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Professor Mason appears to have read the largest number of papers presented by one individual; Mr Holmes comes next, and Major Powell third. Most members have read only a few papers, or none; they have doubtless been good listeners, however, and in that way have lent encouragement. Moreover, many took part in discussions or casually presented some matter of interest of which little or no record appears.
Of the members who have died, the following may be named as having contributed especially to the life and work of the Society: Dr James C. Welling, who was president for two years, Col. Garrick Mallery, Col. Franklin A. Seely, Rev. James O. Dorsey, James C. Pilling, Capt. John G. Bourke, U. S. A., Dr G. Browne Goode, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Dr Walter J. Hoffman, Mr Frank H. Cushing, Col. Frank F. Hilder, Dr Thomas Wilson, Major J. W. Powell, who served as president for many terms, and Dr Washington Matthews, U. S. A. As obituary notices of all these have appeared in the American Anthropologist it is unnecessary here to give further details.
Archæological Researches in Costa Rica. By C. V. HARTMAN.
cation of the Royal Ethnological Museum in Stockholm. 1901. 4o, 196 pp., maps, 87 plates.
This elaborate and carefully prepared volume is based partly on the collections from Costa Rica now in the Royal Ethnological Museum of Stockholm made by Ake Sjörgren, Esq., at whose expense Mr Hartman's explorations were conducted and the results published.
Mr Hartman divides his exploration into two periods, to each of which he devotes a section of the book: A, Researches on the East Coast, and B, Researches on the Highland plains in the Province of Cartago. These researches occupied the space of a year during 1896 and 1897, the sites being situated on or near the line of the railroad.
The most notable site examined in the coast region was that at Mercedes, where the group of earthworks marking an ancient center of religious activity was subjected to an investigation that yielded a number of important results. Two of the great stone images found lying on the slopes of the principal mound were proved to have stood upon the platform on top of the mound where in all probability they were objects of worship. These figures, which are of severe and dignified expression, are among the few examples of nude sculpture in Central America. The treatment of the nude is very creditably performed. The sculpture is characterized by strength rather than by refinement, and though lacking. in grace these statues exhibit a great deal of expression and succeed admirably in conveying the impression of power. The site at Mercedes must have been an important center for the cultivation and exercise of the sculptor's art, since the contents of the workshop excavated by Dr Hartman bear witness at once to the variety of subjects treated and the activity with which the work was prosecuted. While the eastern coast is remarkable for the quantity and excellence of its sculpture, the art of pottery making was not so well developed as on the highlands.
The graves, of which a number were opened at Mercedes and other sites on the eastern coast, were built underground, the walls being constructed of small stones carefully laid together without cutting, and the top and bottom of flat limestone slabs. Scarcely a trace of bone was
found in these graves, but all contained pottery which in its general character resembles the pottery of Nicaragua. The pottery of the highlands shows less of foreign characters, but presents on the contrary quite distinctive types. Especially characteristic is the pottery with painted decorations, which presents an interesting study in conventionalized animal forms as applied to pottery decoration. The ruling motive in this body of ornament is an animal form which passes through a series of transformations until a conventional pattern is produced, which is used both entire and in parts and forms a large proportion of the decoration on this pottery.
The relationship between the arts of the Guëtares and those of other Central American peoples is completely in harmony with what is known of their history and affinities. These arts are distinctly Chapanecan and closely allied with those of the region about Lake Managua on the one hand and those in the vicinity of the Chiriqui lagoon on the other. While many of the elements which are common to these three culture centers are found also in the Uloa valley, evidences of contact between the culture of the Guëtares and that of the more cultivated Mayas are almost totally lacking. The most striking feature of the Guëtare culture is beyond doubt the sculpture in stone, which excels that of all other Central American people except the Mayas, and the bold attempt at rendering the nude is especially worthy of note. The stone cists of the highland district described by Mr Hartman, who opened several hundreds, are quite identical with tombs found in Missouri and Tennessee -constructed of natural slabs of limestone set on edge, with other slabs for top and bottom. The small size of most of these is regarded by Mr Hartman as evidence that they served for secondary burials, a theory which is quite in keeping with what is known of the burial customs of the Guëtares, as is also the opinion that the raised terraces in which the tombs are found served as the foundations of dwellings within which the dead were buried. Within recent times the natives of this region lived two or three families together in houses of poles and thatch, and buried their dead beneath the floors. G. B. GORDON.
Anfänge der Kunst im Urwald. Indianer-Handzeichnungen auf seinen Reisen in Brazilien gesammelt. Von DR THEODOR KOCHGRÜNBERG. Berlin: Ernest Wasmuth, 1905. 8°, xv, 70, viii pp., plates, figures, map.
The author presents a collection of native drawings of the Indian tribes of the upper Rio Negro, and the Rio Yapurá. During a stay of
some years in Brazil Dr Koch-Grünberg has cultivated friendly relations with the native artists and has elicited their curiosity while they have commanded his admiration.
