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and, if possible, their relation to one another; (2) to determine the types of ideas associated with decorative designs among the various tribes. It will not be possible to complete this research for several years. Previous to 1902 Dr A. L. Kroeber carried on the field work among the Plains Indians and since that time he has prepared a detailed comparative statement of the types of designs characteristic of the tribes so far investigated. This will appear in a future edition of the Museum Bulletin. During the summer of 1905 Dr P. E. Goddard visited the Sarsi in Canada and secured an important collection of decorated objects, but the exact relation of the art of this tribe to the general Plains type can not be definitely stated at this time.

In connection with the foregoing studies in art, the ceremonial organization of the various tribes visited was investigated. Dr A. L. Kroeber has completed the manuscript for the Arapaho and the Gros Ventres, a portion of which has been published. The Museum has secured an extensive collection of ceremonial objects from the Blackfoot tribes and the necessary data for a publication treating of their ceremonial life and organization. Dr J. R. Walker has spent the last two years in a similar investigation among the Dakota.

Dr William Jones has been engaged in continuous study of the Ojibwa in the Great Lake region of North America and has made a general collection of ethnological specimens from the same people. So far he has recorded in the original language all of the most important myths of these people, most of which material has been prepared for publication. He has made a special study also of their philosophy and religion as revealed in the myths and the ceremonies pertaining to the Midewiwin and other rites. For the last two years the greater portion of this work has been under the direction of the Carnegie Institution.

The work of the Hyde Expedition was continued by Mr George H. Pepper who in 1904 made a special investigation of Pueblo pottery. Twenty-six pueblos in New Mexico and Arizona were visited and a representative collection was obtained from each. During the summer of 1904 several months were devoted to the study of textile work among the Navaho, the greater portion of the work being done at Ganado, Arizona, which is in the southern part of the

Navaho reservation. At this time a series of looms was obtained showing the technique of the various primitive forms of Navaho textiles. In addition a trip was made to the state of Michoacan in the southwestern part of Mexico where archeological work was carried on during the months of November and December.

North America was not the only field of operations during this period of 1903-05. Mr Adolph F. Bandelier returned to New York in 1903 after several years of continuous exploration in Peru and adjacent parts of South America. Since his return the large archeological collections from this region have been arranged for exhibition, and Mr Bandelier is engaged on an extensive work on the culture of the ancient Peruvians.' This work is intended to be a critical examination of all available historical and archeological data.

Dr Berthold Laufer completed his Chinese collections in the early part of 1904 and through his efforts the Museum has brought together a large number of well-selected specimens pertaining particularly to the industrial life of China, with supplementary information for treating the material culture of Chinese peoples from the historical point of view. Since his return Dr Laufer has completed for publication a study of ancient pottery and other material relating to Chinese archeology. The work in China was under the direction of the East Asiatic Committee, of which Professor Boas was the executive secretary.

Some important illustrative collections were procured by the Museum. In 1903 a valuable collection from the natives of central Australia was obtained by exchange with the National Museum of Melbourne, Victoria. This collection contains specimens of practically all the types described by Spencer and Gillen in their famous work on the Native Tribes of Central Australia. In the same year an arrangement was made with the Bureau of Missions by which a very important ethnological collection from Africa was deposited in the Museum. In addition the Museum has acquired from time to time a number of small African collections, including one of carvings in ivory and wood. In 1905 the ethnological collection of the Philip

1 For various papers on the subjects of Mr Bandelier's researches in Peru and Bolivia, see American Anthropologist, 1904, 1905.

2 Dr Laufer's "Historical Jottings on Amber in Asia" will appear in a forthcoming issue of the American Anthropologist.

pine islands at the St Louis Exposition was presented to the Museum by President Jesup. This is a large and important collection, presenting many aspects of the general ethnology of the islands.

The following is a list of the official publications of the Department of Anthropology for the years named :

For 1903

G. T. Emmons: The Basketry of the Tlingit. (Memoirs, III, pt. 2, pp. 229278.)

Ales Hrdlicka: Divisions of the Parietal Bone in Man and Mammals. (Bulletin, XIX, pp. 231-386.)

Franz Boas The Jesup North Pacific Expedition. (Museum Journal, 111, pp. 71-119.)

Harlan I. Smith: Shell Heaps of the Lower Fraser River, British Columbia. (Memoirs, IV, pt. 4, pp. 133-192.)

For 1904

Waldemar Borgoras: The Chukchee - Material Culture. (Memoirs, VII, pt. 3, pp. 1–276.)

Carl Lumholtz: Decorative Art of the Huichol Indians. (Memoirs, 11, pt. 3, pp. 279-327.)

