Indians (with critical comments) relating to the Korupira, Caapora, Caipóra, etc., a forest demon (the K. and the hunter; the K. and the poor man), and the Anhangá or Yurupari, a spirit of bad dreams (the A. and the child; the A. and the hunter). The attitude of the Indians towards these spirits is discussed. Influence of Christianity is suggested. Thompson (E. H.) A page of American history. (Proc. Amer. Antiq. Soc., Worcester, Mass., 1905-6, N. S., XVII, 239-252). Describes the participation of American adventurers in the rebellion of the Mayas of Yucatan in 1847. Veatch (A. C.) On the human origin of the small mounds of the lower Mississippi valley and Texas. (Science, N. Y., 1906, N. S., XXIII, 34-36.) Cites passages from Foster, De Nadaillac, etc. Author holds that "the theory of human origin is in no way applicable to the great class of natural mounds which he has observed in Louisiana, Texas and Arkansas and along the Iron Mountain Railroad in southeastern Missouri." The situation does not serve human uses. Verworn (M.) Indianische Reiseerinnerungen. (Corr.-Bl. d. D. Ges. f. Anthrop., München, 1905, XXXVI, 55–56.) Brief account of visit to various American Museums, with observations on the antiquity of the American Indian, - V. thinks he came (in possession of neolithic culture) from Eastern Asia at a comparatively late period.
Pseudopaläolithische Steingeräten Nordamerika. (Ibid., 62-63.) Notes on a collection of " pseudo-paleolithic" flints obtained by the author in the neighborhood of Washington, D. C., in October, 1904.