The plates reproduce in the main drawings of wild beasts, birds, and fishes; plants and smaller animals are rare. Men, women, and children engaged in hunting, fishing, and the pursuits of daily life are represented, while there is a notable absence of scenes of combat. Plans of houses, and maps, astronomical charts, and conventional or conventionalized decoration in great variety are also given. Peculiarities of primitive drawing are the representation in the same picture of the same object in more than one plane, the omission, addition, or separation of parts of the body, and a quality of transparency in solid objects.
The drawings are possibly, the author concludes, an outgrowth of the desire for representation and communication rather than for esthetic satisfaction. The recognition of animal, bird, or fish, and of sex depends on a quite naïve but natural drawing of the significant feature or features. The paper and printing of the book are a subject of congratulation; this work is the forerunner of others pertaining to the same tribes.
Kinderzeichnungen bis zum 14. Lebensjahr. Mit Parallelen aus der Urgeschichte, Kunstgeschichte und Völkerkunde. Von DR SIEGFRIED LEVINSTEIN. Mit einem Anhang von Dr. Phil. LL.D. KARL LAMPRECHT. Leipzig: R. Voigtländer, 1905. 8°, 3, 119, xv pp., 85 pl., 18 tables.
In comparison with the foregoing, this highly detailed study of drawings of primitive children of civilization is exceedingly interesting. There are seventy-three plates, and almost every form of childish endeavor in art is represented. The human form, animals and plants, scenes and illustrations of tales and ideas are attempted in turn.
Tables are presented graphically showing the progress in detail with advancing age, the variation between the sexes, the struggle for perspective, the proportion of choice of important features in illustration,
The superfluous features, the "mixed profile," transparency, incomplete or absent outlines, are all strikingly suggestive of true primitive art. Plates of reproductions of the latter (e. g., 5, 6, 7, 8) are inserted; they are drawn from both ethnological and archeological sources. Chapter VII is devoted to Eskimo child-drawings.
More investigation of this kind is very much desired.
SOME NEW BOOKS
ANNALES du Musée du Congo. Ethnographie et Anthropologie. Série III. Notes analytiques sur les collections ethnographiques du Musée du Congo. Tome I., fasc. II. La Religion. Bruxelles: Spineux et Cie, 1906. 4°, pp. 145-316, pls. XXII-LXII.
BATRES, LEOPOLDO. La Lápida Arqueológica de Tepatlaxco-Orizaba. Mexico Tipografia de Fidencio Soria, 1905. Sm. 4°, 19 pp., 16 pl.
BATRES, LEOPOLDO. Teotihuacán ó la Ciudad Sagrada de los Tolteca. Por Leopoldo Batres, Inspector General y Conservador de los Monumentos Arqueológicos de la República Mexicana. Mexico, D.F.: Imprenta de Hull, 1906. Sm. 4°, 27 p., 4 fig.
BATRES, LEOPOLDO. Teotihuacan. Mexico, D. F.: Imprenta de Fidencio S. Soria, 1906. Sm. 4°, 30 p., 44 pl.; and Appendix, 10 pl. with descriptions.
BOAS, FRANZ. The Measurement of Variable Quantities.
of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Method, No. 5. Columbia University Contributions to Philosophy and Psychology, vol. xiv, No. 2.) New York: The Science Press, June 1906. 8°, 2 ll., 52 p.
Contains the introduction to a course on the statistical treatment of biological and psychological measurements, which the author has given for ten years at Columbia University. "The form selected for the demonstration of the principles of measurement of variables was chosen on account of the limited mathematical preparation of students who have devoted themselves to the study of anthropology, biology, and psychology, which made it necessary to avoid, so far as feasible, all application of the calculus."
BOWDITCH, CHARLES P. Mayan Nomenclature. Privately printed. Cambridge: The University Press, 1906. 8°, 11 p.
BOYLE, DAVID. Annual Archæological Report, 1905. Being part of Appendix to the Report of the Minister of Education, Ontario. Toronto: Printed and Published by L. K. Cameron, 1906. 8°, 249 p.
CANTARES en idioma Mexicano. Reproduccion facsimiliaria del manuscrito original existente en la Biblioteca Nacional que se imprime por acuerdo del Sr. Gral. Don Manuel Gonzalez Cosio, Secretario de Fomento, en el taller de fototipia del mismo ministerio, bajo la direccion del Dr. Antonio Peñafiel. Mexico Oficina Tipografica de la Secretaria de Fomento, 1904 . 4°, 27 pp. text, 86 11. facsimile.
FRAZER, J. G. Oriental Religion.
Attis. Osiris. Studies in the History of London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1906. 8°, xvi,
HEWETT, EDGAR L. Antiquities of the Jemez Plateau, New Mexico. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 32.