A. L. Kroeber: The Arapaho. III. Ceremonial Organization. (Bulletin, XVIII, pt. 2, pp. 151-230.)

Clark Wissler: Decorative Art of the Sioux Indians. (Bulletin, xvIII, pt. 3, pp. 231-278.)

Harlan I. Smith: A Costumed Human Figure from Tampico, Washington. (Bulletin, xx, pp. 195–203.)

Adolph F. Bandelier: On the Relative Antiquity of Ancient Peruvian Burials. (Bulletin, xx, pp. 217-226.)

For 1905

Franz Boas and George Hunt: Kwakiutl Texts. (Memoirs, III, pt. 3, pp. 403532.)

W. Jochelson: Religion and Myths of the Koryak. (Memoirs, VI, pt. 1, pp. I-382.)

J. R. Swanton: The Haida of Queen Charlotte Islands. (Memoirs, v, pt. 1, pp. 1-300.)

Franz Boas Anthropometry of Central California. (Bulletin, XVII, pt. 4, pp. 347-380.)

R. B. Dixon : The Northern Maidu. (Bulletin, XVII, pt. 3, pp. 11–346.) G. F. Kunz: On the Ancient Inscribed Summerian (Babylonian) Axe-head from the Morgan Collection in the American Museum of Natural History. (Bulletin, XXI, pp. 37-47.)

J. D. Prince and R. Lau: An Ancient Babylonian Axe-head. (Bulletin, XXI, pp. 49-52.)


A Department of Ethnology was established by the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences in February, 1903, and Mr Stewart Culin appointed curator. The primary object of the department was the acquisition of ethnological material for the Institute Museum, for which a large building was in course of erection on the Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn. The Museum had been divided between art and natural history, and no considerable amount of ethnological material had been accumulated. The curator was free, therefore, to develop the collections from the beginning. It was determined to devote the attention of the department first to the American Indian, and the southwestern section of the United States was selected for the preliminary work. The curator proceeded to the field in the spring of 1903 and made other trips in the two years following. As a result one large hall of the Museum has been arranged and opened to the public. Precisely half of this hall is devoted to the pueblo of Zuñi, special attention being given to the exhibition of Zuñi masks and ceremonial objects. The opposite side is devoted to the Apache, Navaho, Hopi, and Cliff-dwellers. A large collection of material from the cliff-dwellings in the Cañon de Chelly, obtained by Mr Culin in 1903, is an important feature of this exhibit. It includes many recent Navaho and Hopi objects, intermingled with the remains of the cliff-dwellers proper. Among other interesting Navaho collections is a set of old masks for the Yebichai dance. Altogether 133 different masks of the southwestern Indians are exhibited in this hall.

A feature of the hall is the employment of pictures in connection with the exhibits, and much attention has been paid to the artistic arrangement of the collections. In 1904 and 1905 Mr Culin was accompanied in the field by the Museum staff artist, Mr H. B. Judy, who made a large number of sketches of the landscape, houses, and people of the Pueblo country. Enlargements of a number of these sketches are displayed in the upper parts of the exhibition cases, and a panorama of the landscape opposite the East mesa of Hopiland is shown along the upper part of the wall immediately below the ceiling.

Materials for a second American hall, to be devoted to collec

AM. ANTH., N. S.. 8-31,

tions from California and the Northwest coast, have also been collected by Mr Culin during his field trips. No publications have yet been made, the principal effort having been expended on the work of collection and display. At the same time much important information has been obtained and turned to account in the preparation of systematic labels.


Since the account of the Department of Anthropology of the Field Museum of Natural History (then Field Columbian Museum) was presented to the members of the Thirteenth Congress of Americanists in 1902, there has been no change in the policy as stated at that time, namely, the consideration of the claims of anthropology in America, especially in North America, as subjects for investigation and museum presentation. Within the North American field very little new investigation has been undertaken, but much additional research has been carried on among the tribes referred to in the report of 1902. Thus more or less continuous investigation has been made by the curator of the department among the Pawnee, Wichita, Caddo, Arikara, Ponca, Cheyenne, and Arapaho, that among the tribes of the Caddoan stock being under the auspices of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Dr C. F. Newcombe has continued his explorations among the various tribes of the North Pacific coast of America. Dr J. W. Hudson has continued his investigation among the tribes of California. Assistant curator Owen has made additional investigations among the Navaho and the Apache, and for two winters has studied the so-called Mission Indians of southern California. Assistant curator Simms has made additional visits to the Crow Indians of Montana, and to the Cree, Assiniboin, and Ojibwa of Canada. Mr H. R. Voth has devoted two more years to investigation among the Hopi of Arizona. Through coöperation with the Bureau of American Ethnology, Mr James Mooney has spent many months continuing his researches in the heraldic system of the Plains Indians, especially among the Cheyenne.

As a result of these investigations many important acquisitions have been made. This is especially true of the Northwest coast

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